Special Issue "Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends"

A special issue of Infrastructures (ISSN 2412-3811).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 March 2018) | Viewed by 37322

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jónatas Valença
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CERIS, Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, n.1, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
Interests: structural health monitoring; automatic structural inspection; concrete heritage; vision systems; image processing and correlation; multispectral and hyperspectral image analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Reinforced Concrete is the material selected to build most of the world's infrastructure. In the recent years, due to the decrease of new construction and the fact that much of this infrastructure is reaching the end of service life, maintenance, repairing and strengthening strategies have become even more important issues. The rehabilitation sector is, nowadays, a major force in what concerns the concrete structure industry. On the other hand, some of these structures are indispensable landmarks and should be part of Concrete Heritage.

As a major player in the construction sector, the concrete structure community is constantly looking for innovations, willing to apply and develop cutting-edge technology. Main concrete structures, such as bridges, dams, and buildings, are currently high-tech infrastructures. In this scope, all novelties related to: material development; design criteria approaches; inspection procedures and techniques; monitoring tools; and strengthening and rehabilitation criteria, always create a great deal of interest in both the scientific community and in industry.

The Special Issue, “Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends”, aims to provide an overview of the current state-of-the-art, covering all relevant new developments in the topics above, or any others not mentioned but related to the main topic. Studies can range from experimental tests to applications in real case studies.

We would like to invite all experts in the field of Concrete Structures, focused on fundamental research, applications from another areas of knowledge, or relevant case studies, to contribute to this Special Issue by submitting abstracts to the Infrastructures office mailbox ([email protected]) in advance. The final manuscripts should be submitted by 20 March 2018.

Dr. Jónatas Valença
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Infrastructures is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Special Issue: “Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends”
Infrastructures 2018, 3(3), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3030019 - 26 Jun 2018
Viewed by 3124
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends)

