Special Issue "Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction"

A special issue of Journal of Clinical Medicine (ISSN 2077-0383). This special issue belongs to the section "Gastroenterology & Hepatopancreatobiliary Medicine".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Klaus Krogh
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Hepatology and Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
Interests: Neurogenic bowel dysfunction; gastrointestinal motility; inflammatory bowel disease; methods for assessment of gastrointestinal function

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Most disorders within the central or autonomic nerve systems cause gastrointestinal symptoms. The term neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) is commonly used to describe the characteristic combination of constipation, difficult evacuation, and fecal incontinence experienced by persons with spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, or spina bifida. Patients with Parkinson´s disease have panenteric involvement and a clinically unique presentation of gastrointestinal symptoms. Likewise, patients with diabetic neuropathy have symptoms significantly different from those of other patient groups with NBD.

The total number of patients with NBD is very large and the symptom complex has severe consequences for social activities and quality of life of those affected. Despite the improved knowledge achieved within the last decades, the treatment of NBD remains a major clinical challenge. Treatment modalities for NBD have improved significantly but, unfortunately, this is not yet fully reflected in clinical practice. Better diagnostic tools and simple screening instruments for NBD are needed and the effects of NBD on other organ systems remain obscure.

The present Special Issue will include clinically oriented reviews and original papers on the prevalence, pathophysiology, current, and future diagnostic tools, as well as established and upcoming treatments for NBD.

Prof. Dr. Klaus Krogh
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Neurogenic bowel dysfunction
  • spinal cord injury
  • multiple sclerosis
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • diabetic neuropathy
  • constipation
  • diarrhea
  • fecal incontinence
  • transanal irrigation
  • neuromodulation

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Neurogenic Bowel in Acute Rehabilitation Following Spinal Cord Injury: Impact of Laxatives and Opioids
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(8), 1673; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081673 - 14 Apr 2021
Viewed by 301
Abstract
Objective: To explore the association between bowel dysfunction and use of laxatives and opioids in an acute rehabilitation setting following spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Data was collected regarding individuals with acute traumatic/non-traumatic SCI over a two-year period (2012–2013) during both the week [...] Read more.
Objective: To explore the association between bowel dysfunction and use of laxatives and opioids in an acute rehabilitation setting following spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods: Data was collected regarding individuals with acute traumatic/non-traumatic SCI over a two-year period (2012–2013) during both the week of admission and discharge of their inpatient stay. Results: An increase in frequency of bowel movement (BM) (p = 0.003) and a decrease in frequency of fecal incontinence (FI) per week (p < 0.001) between admission and discharge was found across all participants. There was a reduction in the number of individuals using laxatives (p = 0.004) as well as the number of unique laxatives taken (p < 0.001) between admission and discharge in our cohort. The number of individuals using opioids and the average dose of opioids in morphine milligram equivalents (MME) from admission to discharge were significantly reduced (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). There was a positive correlation between the number of laxatives and frequency of FI at discharge (r = 0.194, p = 0.014), suggesting that an increase in laxative use results in an increased frequency of FI. Finally, there was a significant negative correlation between average dose of opioids (MME) and frequency of BM at discharge, confirming the constipating effect of opioids (r = −0.20, p = 0.009). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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Open AccessArticle
Postprandial Hypotension and Spinal Cord Injury
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1417; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071417 - 01 Apr 2021
Viewed by 201
Abstract
Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is defined as a fall of ≥20 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or a SBP of <90 mmHg after having been >100 mmHg before the meal within two hours after a meal. The prevalence of PPH among persons with [...] Read more.
Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is defined as a fall of ≥20 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or a SBP of <90 mmHg after having been >100 mmHg before the meal within two hours after a meal. The prevalence of PPH among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) is unknown. Ambulatory blood pressure measurement was performed in 158 persons with SCI, 109 men, median age was 59.1 years (min.:13.2; max.: 86.2). In total, 78 persons (49.4%) had PPH after 114 out of 449 meals (25.4%). The median change in SBP during PPH was −28 mmHg (min.: −87; max.: −15 mmHg) and 96% of the PPH episodes were asymptomatic. The occurrence of PPH was correlated to older age (p = 0.001), level of injury (p = 0.023), and complete SCI (p = 0.000), but not, gender or time since injury. Further studies are needed to elucidate if PPH contributes to the increased cardiovascular mortality in the SCI population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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Open AccessArticle
The Addition of Transdermal Delivery of Neostigmine and Glycopyrrolate by Iontophoresis to Thrice Weekly Bowel Care in Persons with Spinal Cord Injury: A Pilot Study
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(5), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10051135 - 08 Mar 2021
Viewed by 382
Abstract
Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have neurogenic bowel disorders characterized by difficulty with evacuation (DWE), fecal incontinence, and discoordination of defecation. Six medically stable in-patients with SCI with a mean age of 57 ± 10 years (range: 39–66 years) and time since [...] Read more.
Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have neurogenic bowel disorders characterized by difficulty with evacuation (DWE), fecal incontinence, and discoordination of defecation. Six medically stable in-patients with SCI with a mean age of 57 ± 10 years (range: 39–66 years) and time since injury of 18 ± 17 years (range: 3–47 years) were investigated. Standard of care (SOC) for bowel care was followed by two weeks of SOC plus neostigmine (0.07 mg/kg) and glycopyrrolate (0.014 mg/kg) administered transcutaneously by iontophoresis thrice weekly for two weeks while patients continued to receive SOC. The primary endpoint was time to bowel evacuation. Body weights and abdominal radiographs were obtained. Ten questions related to bowel function and the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication were acquired after each arm. Bowel evacuation time decreased after the dual drug intervention arm (106.9 ± 68.4 vs. 40.8 ± 19.6 min; p < 0.0001). Body weight decreased (2.78 ± 0.98 kg; p < 0.0001), a finding confirmed on abdominal radiograph. Both questionnaires demonstrated improvement after the dual drug intervention arm. No major adverse events occurred. The addition of neostigmine and glycopyrrolate by transcutaneous administration to SOC for bowel care in persons with SCI and DWE resulted in the safe, effective, and predictable bowel evacuation with subjective improvement in bowel care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Exoskeletal-Assisted Walking on Spinal Cord Injury Bowel Function: Results from a Randomized Trial and Comparison to Other Physical Interventions
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(5), 964; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050964 - 02 Mar 2021
Viewed by 372
Abstract
Bowel function after spinal cord injury (SCI) is compromised because of a lack of voluntary control and reduction in bowel motility, often leading to incontinence and constipation not easily managed. Physical activity and upright posture may play a role in dealing with these [...] Read more.
Bowel function after spinal cord injury (SCI) is compromised because of a lack of voluntary control and reduction in bowel motility, often leading to incontinence and constipation not easily managed. Physical activity and upright posture may play a role in dealing with these issues. We performed a three-center, randomized, controlled, crossover clinical trial of exoskeletal-assisted walking (EAW) compared to usual activity (UA) in people with chronic SCI. As a secondary outcome measure, the effect of this intervention on bowel function was assessed using a 10-question bowel function survey, the Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSS) and the Spinal Cord Injury Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) Bowel Management Difficulties instrument. Fifty participants completed the study, with bowel data available for 49. The amount of time needed for the bowel program on average was reduced in 24% of the participants after EAW. A trend toward normalization of stool form was noted. There were no significant effects on patient-reported outcomes for bowel function for the SCI-QOL components, although the time since injury may have played a role. Subset analysis suggested that EAW produces a greater positive effect in men than women and may be more effective in motor-complete individuals with respect to stool consistency. EAW, along with other physical interventions previously investigated, may be able to play a previously underappreciated role in assisting with SCI-related bowel dysfunction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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Open AccessArticle
Validation of the Monitoring Efficacy of Neurogenic Bowel Treatment on Response (MENTOR) Tool in a Japanese Rehabilitation Setting
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(5), 934; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10050934 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 320
Abstract
Study design: Prospective observational study. Objective: To validate the Monitoring Efficacy of NBD Treatment On Response (MENTOR) tool in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) or spina bifida, suffering from neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) in a rehabilitation center in Japan. Methods: First, [...] Read more.
Study design: Prospective observational study. Objective: To validate the Monitoring Efficacy of NBD Treatment On Response (MENTOR) tool in individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI) or spina bifida, suffering from neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) in a rehabilitation center in Japan. Methods: First, the MENTOR tool was translated from English to Japanese using a validated translation process. Second, the MENTOR tool was validated in a rehabilitation clinic in Japan. Participants completed the MENTOR tool prior to a consultation with an expert physician. According to the results of the tool, each participant was allocated to one of three categories regarding change in treatment: “adequately treated,” “further discussion,” and “recommended change.” The results of the MENTOR tool were compared with the treatment decision made by an expert physician, who was blinded to the results of the MENTOR tool. Results: A total of 60 participants completed the MENTOR tool. There was an acceptable concordance between individuals allocated as respectively, being adequately treated (100%) and recommended change in treatment (61%) and the physicians’ decision on treatment. The concordance was lower for individuals allocated as requiring further discussion (48%). Conclusions: In this study the MENTOR tool was successfully validated in a Japanese rehab setting. The tool will help identify individuals with SCI that need further treatment of their NBD symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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Open AccessArticle
The Monitoring Efficacy of Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction Treatment on Response (MENTOR) in a Non-Hospital Setting
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020263 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 422
Abstract
Background: Most patients with a spinal cord injury (SCI) suffer from neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). In spite of well-established treatment algorithms, NBD is often insufficiently managed. The Monitoring Efficacy of Neurogenic bowel dysfunction Treatment On Response (MENTOR) has been validated in a hospital [...] Read more.
