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State-of-the-Art Bioactives and Nutraceuticals in Korea (Closed)

A topical collection in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This collection belongs to the section "Bioactives and Nutraceuticals".

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Editor


E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Division of Biological Science and Technology, Yonsei University Mirae Campus, Wonju, Korea
Interests: bioactive material of sarcopenia; bioactive material of cardiovascular disease; bioactive material of allergy; weight control material; spinglipids; heat-killed probiotics; signal transduction

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Collection aims to publish contributions that report on novel research findings regarding bioactive compounds and nutraceutical products in Korea. We welcome submissions and studies on nutritional applications using biological, chemical, cellular, molecular, and immunological methods. Topics include, but are not limited to:

  • the discovery of novel bioactive natural products;
  • the role of these products in manipulating food structure and, hence, potential physiological mediation for human nutrition;
  • the use of in vitro and in vivo bioactivity research using cell lines and animal models as exemplars of human physiology.

The only limitation is that the main part of the study has to have been carried out in Korea or by Korean researchers.

Importantly, the exact active ingredient of natural origin extract must be reported in the submitted research manuscript, since papers describing the effects of mixed extraction from natural origin are not in the scope of the journal.

Prof. Dr. Tack-Joong Kim
Collection Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bioactive
  • nutraceutical
  • nutrient
  • health
  • diet
  • functional food
  • obesity
  • diabetes
  • cancer
  • cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases
  • vitamins
  • proteins
  • peptides
  • polysaccharides
  • carotenoids
  • polyphenols
  • phytosterols and isoflavones
  • saponins
  • phytic acid
  • probiotics
  • prebiotics
  • enzymes
  • flavonoids
  • caffeine
  • carnitine
  • choline
  • creatine
  • dithiolthiones
  • phytoestrogens
  • glucosinolates

Published Papers (10 papers)

2024

Jump to: 2023, 2022

18 pages, 2187 KiB  
Article
Dihydromyrcenol Modulates Involucrin Expression through the Akt Signaling Pathway
by Suhjin Yang, Wesuk Kang, Dabin Choi, Jiyun Roh and Taesun Park
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(4), 2246; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25042246 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 904
Abstract
The epidermis serves as a protective barrier against external threats and is primarily composed of keratinocytes, which ultimately form corneocytes. Involucrin, a protein integral to the cornified envelope, plays a pivotal role in preserving the functional integrity of the skin barrier. Previous studies [...] Read more.
The epidermis serves as a protective barrier against external threats and is primarily composed of keratinocytes, which ultimately form corneocytes. Involucrin, a protein integral to the cornified envelope, plays a pivotal role in preserving the functional integrity of the skin barrier. Previous studies have shown that Akt plays an important role in keratinocyte differentiation and skin barrier development. This study investigated whether dihydromyrcenol (DHM), a plant-derived terpene, could increase involucrin production in keratinocytes and sought to elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. To accomplish this objective, we assessed the alterations in involucrin by DHM through quantitative PCR and Western blot on the HaCaT cell line. The changes in the promoter levels were investigated using luciferase assays. Furthermore, upstream mechanisms were explored through the use of siRNA and inhibitors. To strengthen our findings, the results were subsequently validated in primary cells and 3D skin equivalents. DHM significantly increased involucrin mRNA and protein levels in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the Fyn-Akt signaling pathway was found to be required for DHM-induced involucrin expression, as inhibition of Fyn or Akt blocked the increase in involucrin mRNA induced by DHM. The transcription factor Sp1, which is recognized as one of the transcription factors for involucrin, was observed to be activated in response to DHM treatment. Moreover, DHM increased epidermal thickness in a 3D human skin model. These findings suggest that the modulation of involucrin expression with DHM could improve skin barrier function and highlight the importance of manipulating the Akt pathway to achieve this improvement. Full article
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2023

Jump to: 2024, 2022

15 pages, 1187 KiB  
Review
The Effects of Natural Product-Derived Extracts for Longitudinal Bone Growth: An Overview of In Vivo Experiments
by Dong Wook Lim and Changho Lee
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(23), 16608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242316608 - 22 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1461
Abstract
Approximately 80% of children with short stature are classified as having Idiopathic Short Stature (ISS). While growth hormone (GH) treatment received FDA approval in the United States in 2003, its long-term impact on final height remains debated. Other treatments, like aromatase inhibitors, metformin, [...] Read more.
Approximately 80% of children with short stature are classified as having Idiopathic Short Stature (ISS). While growth hormone (GH) treatment received FDA approval in the United States in 2003, its long-term impact on final height remains debated. Other treatments, like aromatase inhibitors, metformin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), have been explored, but there is no established standard treatment for ISS. In South Korea and other Asian countries, East Asian Traditional Medicine (EATM) is sometimes employed by parents to potentially enhance their children’s height growth, often involving herbal medicines. One such product, Astragalus membranaceus extract mixture HT042, claims to promote height growth in children and has gained approval from the Korean Food and Drug Administration (KFDA). Research suggests that HT042 supplementation can increase height growth in children without skeletal maturation, possibly by elevating serum IGF-1 and IGF-binding protein-3 levels. Preclinical studies also indicate the potential benefits of natural products, including of EATM therapies for ISS. The purpose of this review is to offer an overview of bone growth factors related to ISS and to investigate the potential of natural products, including herbal preparations, as alternative treatments for managing ISS symptoms, based on their known efficacy in in vivo studies. Full article
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13 pages, 4057 KiB  
Article
Icariin Supplementation Suppresses the Markers of Ferroptosis and Attenuates the Progression of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis in Mice Fed a Methionine Choline-Deficient Diet
by Jiwon Choi, Hyewon Choi and Jayong Chung
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(15), 12510; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241512510 - 7 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1707
Abstract
Icariin, a flavonoid abundant in the herb Epimedium, exhibits anti-ferroptotic activity. However, its impact on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of icariin in mitigating methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH in C57BL/6J mice. The results [...] Read more.
Icariin, a flavonoid abundant in the herb Epimedium, exhibits anti-ferroptotic activity. However, its impact on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) development remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of icariin in mitigating methionine choline-deficient (MCD) diet-induced NASH in C57BL/6J mice. The results showed that icariin treatment significantly reduced serum alanine aminotrasferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities while improving steatosis, inflammation, ballooning, and fibrosis in the liver tissues of mice fed the MCD diet. These improvements were accompanied by a substantial reduction in the hepatic iron contents and levels of malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal, as well as an increase in the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Notably, icariin treatment suppressed the hepatic protein levels of ferroptosis markers such as acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 4 and arachidonate 12-lipoxygenase, which were induced by the MCD diet. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy confirmed the restoration of morphological changes in the mitochondria, a hallmark characteristic of ferroptosis, by icariin. Additionally, icariin treatment significantly increased the protein levels of Nrf2, a cystine/glutamate transporter (xCT), and glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4). In conclusion, our study suggests that icariin has the potential to attenuate NASH, possibly by suppressing ferroptosis via the Nrf2-xCT/GPX4 pathway. Full article
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17 pages, 3795 KiB  
Article
Heat-Killed Enterococcus faecalis Inhibit FL83B Hepatic Lipid Accumulation and High Fat Diet-Induced Fatty Liver Damage in Rats by Activating Lipolysis through the Regulation the AMPK Signaling Pathway
by Jin-Ho Lee, Keun-Jung Woo, Joonpyo Hong, Kwon-Il Han, Han Sung Kim and Tack-Joong Kim
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(5), 4486; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24054486 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1993
Abstract
Continuous consumption of high-calorie meals causes lipid accumulation in the liver and liver damage, leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A case study of the hepatic lipid accumulation model is needed to identify the mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism in the liver. In [...] Read more.
Continuous consumption of high-calorie meals causes lipid accumulation in the liver and liver damage, leading to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). A case study of the hepatic lipid accumulation model is needed to identify the mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism in the liver. In this study, the prevention mechanism of lipid accumulation in the liver of Enterococcus faecalis 2001 (EF-2001) was extended using FL83B cells (FL83Bs) and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. EF-2001 treatment inhibited the oleic acid (OA) lipid accumulation in FL83B liver cells. Furthermore, we performed lipid reduction analysis to confirm the underlying mechanism of lipolysis. The results showed that EF-2001 downregulated proteins and upregulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and AMPK signaling pathways, respectively. The effect of EF-2001 on OA-induced hepatic lipid accumulation in FL83Bs enhanced the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and reduced the levels of lipid accumulation proteins SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase. EF-2001 treatment increased the levels of adipose triglyceride lipase and monoacylglycerol during lipase enzyme activation, which, when increased, contributed to increased liver lipolysis. In conclusion, EF-2001 inhibits OA-induced FL83B hepatic lipid accumulation and HFD-induced hepatic steatosis in rats through the AMPK signaling pathway. Full article
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14 pages, 430 KiB  
Article
Gene–Nutrient Interactions in Obesity: COBLL1 Genetic Variants Interact with Dietary Fat Intake to Modulate the Incidence of Obesity
by Junkyung Kwak and Dayeon Shin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(4), 3758; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24043758 - 13 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1562
Abstract
The COBLL1 gene is associated with leptin, a hormone important for appetite and weight maintenance. Dietary fat is a significant factor in obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between COBLL1 gene, dietary fat, and incidence of obesity. Data from the Korean [...] Read more.
The COBLL1 gene is associated with leptin, a hormone important for appetite and weight maintenance. Dietary fat is a significant factor in obesity. This study aimed to determine the association between COBLL1 gene, dietary fat, and incidence of obesity. Data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were used, and 3055 Korean adults aged ≥ 40 years were included. Obesity was defined as a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2. Patients with obesity at baseline were excluded. The effects of the COBLL1 rs6717858 genotypes and dietary fat on incidence of obesity were evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. During an average follow-up period of 9.2 years, 627 obesity cases were documented. In men, the hazard ratio (HR) for obesity was higher in CT, CC carriers (minor allele carriers) in the highest tertile of dietary fat intake than for men with TT carriers in the lowest tertile of dietary fat intake (Model 1: HR: 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–2.58; Model 2: HR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.04–2.56). In women, the HR for obesity was higher in TT carriers in the highest tertile of dietary fat intake than for women with TT carriers in the lowest tertile of dietary fat intake (Model 1: HR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.08–2.06; Model 2: HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10–2.13). COBLL1 genetic variants and dietary fat intake had different sex-dependent effects in obesity. These results imply that a low-fat diet may protect against the effects of COBLL1 genetic variants on future obesity risk. Full article
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15 pages, 3782 KiB  
Article
Pinostrobin Suppresses the α-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone-Induced Melanogenic Signaling Pathway
by Athapaththu Mudiyanselage Gihan Kavinda Athapaththu, Sobarathne Senel Sanjaya, Kyoung Tae Lee, Wisurumuni Arachchilage Hasitha Maduranga Karunarathne, Yung Hyun Choi, Sung-Pyo Hur and Gi-Young Kim
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(1), 821; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms24010821 - 3 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
Pinostrobin is a dietary flavonoid found in several plants that possesses pharmacological properties, such as anti-cancer, anti-virus, antioxidant, anti-ulcer, and anti-aromatase effects. However, it is unclear if pinostrobin exerts anti-melanogenic properties and, if so, what the underlying molecular mechanisms comprise. Therefore, we, in [...] Read more.
Pinostrobin is a dietary flavonoid found in several plants that possesses pharmacological properties, such as anti-cancer, anti-virus, antioxidant, anti-ulcer, and anti-aromatase effects. However, it is unclear if pinostrobin exerts anti-melanogenic properties and, if so, what the underlying molecular mechanisms comprise. Therefore, we, in this study, investigated whether pinostrobin inhibits melanin biosynthesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as the potential associated mechanism. Pinostrobin reduced mushroom tyrosinase activity in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 700 μM. Molecular docking simulations further revealed that pinostrobin forms a hydrogen bond, as well as other non-covalent interactions, between the C-type lectin-like fold and polyphenol oxidase chain, rather than the previously known copper-containing catalytic center. Additionally, pinostrobin significantly decreased α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-induced extracellular and intracellular melanin production, as well as tyrosinase activity, in B16F10 melanoma cells. More specifically, pinostrobin inhibited the α-MSH-induced melanin biosynthesis signaling pathway by suppressing the cAMP–CREB–MITF axis. In fact, pinostrobin also attenuated pigmentation in α-MSH-stimulated zebrafish larvae without causing cardiotoxicity. The findings suggest that pinostrobin effectively inhibits melanogenesis in vitro and in vivo via regulation of the cAMP–CREB–MITF axis. Full article
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2022

Jump to: 2024, 2023

16 pages, 3965 KiB  
Article
Antioxidant and Antibacterial Effects of Potential Probiotics Isolated from Korean Fermented Foods
by Anbazhagan Sathiyaseelan, Kandasamy Saravanakumar, Kiseok Han, Kumar Vishven Naveen and Myeong-Hyeon Wang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(17), 10062; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms231710062 - 2 Sep 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2274
Abstract
A total of sixteen bacterial strains were isolated and identified from the fourteen types of Korean fermented foods that were evaluated for their in vitro probiotic potentials. The results showed the highest survivability for Bacillus sp. compared to Lactobacillus sp. in simulated gastric [...] Read more.
A total of sixteen bacterial strains were isolated and identified from the fourteen types of Korean fermented foods that were evaluated for their in vitro probiotic potentials. The results showed the highest survivability for Bacillus sp. compared to Lactobacillus sp. in simulated gastric pH, and it was found to be maximum for B. inaquosorum KNUAS016 (8.25 ± 0.08 log10 CFU/mL) and minimum for L. sakei KNUAS019 (0.8 ± 0.02 log10 CFU/mL) at 3 h of incubation. Furthermore, B. inaquosorum KNUAS016 and L. brevis KNUAS017 also had the highest survival rates of 6.86 ± 0.02 and 5.37 ± 0.01 log10 CFU/mL, respectively, in a simulated intestinal fluid condition at 4 h of incubation. The percentage of autoaggregation at 6 h for L. sakei KNUAS019 (66.55 ± 0.33%), B. tequilensis KNUAS015 (64.56 ± 0.14%), and B. inaquosorum KNUAS016 (61.63 ± 0.19%) was >60%, whereas it was lower for L. brevis KNUAS017 (29.98 ± 0.09%). Additionally, B. subtilis KNUAS003 showed higher coaggregation at 63.84 ± 0.19% while B. proteolyticus KNUAS001 found at 30.02 ± 0.33%. Among them, Lactobacillus sp. showed the best non-hemolytic activity. The highest DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity was observed in L. sakei KNUAS019 (58.25% and 71.88%). The cell-free supernatant of Lactobacillus sp. considerably inhibited pathogenic growth, while the cell-free supernatant of Bacillus sp. was moderately inhibited when incubated for 24 h. However, the overall results found that B. subtilis KNUAS003, B. proteolyticus KNUAS012, L. brevis KNUAS017, L. graminis KNUAS018, and L. sakei KNUAS019 were recognized as potential probiotics through different functional and toxicity assessments. Full article
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13 pages, 3004 KiB  
Article
Heat-Killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 Induces Human Dermal Papilla Cell Proliferation and Hair Regrowth in C57BL/6 Mice
by Young-Hyun Baek, Jin-Ho Lee, Sang-Jin Chang, Yuri Chae, Myung-Hun Lee, Sun-Hong Kim, Kwon-Il Han and Tack-Joong Kim
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(10), 5413; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23105413 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2487
Abstract
Minoxidil is the most widely used treatment for hair growth, but has been associated with several side effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 on hair loss prevention and regrowth using human dermal papilla cells and male [...] Read more.
Minoxidil is the most widely used treatment for hair growth, but has been associated with several side effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis EF-2001 on hair loss prevention and regrowth using human dermal papilla cells and male C57BL/6 mice. To examine the effects of EF-2001, we used minoxidil as the positive control. In the in vitro experiments, EF-2001 treatment (75–500 μg/mL) led to the proliferation of human dermal papilla cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In the in vivo experiment, the topical application of 200 µL EF-2001 on the dorsal surface of C57BL/6 male mice led to hair growth. Changes in hair regrowth were examined by visual comparison and hematoxylin and eosin staining of skin sections. We also determined the expression levels of marker genes (Wnt) and growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, insulin growth factor 1, and vascular endothelial growth factor) in the skin tissues of the back of each mouse using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. EF-2001 accelerated the progression of hair regrowth in mice and promoted hair-follicle conversion from telogen to anagen, likely by increasing the expression levels of growth factors and marker genes. Full article
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16 pages, 3522 KiB  
Article
Ethyl Gallate Dual-Targeting PTPN6 and PPARγ Shows Anti-Diabetic and Anti-Obese Effects
by Dohee Ahn, Jinsoo Kim, Gibeom Nam, Xiaodi Zhao, Jihee Kwon, Ji Young Hwang, Jae Kwan Kim, Sun-Young Yoon and Sang J. Chung
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 5020; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23095020 - 30 Apr 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3085
Abstract
The emergence of the high correlation between type 2 diabetes and obesity with complicated conditions has led to the coinage of the term “diabesity”. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) antagonists have shown therapeutic activity for diabesity, respectively. Hence, [...] Read more.
The emergence of the high correlation between type 2 diabetes and obesity with complicated conditions has led to the coinage of the term “diabesity”. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARγ) antagonists have shown therapeutic activity for diabesity, respectively. Hence, the discovery of compounds that activate AMPK as well as antagonize PPARγ may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic agents for diabesity. In this study, the knockdown of PTPN6 activated AMPK and suppressed adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. By screening a library of 1033 natural products against PTPN6, we found ethyl gallate to be the most selective inhibitor of PTPN6 (Ki = 3.4 μM). Subsequent assay identified ethyl gallate as the best PPARγ antagonist (IC50 = 5.4 μM) among the hit compounds inhibiting PTPN6. Ethyl gallate upregulated glucose uptake and downregulated adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells as anticipated. These results strongly suggest that ethyl gallate, which targets both PTPN6 and PPARγ, is a potent therapeutic candidate to combat diabesity. Full article
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17 pages, 6142 KiB  
Article
Linoleic Acid Attenuates Denervation-Induced Skeletal Muscle Atrophy in Mice through Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species-Dependent Signaling
by Myung-Hun Lee, Jin-Ho Lee, Wan-Joong Kim, Seo Ho Kim, Sun-Young Kim, Han Sung Kim and Tack-Joong Kim
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(9), 4778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23094778 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2425
Abstract
Muscle atrophy is a major muscle disease, the symptoms of which include decreased muscle volume leading to insufficient muscular support during exercise. One cause of muscle atrophy is the induction of oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study aimed to identify [...] Read more.
Muscle atrophy is a major muscle disease, the symptoms of which include decreased muscle volume leading to insufficient muscular support during exercise. One cause of muscle atrophy is the induction of oxidative stress by reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study aimed to identify the antioxidant mechanism of linoleic acid (LA) in muscle atrophy caused by oxidative stress. H2O2 has been used to induce oxidative stress in myoblasts in vitro. C2C12 myoblasts treated with H2O2 exhibited decreased viability and increased ROS synthesis. However, with LA treatment, the cells tended to recover from oxidative effects similar to those of the control groups. At the molecular level, the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), Bax, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), and phosphorylated forkhead box protein O1 was increased by oxidative stress, causing apoptosis. LA treatment suppressed these changes. In addition, the expression of MuRF1 and Atrogin-1/MAFbx mRNA increased under oxidative stress but not in the LA-treated group. Sciatic denervation of C57BL/6 mice manifested as atrophy of the skeletal muscle in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). The protein expression levels of SOD1, HSP70, and MuRF1 did not differ between the atrophied muscle tissues and C2C12 myoblasts under oxidative stress. With LA treatment, muscle atrophy recovered and protein expression was restored to levels similar to those in the control. Therefore, this study suggests that LA may be a candidate substance for preventing muscle atrophy. Full article
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