Research

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Article
Novelties in Material Development for Massive Concrete Structures: Reduction in Heat of Hydration Observed in Ternary Replacement Mixtures
Infrastructures 2018, 3(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3020008 - 28 Mar 2018
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 4574
Abstract
As the size of modern infrastructure increases, novelties related to mass concrete mixtures including supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) become critical. The effects of binary and ternary cement replacement mixtures including metakaolin, silica fume, ground calcium carbonate, granulated blast furnace slag, and fly ash [...] Read more.
As the size of modern infrastructure increases, novelties related to mass concrete mixtures including supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) become critical. The effects of binary and ternary cement replacement mixtures including metakaolin, silica fume, ground calcium carbonate, granulated blast furnace slag, and fly ash on the rate and amount of heat generated in concrete mixtures are investigated. Twenty three binary and ternary mixtures with a water-to-cementitious binder ratio of 0.43 are evaluated. Between 15% and 45% cement replacement by weight is considered. Results indicate that binary mixtures containing metakaolin or silica fume offer no advantage in reducing the amount of heat but increase compressive strength by 20%. On contrary, ternary mixtures, including two pozzolanic materials, provide 15% reduction in the amount of heat evolution without compromising strength. This reduction is observed regardless of alumina (Al) or silica (Si) content in pozzolanic materials when 45% cement is replaced with a combination of slag and metakaolin, or slag and silica fume. Furthermore, the effect of increased calcium (Ca) content is investigated. It is concluded that ternary mixtures with decreased Ca/(Al+Si) ratio reduce internal temperature in mass concrete structures and are less likely to be exposed to the threshold temperature for delayed ettringite formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends)
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Article
Innovative Method for Automatic Shape Generation and 3D Printing of Reduced-Scale Models of Ultra-Thin Concrete Shells
Infrastructures 2018, 3(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3010005 - 06 Feb 2018
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5908
Abstract
A research and development project has been conducted aiming to design and produce ultra-thin concrete shells. In this paper, the first part of the project is described, consisting of an innovative method for shape generation and the consequent production of reduced-scale models of [...] Read more.
A research and development project has been conducted aiming to design and produce ultra-thin concrete shells. In this paper, the first part of the project is described, consisting of an innovative method for shape generation and the consequent production of reduced-scale models of the selected geometries. First, the shape generation is explained, consisting of a geometrically nonlinear analysis based on the Finite Element Method (FEM) to define the antifunicular of the shell’s deadweight. Next, the scale model production is described, consisting of 3D printing, specifically developed to evaluate the aesthetics and visual impact, as well as to study the aerodynamic behaviour of the concrete shells in a wind tunnel. The goals and constraints of the method are identified and a step-by-step guidelines presented, aiming to be used as a reference in future studies. The printed geometry is validated by high-resolution assessment achieved by photogrammetry. The results are compared with the geometry computed through geometric nonlinear finite-element-based analysis, and no significant differences are recorded. The method is revealed to be an important tool for automatic shape generation and building scale models of shells. The latter enables the performing of wind tunnel tests to obtain pressure coefficients, essential for structural analysis of this type of structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends)
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Article
Improving Freeze–Thaw Resistance of Concrete Road Infrastructure by Means of Superabsorbent Polymers
Infrastructures 2018, 3(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures3010004 - 31 Jan 2018
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 4930
Abstract
The scope of the paper is to report an investigation on durability of infrastructure concrete for roads and bridges by creating a size and shape-designed pore systems in concrete in order to improve it, especially in terms of freeze–thaw resistance. By means of [...] Read more.
The scope of the paper is to report an investigation on durability of infrastructure concrete for roads and bridges by creating a size and shape-designed pore systems in concrete in order to improve it, especially in terms of freeze–thaw resistance. By means of this experimental laboratory study, an alternative for usage of air entrainment agents (AEA) in concrete infrastructures was found in the way of using superabsorbent polymer materials (SAPs). The effect of the addition of SAPs of different amounts and different types into fresh concrete mix was investigated, including: compressive strength tests, weight loss measurements, visual and microscopic inspections and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The detrimental strength reduction effect was not observed. The freeze–thaw procedure was varied, using different types of de-icing salts and heating/cooling regimes. It can be concluded that an improvement of the freeze–thaw resistance of concrete infrastructure depends on the particle size and optimal amount of SAPs added into concrete mix. The addition of 0.26 wt % of dry SAPs into the fresh concrete reference mix led to the significant decrease of scaling up to 43% after 28 freeze–thaw cycles. Both dosage and particle size of the SAPs had a significant impact on the obtained results and the freeze–thaw resistance in this experimental laboratory study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends)
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Article
New Trends for Reinforced Concrete Structures: Some Results of Exploratory Studies
Infrastructures 2017, 2(4), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2040017 - 27 Oct 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5007
Abstract
Today, the concrete sector is being pushed to innovate in order to better address current challenges with higher competitiveness and more sustainable solutions. Different research studies have been conducted all over the world in which novel approaches and paths were proposed. It is [...] Read more.
Today, the concrete sector is being pushed to innovate in order to better address current challenges with higher competitiveness and more sustainable solutions. Different research studies have been conducted all over the world in which novel approaches and paths were proposed. It is important to spread information to define new strategies for the future of this industry. The enhancement of concrete properties and the impact of these changes in structural design are some of the topics analysed in those studies. This paper presents four experimental studies conducted by the authors where different types of concrete and structural members were tested. The common goal of these studies was to develop innovative solutions with high performance and low environmental impact. The scope of the first study was the structural behaviour of members produced with lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC). Results of several beams, ties, and slabs are herein presented and analysed. The advantage of using glass fibre–reinforced polymer (GFRP) rebars was addressed in a second study, and main results obtained with this type of rebar are also herein presented. Recent advances in nanotechnology led to the development of concretes incorporating nanoparticles into the binder matrix. Typically, these nanoparticles have a diameter of 10–300 nanometers and are added to the mixture to reduce the porosity and increase the density of the binder matrix, improving the mechanical properties and durability. To analyse their influence on steel-to-concrete bonding and on the shear and flexural behaviour of the beams was the main goal of the third study herein described. Finally, a new concept to produce reinforced concrete members with high durability using a special concrete cover, which was the goal of the fourth study, is also herein presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends)
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Article
Highway Bridge Infrastructure in the Province of British Columbia (BC), Canada
Infrastructures 2017, 2(2), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2020007 - 11 May 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 5687
Abstract
Some recent catastrophic impacts on highway bridges around the world have raised concerns for assessing the vulnerability of existing highway bridges in Canada. Rapid aging of bridge infrastructure coupled with increased traffic volume has made it crucial to establish an advanced Bridge Management [...] Read more.
Some recent catastrophic impacts on highway bridges around the world have raised concerns for assessing the vulnerability of existing highway bridges in Canada. Rapid aging of bridge infrastructure coupled with increased traffic volume has made it crucial to establish an advanced Bridge Management System (BMS) for highway bridges. This paper aims at developing a highway bridge inventory for the province of British Columbia (BC) which is critical for efficient assessment of the existing structural health condition of the bridges, predicting their future deterioration, and prioritizing their maintenance and retrofitting works. This inventory is an extensive assemblage of data on highway bridges in BC under the responsibility of the BC Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure (BC MoT) that includes more than 2500 highway bridges. It includes identification of the most common bridge types along with their location, structural and geometric parameters such as construction materials, bridge length, number of spans, deck width, skew angle, bridge pier, and foundation type, structural health condition rating and construction period. This information is of paramount importance for effective infrastructure management, proper rehabilitation solutions, and efficient design of a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) and Control System for enhancing structural resilience of highway bridges in BC. Several statistical analyses have been carried out for efficient utilization of the information available in the inventory for further research and analyses, as well as for developing a proper BMS for the province’s bridges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends)
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Article
Machine Learning and Optimality in Multi Storey Reinforced Concrete Frames
Infrastructures 2017, 2(2), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures2020006 - 03 May 2017
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7674
Abstract
The present study investigates the potential of the implementation of machine learning techniques in optimized multi storey reinforced concrete frames. The variables that are taken into account in the objective function of the optimization problem are the following: the frame type (frame bay [...] Read more.
The present study investigates the potential of the implementation of machine learning techniques in optimized multi storey reinforced concrete frames. The variables that are taken into account in the objective function of the optimization problem are the following: the frame type (frame bay length optimality) and dimensioning of the cross sections. The objective function has the goal of attaining a minimum cost design based on market data, after a structural analysis of the frames. A number of optimized examples with widely encountered cases of total lengths of frames and with various loadings are presented. Modeling is based on Eurocode 2. Optimization takes place with the use of evolutionary algorithms. The optimized results are subjected to predictive modeling based on neural networks. The objective of the study is to create predictive models with the aim of minimizing the usage of scarce resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Concrete Structures: Present and Future Trends)
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