Background: Most patients with a spinal cord injury (SCI) suffer from neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD). In spite of well-established treatment algorithms, NBD is often insufficiently managed. The Monitoring Efficacy of Neurogenic bowel dysfunction Treatment On Response (MENTOR) has been validated in a hospital setting as a tool to support clinical decision making in individual patients. The objective of the present study was to describe clinical decisions recommended by the MENTOR (either “monitor”, “discuss” or “act”) and the use of the tool to monitor NBD in a non-hospital setting. Methods: A questionnaire describing background data, the MENTOR, ability to work and participation in various social activities was sent by mail to all members of The Danish Paraplegic Association. Results: Among 1316 members, 716 (54%) responded, 429 men (61%) and 278 women (39%), aged 18 to 92 (median 61) years. Based on MENTOR, the recommended clinical decision is to monitor treatment of NBD in 281 (44%), discuss change in treatment in 175 (27%) and act/change treatment in 181 (28%). A recommendation to discuss or change treatment was associated with increasing age of the respondent (p = 0.016) and with impaired ability to work or participate in social activities (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: A surprisingly high proportion of persons with SCI have an unmet need for improved bowel care. The MENTOR holds promise as a tool for evaluation of treatment of NBD in a non-hospital setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Transanal Irrigation on Gut Microbiota in Pediatric Patients with Spina Bifida
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(2), 224; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020224 - 10 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 585
Abstract
Recent studies using 16S rRNA-based microbiota profiling have demonstrated dysbiosis of gut microbiota in constipated patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in gut microbiota after transanal irrigation (TAI) in patients with spina bifida (SB). A questionnaire on neurogenic [...] Read more.
Recent studies using 16S rRNA-based microbiota profiling have demonstrated dysbiosis of gut microbiota in constipated patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in gut microbiota after transanal irrigation (TAI) in patients with spina bifida (SB). A questionnaire on neurogenic bowel disfunction (NBD), Bristol scale, and gut microbiota using 16S rRNA sequencing were completed in 16 SB patients and 10 healthy controls aged 6–17 years. Then, 11 of 16 SB patients with moderate to severe NBD scores received TAI for 3 months. Changes in urine cultures were also examined before and after the TAI treatments. In addition, correlation of gut microbiota and Bristol scale was analyzed. Significantly decreased abundance in Faecalibacterium, Blautia and Roseburia, and significantly increased abundance in Bacteroides and Roseburia were observed in the SB patients compared with controls and after TAI, respectively. The abundance of Roseburia was significantly correlated positively with Bristol scale. Urinary tract infection tended to decrease from 82% to 55% after TAI (p = 0.082) despite persistent fecal incontinence. Butyrate-producing bacteria such as Roseburia play a regulatory role in the intestinal motility and host immune system, suggesting the effects of TAI on gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction in Children and Adolescents
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(8), 1669; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081669 - 13 Apr 2021
Viewed by 263
Abstract
Neurogenic/neuropathic bowel dysfunction (NBD) is common in children who are affected by congenital and acquired neurological disease, and negatively impacts quality of life. In the past, NBD received less attention than neurogenic bladder, generally being considered only in spina bifida (the most common [...] Read more.
Neurogenic/neuropathic bowel dysfunction (NBD) is common in children who are affected by congenital and acquired neurological disease, and negatively impacts quality of life. In the past, NBD received less attention than neurogenic bladder, generally being considered only in spina bifida (the most common cause of pediatric NBD). Many methods of conservative and medical management of NBD are reported, including relatively recently Transanal Irrigation (TAI). Based on the literature and personal experience, an expert group (pediatric urologists/surgeons/gastroenterologists with specific experience in NBD) focused on NBD in children and adolescents. A statement document was created using a modified Delphi method. The range of causes of pediatric NBD are discussed in this paper. The various therapeutic approaches are presented to improve clinical management. The population of children and adolescents with NBD is increasing, due both to the higher survival rate and better diagnosis. While NBD is relatively predictable in producing either constipation or fecal incontinence, or both, its various effects on each patient will depend on a wide range of underlying causes and accompanying comorbidities. For this reason, management of NBD should be tailored individually with a combined multidisciplinary therapy appropriate for the status of the affected child and caregivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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Open AccessReview
Faecal Microbiota in Patients with Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction and Spinal Cord Injury or Multiple Sclerosis—A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(8), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10081598 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 443
Abstract
Background: Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) frequently occurs in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple sclerosis (MS) with comparable symptoms and is often difficult to treat. It has been suggested the gut microbiota might influence the course of NBD. We systematically reviewed [...] Read more.
Background: Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) frequently occurs in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple sclerosis (MS) with comparable symptoms and is often difficult to treat. It has been suggested the gut microbiota might influence the course of NBD. We systematically reviewed the literature on the composition of the gut microbiota in SCI and MS, and the possible role of neurogenic bowel function, diet and antibiotic use. Methods: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and Embase, which retrieved studies on the gut microbiota in SCI and MS. The Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS) was used to assess methodological quality. Results: We retrieved fourteen papers (four on SCI, ten on MS), describing the results of a total of 479 patients. The number of patients per study varied from 13 to 89 with an average of 34. Thirteen papers were observational studies and one study was an intervention study. The studies were case control studies in which the gut microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The methodological quality of the studies was mostly rated to be moderate. Results of two studies suggested that alpha diversity in chronic SCI patients is lower compared to healthy controls (HC), whereas results from five studies suggest that the alpha diversity of MS patients is similar compared to healthy subjects. The taxonomic changes in MS and SCI studies are diverse. Most studies did not account for possible confounding by diet, antibiotic use and bowel function. Conclusion: Based on these 14 papers, we cannot draw strong conclusions on the composition of the gut microbiota in SCI and MS patients. Putatively, alpha diversity in chronic SCI patients may be lower compared to healthy controls, while in MS patients, alpha diversity may be similar or lower compared to healthy controls. Future studies should provide a more detailed description of clinical characteristics of participants and of diet, antibiotic use and bowel function in order to make valid inferences on changes in gut microbiota and the possible role of diet, antibiotic use and bowel function in those changes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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Open AccessReview
Assessment of Gastrointestinal Autonomic Dysfunction: Present and Future Perspectives
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1392; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071392 - 31 Mar 2021
Viewed by 289
Abstract
The autonomic nervous system delicately regulates the function of several target organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, nerve lesions or other nerve pathologies may cause autonomic dysfunction (AD). Some of the most common causes of AD are diabetes mellitus and α-synucleinopathies such as [...] Read more.
The autonomic nervous system delicately regulates the function of several target organs, including the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, nerve lesions or other nerve pathologies may cause autonomic dysfunction (AD). Some of the most common causes of AD are diabetes mellitus and α-synucleinopathies such as Parkinson’s disease. Widespread dysmotility throughout the gastrointestinal tract is a common finding in AD, but no commercially available method exists for direct verification of enteric dysfunction. Thus, assessing segmental enteric physiological function is recommended to aid diagnostics and guide treatment. Several established assessment methods exist, but disadvantages such as lack of standardization, exposure to radiation, advanced data interpretation, or high cost, limit their utility. Emerging methods, including high-resolution colonic manometry, 3D-transit, advanced imaging methods, analysis of gut biopsies, and microbiota, may all assist in the evaluation of gastroenteropathy related to AD. This review provides an overview of established and emerging assessment methods of physiological function within the gut and assessment methods of autonomic neuropathy outside the gut, especially in regards to clinical performance, strengths, and limitations for each method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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Open AccessReview
Pharmacological Management of Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction after Spinal Cord Injury and Multiple Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Clinical Implications
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040882 - 22 Feb 2021
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) is a common problem for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple sclerosis (MS), which seriously impacts quality of life. Pharmacological management is an important component of conservative bowel management. The objective of this study was to first [...] Read more.
Neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) is a common problem for people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and multiple sclerosis (MS), which seriously impacts quality of life. Pharmacological management is an important component of conservative bowel management. The objective of this study was to first assemble a list of pharmacological agents (medications and medicated suppositories) used in current practice. Second, we systematically examined the current literature on pharmacological agents to manage neurogenic bowel dysfunction of individuals specifically with SCI or MS. We searched Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL databases up to June 2020. We used the GRADE System to provide a systematic approach for evaluating the evidence. Twenty-eight studies were included in the review. We found a stark discrepancy between the large number of agents currently prescribed and a very limited amount of literature. While there was a small amount of literature in SCI, there was little to no literature available for MS. There was low-quality evidence supporting rectal medications, which are a key component of conservative bowel care in SCI. Based on the findings of the literature and the clinical experience of the authors, we have provided clinical insights on proposed treatments and medications in the form of three case study examples on patients with SCI or MS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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Open AccessReview
Transanal Irrigation for Neurogenic Bowel Disease, Low Anterior Resection Syndrome, Faecal Incontinence and Chronic Constipation: A Systematic Review
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(4), 753; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040753 - 13 Feb 2021
Viewed by 496
Abstract
Transanal irrigation (TAI) has received increasing attention as a treatment option in patients with bowel dysfunction. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and evaluates the effect of TAI in neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD), low anterior resection syndrome (LARS), faecal [...] Read more.
