Resistance Training for Performance and Health 2020-2021

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Exercise for Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2022) | Viewed by 23209

Special Issue Editor


E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padova, 35131 Padova, Italy
Interests: resistance training; metabolism; fat loss; skeletal muscle physiology; fitness; muscle hypertrophy; fasting; ketogenic diet; time-restricted eating; ketones; lloe carbohydrate diet
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Resistance training (RT) is an important modality of exercise, not only for athletes, but also for the general population. It is well known that RT increases strength and muscle mass, but it can also improve performance, power, and velocity in athletes. Moreover RT is now prescribed by major health organizations to improve health and fitness, in general and special populations, even though, prior to 1990, it was not a part of the recommended guidelines for exercise training and rehabilitation for either the American Heart Association or the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Indeed, in 1990, the ACSM recognized resistance training as a significant component of a comprehensive fitness program for healthy adults of all ages, position subsequently confirmed few years after. Recent data confirmed that RT, when incorporated into a general exercise program, reduces the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome, non-insulin dependent diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Moreover, RT prevents osteoporosis, can help with weight loss, and preserve muscle mass and functional capacity in the elderly. However, RT is a multifaceted type of exercise, and should be investigated more thoroughly and rigorously by taking into account the variables involved, including: (1) muscle action used, (2) type of resistance used, (3) volume (total number of sets and repetitions), (4) exercises selected and workout structure (e.g., the number of muscle groups trained), (5) the sequence of exercise performance, (6) rest intervals between sets, (7) repetition velocity, and (8) training frequency.

The aim of this Special Issue is to attract papers that address the role of RT in performance and health, taking into account the different variables of RT. We welcome experimental studies that examine the effect of different resistance training programs on muscle function and morphology, sport performance and health outcomes. Review articles and meta-analyses are also welcome.

Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • The effect of different resistance training programs (considering the aforementioned variables) on muscle function and morphology
  • Acute responses and chronic adaptations to RT
  • RT for weight loss and weight control
  • Resistance training considerations for athletes in different sports (force, power, velocity, hypertrophy, etc.)
  • Molecular mechanisms of RT

Prof. Dr. Antonio Paoli
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • resistance training
  • skeletal muscle
  • muscle strength
  • weight loss
  • performance
  • athletes
  • sport

Published Papers (4 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

18 pages, 1686 KiB  
Article
Predicting Adaptations to Resistance Training Plus Overfeeding Using Bayesian Regression: A Preliminary Investigation
by Robert W. Smith, Patrick S. Harty, Matthew T. Stratton, Zad Rafi, Christian Rodriguez, Jacob R. Dellinger, Marqui L. Benavides, Baylor A. Johnson, Sarah J. White, Abegale D. Williams and Grant M. Tinsley
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6020036 - 21 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3817
Abstract
Relatively few investigations have reported purposeful overfeeding in resistance-trained adults. This preliminary study examined potential predictors of resistance training (RT) adaptations during a period of purposeful overfeeding and RT. Resistance-trained males (n = 28; n = 21 completers) were assigned to 6 [...] Read more.
Relatively few investigations have reported purposeful overfeeding in resistance-trained adults. This preliminary study examined potential predictors of resistance training (RT) adaptations during a period of purposeful overfeeding and RT. Resistance-trained males (n = 28; n = 21 completers) were assigned to 6 weeks of supervised RT and daily consumption of a high-calorie protein/carbohydrate supplement with a target body mass (BM) gain of ≥0.45 kg·wk−1. At baseline and post-intervention, body composition was evaluated via 4-component (4C) model and ultrasonography. Additional assessments of resting metabolism and muscular performance were performed. Accelerometry and automated dietary interviews estimated physical activity levels and nutrient intake before and during the intervention. Bayesian regression methods were employed to examine potential predictors of changes in body composition, muscular performance, and metabolism. A simplified regression model with only rate of BM gain as a predictor was also developed. Increases in 4C whole-body fat-free mass (FFM; (mean ± SD) 4.8 ± 2.6%), muscle thickness (4.5 ± 5.9% for elbow flexors; 7.4 ± 8.4% for knee extensors), and muscular performance were observed in nearly all individuals. However, changes in outcome variables could generally not be predicted with precision. Bayes R2 values for the models ranged from 0.18 to 0.40, and other metrics also indicated relatively poor predictive performance. On average, a BM gain of ~0.55%/week corresponded with a body composition score ((∆FFM/∆BM)*100) of 100, indicative of all BM gained as FFM. However, meaningful variability around this estimate was observed. This study offers insight regarding the complex interactions between the RT stimulus, overfeeding, and putative predictors of RT adaptations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training for Performance and Health 2020-2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 3514 KiB  
Article
Eccentric Resistance Training in Youth: A Survey of Perceptions and Current Practices by Strength and Conditioning Coaches
by Benjamin Drury, Hannah Clarke, Jason Moran, John F. T. Fernandes, Greg Henry and David G. Behm
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010021 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3498
Abstract
Background: Eccentric resistance training (ERT) in youth is advocated for aiding performance and injury risk. However, research investigating the applied practices of ERT in youth is in its infancy. In this study, we surveyed the perceptions and practices of practitioners utilizing ERT in [...] Read more.
Background: Eccentric resistance training (ERT) in youth is advocated for aiding performance and injury risk. However, research investigating the applied practices of ERT in youth is in its infancy. In this study, we surveyed the perceptions and practices of practitioners utilizing ERT in youth to provide an understanding of its current application in practice. Methods: Sixty-four strength and conditioning coaches completed an online survey reporting their current use of ERT in youth using both open and closed questions. Results: Coaches deemed the inclusion of ERT important in youth with its inclusion based upon factors such as maturation status, training age and strength levels. Coaches also displayed an awareness of the physiological responses to eccentric exercise in youth compared to adults. ERT was primarily used for injury prevention, with the majority of coaches using body-weight and tempo exercises. Furthermore, utilizing eccentric hamstrings exercises was reported as highly important. The frequency of ERT tended to increase in older age groups and coaches mainly prescribed self-selected rest intervals. Finally, the need for further research into the training guidelines of ERT in youth was highlighted, in which coaches require more information on how maturation influences training adaptations and the fatigue–recovery responses. Conclusion: Coaches emphasized the importance of including ERT for both performance and injury prevention factors in youth although further research is required to generate practical guidelines for coaches in order to support its inclusion within practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training for Performance and Health 2020-2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

