Special Issue "Damage Detection and Model Updating of Bridges Using Vibration Measurements"

A special issue of Infrastructures (ISSN 2412-3811).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 October 2022 | Viewed by 2116

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Vassilios Lekidis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute of Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering (ITSAK), GR-55102 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: earthquake resistance design; experimental analysis of special structures

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Damage detection is one of the main issues that bridge structural health monitoring (SHM) is concerned with. This can be performed through the analysis of structural response measures, collected from organized SHM campaigns. Damage detection based on monitored data is a rather complex procedure. This complexity is associated, among other things, with the impact that environmental and operational variations (EOVs—temperature, traffic, wind, humidity) impose on the SHM data over time. In many cases, the aforementioned EOVs’ impact has been observed to mask the variation of SHM signals, which can be associated with the existence of damage, leading to uncertainties (i.e., false alarms) during damage detection.

Another important issue is the need for model updating, which arises in the process of constructing a theoretical model of a structure for the purpose of predicting structural damage. The location and size of damage can be inferred by monitoring the reduction in stiffness properties of elements or substructures constituting the finite element model of the structure. The general problem of structural model updating involves the selection of the model from a parameterized class of models that provides the best fit to the measured dynamic data as judged by an appropriately selected measure of fit. The parameters involved in the updating are primarily structural stiffness and mass properties, including boundary conditions as well as fixity conditions at the structural joints. 

 In past years, several studies have been devoted to reconciling finite element models with measured time history or modal data. Each method has its own advantages and shortcomings, and there is no acceptable methodology for successfully treating the model updating problem. A modal-based model updating methodology was recently developed that combines available mode-shape expansion techniques with updating capabilities for predicting both the location and size of errors in the pretest finite element model of a structure. Other model updating methodologies based on various mode-shape expansions can be found in several research efforts. Applications of these methodologies were focused on structural damage detection and structural health monitoring. These techniques use the modeshape components as unknowns to be determined by the data, and have the advantage of avoiding the problem of identifying the correspondence between model and measured modes. Moreover, the computation of modal frequencies and modeshapes of the finite element model is avoided.

The previous topics are a frame to produce methodologies for damage detection and model update, based on vibration measurements.

Dr. Vassilios Lekidis
Guest Editor

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  • bridge
  • damage detection
  • structural health monitoring (SHM)
  • model updating

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Model Bridge Span Traversed by a Heavy Mass: Analysis and Experimental Verification
Infrastructures 2021, 6(9), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6090130 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 565
In this work, we investigate the transient response of a model bridge traversed by a heavy mass moving with constant velocity. Two response regimes are identified, namely forced vibrations followed by free vibrations as the moving mass goes past the far support of [...] Read more.
In this work, we investigate the transient response of a model bridge traversed by a heavy mass moving with constant velocity. Two response regimes are identified, namely forced vibrations followed by free vibrations as the moving mass goes past the far support of the simply supported span of the bridge. Despite this being a classical problem in structural dynamics, there is an implicit assumption in the literature that moving loads possess masses that are at least an order of magnitude smaller than the mass of the bridge span that they traverse. This alludes to interaction problems involving secondary systems, whose presence does not alter the basic characteristics of the primary system. In our case, the dynamic properties of the bridge span during the passage of a heavy mass change continuously over time, leading to an eigenvalue problem that is time dependent. During the free vibration regime, however, the bridge recovers the expected dynamic properties corresponding to its original configuration. Therefore, the aim here is the development of a mathematical model whose numerical solution is validated by comparison with experimental results recovered from an experiment involving a scaled bridge span traversed by a rolling mass. Following that, the target is to identify regions in the transient response of the bridge span that can be used for recovering the bridge’s dynamic properties and subsequently trace the development of structural damage. In closing, the present work has ramifications in the development of structural health monitoring systems applicable to critical civil engineering infrastructure, such as railway and highway bridges. Full article
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GNSS (GPS) Monitoring of Dynamic Deflections of Bridges: Structural Constraints and Metrological Limitations
Infrastructures 2021, 6(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures6020023 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 883
The advent of modern geodetic satellite techniques (GNSS, including GPS) permitted to observe dynamic deflections of bridges, initially of long flexible ones, and more recently of short, essentially stiff bridges with modal frequencies > 1 Hz, and with small SNR (signal-to-noise ratio), even [...] Read more.
The advent of modern geodetic satellite techniques (GNSS, including GPS) permitted to observe dynamic deflections of bridges, initially of long flexible ones, and more recently of short, essentially stiff bridges with modal frequencies > 1 Hz, and with small SNR (signal-to-noise ratio), even SNR < 1. This was an enormous progress, but not without problems. Apart from monitoring results consistent with structural models, experimental data and serviceability criteria, there exist some apparently unexplained cases of stiff bridges for which there have been claimed apparent dynamic deflections too large for common healthy structures. Summarizing previous experience, this article: (i) discusses structural constraints, experimental evidence, and serviceability limits of bridges as constraints to GNSS monitoring; (ii) examines a representative case of careful monitoring of a reinforced concrete road bridge with reported excessive dynamic deflections; and (iii) explains such deflections as a result of a double process generated by large reflective surfaces of passing vehicles near the antenna; first corruption/distortion of the satellite signal because of high-frequency dynamic multipath, and second, shadowing of some satellites; this last effect leads to a modified observations system and to instantaneously changed coordinates and deflections. In order to recognize and avoid such bias in GNSS monitoring, a strategy based on practical rules and structural constraints is presented. Full article
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Guidance of bridge instrumentation towards identification of bridge’s eigen-frequencies using the Theory of Continuous Systems
Authors: Triantafyllos Makarios 1,* and Vasilios Lekidis 2
Affiliation: 1 Institute of Structural Analysis and Dynamics of Structures, School of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineer, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki town, Greece, e-mail: [email protected] 2 Hellenic Institute of Engineering Seismology and Earthquake Engineering, OASP, Thessaloniki town, Greece, e-mail: [email protected] * Correspondence: [email protected]
Abstract: In the present article, an ideal equivalent three Degrees of Freedom (DoF) system of a one-bay-bridge (that is supported on elastometallic bearings) that has distributed stiffness and mass along its length is given. From the naturally point of view, the bridge has infinity number of degree of freedoms, but based on the free vibration study, using partial differential equation, a mathematical ideal three-degree of freedom system is obtained, where its ideal mass matrix is analytically written at specific mass locations on the bridge. Thus, using this abovementioned three Degree of Freedom system, the first three fundamental mode-shapes of the real bridge are identifying. Moreover, consider the 3x3 mass matrix, we can attempt an estimation of the future feasible damages on the bridge, if a known technique about the identification of dynamic characteristics applied. Furthermore, the way of installation of a local network of three uniaxial accelerometers must be compatible with the abovementioned three degrees of freedom. It is worthy note, this technique can be applied on bridges, where the sense of concentrated mass is fully absent.

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