Sarcoma—Clinical Updates

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Oncology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 1 October 2024 | Viewed by 1976

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA
Interests: orthopedic oncology; bone and soft tissue sarcomas; chondrosarcoma; metastatic sarcoma; limb salvage surgery; pelvic resection; reconstructive surgery

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sarcoma is an uncommon and heterogeneous group of cancers arising from connective tissues such as bone, muscle, and fat. In most cases, the etiology of sarcoma is unclear; however, family history and exposure to chemicals or radiation may increase risk. Sarcomas affect people of all ages (childhood to old age), can afflict virtually any body part, and often present with large tumors and late-stage disease.

Current diagnostic methods for sarcoma include a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and histopathological examination of tissue samples obtained through biopsy. Treatment strategies depend on factors such as tumor size, location, histological subtype, stage of disease, and other patient-specific considerations. Wide surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment but often has significant functional implications. Adjuvant therapy may include radiation and/or chemotherapy depending on the specific histologic subtype; however, there are many tumors for which no effective therapies yet exist. Furthermore, our ability to effectively manage metastatic sarcoma remains extremely limited.

Because of the rarity of these tumors and the wide variety of histologic subtypes, sarcoma has historically been an elusive entity to research. As a result, there have been few clinical advancements in the treatment of sarcoma in the last three decades. However, advanced scientific techniques, improvement in collaborative research, and a focus on histologic-specific investigation has led to exciting recent discoveries, paving the way for improved diagnosis and prognostication and the development of novel therapeutics such as targeted molecular therapies and immunotherapies. However, more work is still required to understand the patients and tumors for which these existing therapies most benefit and how best to further investigate and expand these types of therapeutics to improve outcomes for broader populations of sarcoma patients.

The aim of this Special Issue is to highlight research that improves our understanding of sarcoma biology and prognostication, identify novel biomarkers and/or therapeutic targets, and investigate treatment strategies that improve oncologic and/or functional outcomes. 

Dr. Julia Visgauss
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • sarcoma
  • osteosarcoma
  • Ewing’s sarcoma
  • chondrosarcoma
  • soft tissue sarcoma
  • undifferentiated pleo-morphic sarcoma
  • liposarcoma
  • leiomyosarcoma
  • rhabdomyosarcoma
  • metastatic sarcoma
  • targeted molec-ular therapy
  • immunotherapy
  • orthopedic oncology

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

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9 pages, 672 KiB  
Article
Calculating Tumor Volume Using Three-Dimensional Models in Preoperative Soft-Tissue Sarcoma Surgical Planning: Does Size Matter?
by Jasmijn D. Generaal, Haye H. Glas, Jan F. Ubbels, Marc G. Stevenson, Marijn A. Huijing, Barbara L. van Leeuwen and Lukas B. Been
J. Clin. Med. 2023, 12(23), 7242; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm12237242 - 22 Nov 2023
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Abstract
This feasibility study aims to explore the use of three-dimensional virtual surgical planning to preoperatively determine the need for reconstructive surgery following resection of an extremity soft-tissue sarcoma. As flap reconstruction is performed more often in advanced disease, we hypothesized that tumor volume [...] Read more.
This feasibility study aims to explore the use of three-dimensional virtual surgical planning to preoperatively determine the need for reconstructive surgery following resection of an extremity soft-tissue sarcoma. As flap reconstruction is performed more often in advanced disease, we hypothesized that tumor volume would be larger in the group of patients that had undergone flap reconstruction. All patients that were treated by surgical resection for an extremity soft-tissue sarcoma between 1 January 2016 and 1 October 2019 in the University Medical Center Groningen were included retrospectively. Three-dimensional models were created using the diagnostic magnetic resonance scan. Tumor volume was calculated for all patients. Three-dimensional tumor volume was 107.8 (349.1) mL in the group of patients that had undergone primary closure and 29.4 (47.4) mL in the group of patients in which a flap reconstruction was performed, p = 0.004. Three-dimensional tumor volume was 76.1 (295.3) mL in the group of patients with a complication following ESTS treatment, versus 57.0 (132.4) mL in patients with an uncomplicated course following ESTS treatment, p = 0.311. Patients who had undergone flap reconstruction had smaller tumor volumes compared to those in the group of patients treated by primary closure. Furthermore, a larger tumor volume did not result in complications for patients undergoing ESTS treatment. Therefore, tumor volume does not seem to influence the need for reconstruction. Despite the capability of three-dimensional virtual surgical planning to measure tumor volume, we do not recommend its utilization in the multidisciplinary extremity soft-tissue sarcoma treatment, considering the findings of the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcoma—Clinical Updates)
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12 pages, 569 KiB  
Review
Giant Cell Tumor of Soft Tissue: An Updated Review
by Jun Nishio, Shizuhide Nakayama, Kaori Koga and Mikiko Aoki
J. Clin. Med. 2024, 13(10), 2870; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm13102870 - 13 May 2024
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Abstract
Giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCTST) is a locally aggressive mesenchymal neoplasm of intermediate malignancy that predominantly occurs in the superficial soft tissue of the extremities. It is histologically similar to a giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) and shows a mixture [...] Read more.
Giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCTST) is a locally aggressive mesenchymal neoplasm of intermediate malignancy that predominantly occurs in the superficial soft tissue of the extremities. It is histologically similar to a giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) and shows a mixture of round to oval mononuclear cells and osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells. Currently, immunohistochemistry plays a very limited role in the diagnosis of GCTST. Primary or secondary malignant GCTST has recently been described and tumors exhibiting high-grade histological features demonstrate higher rates of distant metastasis. GCTST lacks the H3-3A gene mutations that are identified in the vast majority of GCTBs, suggesting a different pathogenesis. Surgery is the standard treatment for localized GCTST. Incomplete surgical resection is usually followed by local recurrence. Radiation therapy may be considered when the close proximity of critical structures prevents microscopically negative surgical margins. The systemic treatment options for advanced or metastatic disease are very limited. This review provides an updated overview of the clinicoradiological features, pathogenesis, histopathology, and treatment for GCTST. In addition, we will discuss the differential diagnosis of this peculiar neoplasm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcoma—Clinical Updates)
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