Transanal irrigation (TAI) has received increasing attention as a treatment option in patients with bowel dysfunction. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines and evaluates the effect of TAI in neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD), low anterior resection syndrome (LARS), faecal incontinence (FI) and chronic constipation (CC). The primary outcome was the effect of TAI on bowel function. Secondary outcomes included details on TAI, quality of life (QoL), the discontinuation rate, adverse events, predictive factors for a successful outcome, and health economics. A systematic search for articles reporting original data on the effect of TAI on bowel function was performed, and 27 eligible studies including 1435 individuals were included. Three randomised controlled trials, one non-randomised trial, and 23 observational studies were included; 70% of the studies were assessed to be of excellent or good methodological quality. Results showed an improvement in bowel function among patients with NBD, LARS, FI, and CC with some studies showing improvement in QoL. However, discontinuation rates were high. Side effects were common, but equally prevalent among comparative treatments. No consistent predictive factors for a successful outcome were identified. Results from this review show that TAI improves bowel function and potentially QoL; however, evidence remains limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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Open AccessReview
Gastrointestinal Dysfunction in Parkinson’s Disease
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(3), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030493 - 31 Jan 2021
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Patients show deposits of pathological, aggregated α-synuclein not only in the brain but throughout almost the entire length of the digestive tract. This gives rise to non-motor symptoms particularly within the gastrointestinal tract [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Patients show deposits of pathological, aggregated α-synuclein not only in the brain but throughout almost the entire length of the digestive tract. This gives rise to non-motor symptoms particularly within the gastrointestinal tract and patients experience a wide range of frequent and burdensome symptoms such as dysphagia, bloating, and constipation. Recent evidence suggests that progressive accumulation of gastrointestinal pathology is underway several years before a clinical diagnosis of PD. Notably, constipation has been shown to increase the risk of developing PD and in contrast, truncal vagotomy seems to decrease the risk of PD. Animal models have demonstrated gut-to-brain spreading of pathological α-synuclein and it is currently being intensely studied whether PD begins in the gut of some patients. Gastrointestinal symptoms in PD have been investigated by the use of several different questionnaires. However, there is limited correspondence between subjective gastrointestinal symptoms and objective dysfunction along the gastrointestinal tract, and often the magnitude of dysfunction is underestimated by the use of questionnaires. Therefore, objective measures are important tools to clarify the degree of dysfunction in future studies of PD. Here, we summarize the types and prevalence of subjective gastrointestinal symptoms and objective dysfunction in PD. The potential importance of the gastrointestinal tract in the etiopathogenesis of PD is briefly discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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Open AccessReview
Laxative Use in the Community: A Literature Review
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(1), 143; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10010143 - 04 Jan 2021
Viewed by 462
Abstract
Laxatives are widely available without prescription and, as a consequence, they are commonly used for self-management of constipation by community-dwelling adults. However, it is not clear to what extent laxatives are used. Nor is it clear how laxatives are chosen, how they are [...] Read more.
Laxatives are widely available without prescription and, as a consequence, they are commonly used for self-management of constipation by community-dwelling adults. However, it is not clear to what extent laxatives are used. Nor is it clear how laxatives are chosen, how they are used and whether consumers are satisfied with their performance. This review of published literature in the last 30 years shows the prevalence of laxative use in community-dwelling adults varied widely from 1% to 18%. The prevalence of laxative use in adults with any constipation (including both chronic and sporadic constipation) also varied widely from 3% to 59%. Apart from any geographical differences and differences in research methodologies, this wide range of estimated prevalence may be largely attributed to different definitions used for laxatives. This review also shows that laxative choice varies, and healthcare professionals are infrequently involved in selection. Consequently, satisfaction levels with laxatives are reported to be low and this may be because the laxatives chosen may not always be appropriate for the intended use. To improve constipation management in community and primary healthcare settings, further research is required to determine the true prevalence of laxative use and to fully understand laxative utilisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Neurogenic Bowel Dysfunction)
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