8 pages, 526 KiB  
Article
Effects of Preferred and Non-Preferred Warm-Up Music on Resistance Exercise Performance
by Christopher G. Ballmann, Georgia D. Cook, Zachary T. Hester, Thomas J. Kopec, Tyler D. Williams and Rebecca R. Rogers
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010003 - 31 Dec 2020
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 9597
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of listening to preferred and non-preferred warm-up music on upper-body resistance exercise performance. Resistance-trained males (ages 18–24) participated in two separate bench press trials each with a different warm-up music condition: preferred warm-up [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of listening to preferred and non-preferred warm-up music on upper-body resistance exercise performance. Resistance-trained males (ages 18–24) participated in two separate bench press trials each with a different warm-up music condition: preferred warm-up music (PREF) or non-preferred warm-up music (NON-PREF). In each trial, participants listened to PREF or NON-PREF music during a standardized bench press warm-up. Following the warm-up, motivation to exercise was measured using a visual analog scale followed by two sets × repetitions to failure (RTF) at 75% of 1-RM separated by 1 min of rest. A linear position transducer was used to measure mean barbell velocity. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was obtained after each set. RTF, velocity, RPE, and motivation were analyzed. RTF were significantly higher during the PREF versus NON-PREF trail (p = 0.001) while mean barbell velocity remained unchanged (p = 0.777). RPE was not significantly different between PREF and NON-PREF trials (p = 0.735). Motivation to exercise was significantly higher during the PREF versus NON-PREF trial (p < 0.001). Findings show that listening to PREF music during a warm-up improves subsequent RTF performance during bench press exercise. However, barbell velocity was largely unaffected. While perceived exertion was similar between trials, motivation to exercise was markedly increased during the PREF warm-up music trial. These findings suggest that competitors listening to warm-up music before giving maximal effort during resistance exercise could optimize performance by ensuring self-selection of their own preferred music. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training for Performance and Health 2020-2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

11 pages, 2130 KiB  
Review
A Comparison of the Effect of Strength Training on Cycling Performance between Men and Women
by Olav Vikmoen and Bent R. Rønnestad
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010029 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5531
Abstract
During the last decade numerous review articles have been published on how concurrent strength and endurance training affect cycling performance. However, none of these have reviewed if there are any sex differences in the effects of concurrent training on cycling performance, and most [...] Read more.
During the last decade numerous review articles have been published on how concurrent strength and endurance training affect cycling performance. However, none of these have reviewed if there are any sex differences in the effects of concurrent training on cycling performance, and most research in this area has been performed with male cyclists. Thus, the aim of the current paper is to review the scientific literature on the effect of concurrent training on cycling performance in male and female cyclists with a special emphasis on potential sex differences. The results indicate that both male and female cyclists experience a similar beneficial effect from concurrent training on cycling performance and its physiological determinants compared to normal endurance training only. Some data indicate that women have a larger effect on cycling economy, but more studies are needed to explore this further. Furthermore, the adaptations to strength training thought to be responsible for the beneficial effects on cycling performance seem to be very similar between men and women. Interestingly, increased muscle cross-sectional area in the main locomotor muscles seems to be an important adaptation for improved performance, and, contrary to popular belief, cyclists should aim for increased muscle cross-sectional area when adding strength training to their normal training. We conclude that both male and female cyclists can improve their cycling performance by adding strength training to their normal training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistance Training for Performance and Health 2020-2021)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop