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Special Issue "Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 May 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Tomasz Hura
Website
Guest Editor
Polish Academy of Sciences, The Franciszek Górski Institute of Plant Physiology, Poland
Interests: cereals (wheat, barley, triticale), abiotic stress (drought stress, salinity, heat stress), biotic stress (fungi), plant stress physiology, plant molecular biology, invasive plants (Rosa rubiginosa L., native and invasive populations)

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,
Agriculture is an aspect of human activity that is highly dependent on the weather and climatic conditions. Climatic changes and associated extreme weather phenomena are posing new and unpredictable threats to cereal crops. Therefore, farmers are becoming increasingly interested in growing cultivars that are able to acclimate to environmental stresses at key stages of their growth and development.

Wheat and barley are critical food crops around the world, and their cultivars will face unexpected climatic changes. Flooding, drought, high temperatures, salinity, or excessive UV radiation during the growing season can significantly reduce their yields. Furthermore, climate change can influence pathogen development and survival rates, disease transmission, host susceptibility, and disease-spreading organisms.

This Special Issue of IJMS aims to publish a collection of recent studies dealing with the molecular aspects of wheat and barley acclimatization to abiotic and biotic stresses including observations of biochemical, physiological, and morphological responses. Authors are invited to submit related original research articles, reviews and communications.

Dr. Tomasz Hura
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • barley
  • wheat
  • abiotic stress (drought, heat, salinity, cold, UV radiation, flooding)
  • biotic stress (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, insects, weeds)
  • multi-stress
  • genes and proteins
  • transcriptome
  • proteome
  • metabolome

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(19), 7423; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197423 - 08 Oct 2020
Abstract
Twelve articles (ten research papers and two reviews) included in the Special Issue entitled “Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress” are summed up here to present the latest research on the molecular background of adaptation to environmental stresses in two [...] Read more.
Twelve articles (ten research papers and two reviews) included in the Special Issue entitled “Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress” are summed up here to present the latest research on the molecular background of adaptation to environmental stresses in two cereal species. Crucial research results were presented and discussed, as they may be of importance in breeding aimed at increasing wheat and barley tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of the Heavy-Metal-Associated Isoprenylated Plant Protein (HIPP) Gene Family from Triticeae Species
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 6191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21176191 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Heavy-metal-associated (HMA) isoprenylated plant proteins (HIPPs) only exist in vascular plants. They play important roles in responses to biotic/abiotic stresses, heavy-metal homeostasis, and detoxification. However, research on the distribution, diversification, and function of HIPPs in Triticeae species is limited. In this study, a [...] Read more.
Heavy-metal-associated (HMA) isoprenylated plant proteins (HIPPs) only exist in vascular plants. They play important roles in responses to biotic/abiotic stresses, heavy-metal homeostasis, and detoxification. However, research on the distribution, diversification, and function of HIPPs in Triticeae species is limited. In this study, a total of 278 HIPPs were identified from a database from five Triticeae species, and 13 were cloned from Haynaldia villosa. These genes were classified into five groups by phylogenetic analysis. Most HIPPs had one HMA domain, while 51 from Clade I had two, and all HIPPs had good collinear relationships between species or subgenomes. In silico expression profiling revealed that 44 of the 114 wheat HIPPs were dominantly expressed in roots, 43 were upregulated under biotic stresses, and 29 were upregulated upon drought or heat treatment. Subcellular localization analysis of the cloned HIPPs from H. villosa showed that they were expressed on the plasma membrane. HIPP1-V was upregulated in H. villosa after Cd treatment, and transgenic wheat plants overexpressing HIPP1-V showed enhanced Cd tolerance, as shown by the recovery of seed-germination and root-growth inhibition by supplementary Cd. This research provides a genome-wide overview of the Triticeae HIPP genes and proved that HIPP1-V positively regulates Cd tolerance in common wheat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
The Regulatory Network of CMPG1-V in Wheat–Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici Interaction Revealed by Temporal Profiling Using RNA-Seq
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(17), 5967; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21175967 - 19 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Wheat powdery mildew (Pm), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a prevalent fungal disease. The diploid wheat relative Haynaldia villosa (H. villosa) showed broad-spectrum resistance (BSR) to Pm. A previous study reported an E3 ligase gene, [...] Read more.
Wheat powdery mildew (Pm), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a prevalent fungal disease. The diploid wheat relative Haynaldia villosa (H. villosa) showed broad-spectrum resistance (BSR) to Pm. A previous study reported an E3 ligase gene, CMPG1-V from H. villosa, showing BSR to Pm. To elucidate the regulatory network mediated by CMPG1-V, in this study, gene expression profiling of CMPG1-V transgenic plant (CMPG1-VOE) and its receptor Yangmai 158 was analyzed and compared after Bgt inoculation at four infection stages. GO and KEGG analysis revealed obvious reprogramming of SA and ABA signaling, starch/sucrose metabolism, and photosynthesis in CMPG1-VOE, compared with those in Yangmai 158. Transcripts of SA synthesis genes SARD1 and UGT, signaling factors TGA and PRs, and SnRKs in ABA signaling were specifically upregulated in CMPG1-VOE rather than Yangmai 158. Transcripts of LHCII in photosynthesis, GLUC and TPP in starch/sucrose metabolism were also induced distinctly in CMPG1-VOE. WGCNA analysis showed crucial regulatory candidates of CMPG1-V, involving serine/threonine-protein kinase in phosphorylation, glucosyltransferase in flavonoid biosynthesis, defense factor WRKYs, and peroxidase in oxidative stress. Our results facilitate the deciphering of the resistant regulatory network of CMPG1-V and the identification of key candidates which might be employed in breeding programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Powdery Mildew-Induced Hormonal and Photosynthetic Changes in Barley Near Isogenic Lines Carrying Various Resistant Genes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(12), 4536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21124536 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The present work focused on the characterization of some physiological mechanisms activated upon powdery mildew inoculation of the susceptible barley cultivar Ingrid and its near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying various resistant genes (Mla, Mlg and mlo). After inoculation with Blumeria graminis [...] Read more.
The present work focused on the characterization of some physiological mechanisms activated upon powdery mildew inoculation of the susceptible barley cultivar Ingrid and its near-isogenic lines (NILs) carrying various resistant genes (Mla, Mlg and mlo). After inoculation with Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei (Bgh), measurements of leaf reflectance and chlorophyll a fluorescence were performed 3 and 7 day post-inoculation (dpi), while hormone assays were made 7 dpi. Bgh-inoculated resistant genotypes were characterized by lowered leaf reflectance parameters that correlated with carotenoids (CRI) and water content (WBI) in comparison to inoculated Ingrid. The PSII activity (i.e., Fv/Fm, ETo/CSm and P.I.ABS) strongly decreased in susceptible Ingrid leaves when the disease symptoms became visible 7 dpi. In Mla plants with visible hypersensitive spots the PSII activity decreased to a lesser extent. Inoculation resulted in a very slight decrease of photosynthesis at later stage of infection in Mlg plants, whereas in resistant mlo plants the PSII activity did not change. Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements allowed presymptomatic detection of infection in Ingrid and Mla. Changes in the homeostasis of 22 phytohormones (cytokinins, auxins, gibberellins and the stress hormones JA, SA and ABA) in powdery mildew inoculated barley are discussed in relation to resistance against this biotrophic pathogen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Drought Stress Tolerance and Photosynthetic Activity of Alloplasmic Lines T. dicoccum x T. aestivum
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(9), 3356; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21093356 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
Tetraploid species T. dicoccum Shuebl is a potential source of drought tolerance for cultivated wheat, including common wheat. This paper describes the genotyping of nine stable allolines isolated in the offspring from crossing of T. dicoccum x T. aestivum L. using 21 microsatellite [...] Read more.
Tetraploid species T. dicoccum Shuebl is a potential source of drought tolerance for cultivated wheat, including common wheat. This paper describes the genotyping of nine stable allolines isolated in the offspring from crossing of T. dicoccum x T. aestivum L. using 21 microsatellite (simple sequence repeats—SSR) markers and two cytoplasmic mitochondrial markers to orf256, rps19-p genes; evaluation of drought tolerance of allolines at different stages of ontogenesis (growth parameters, relative water content, quantum efficiency of Photosystem II, electron transport rate, energy dissipated in Photosystem II); and the study of drought tolerance regulator gene Dreb-1 with allele-specific PCR (AS-MARKER) and partial sequence analysis. Most allolines differ in genomic composition and T. dicoccum introgressions. Four allolines—D-b-05, D-d-05, D-d-05b, and D-41-05—revealed signs of drought tolerance of varying degrees. The more drought tolerant D-41-05 line was also characterized by Dreb-B1 allele introgression from T. dicoccum. A number of non-specific patterns and significant differences in allolines in regulation of physiological parameters in drought conditions is identified. Changes in photosynthetic activity in stress-drought are shown to reflect the level of drought tolerance of the forms studied. The contribution of different combinations of nuclear/cytoplasmic genome and alleles of Dreb-1 gene in allolines to the formation of stress tolerance and photosynthetic activity is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Histone Deacetylase TaHDT701 Functions in TaHDA6-TaHOS15 Complex to Regulate Wheat Defense Responses to Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(7), 2640; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072640 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) leads to severe economic losses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To date, only a few epigenetic modulators have been revealed to regulate wheat powdery mildew resistance. In this study, [...] Read more.
Powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) leads to severe economic losses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To date, only a few epigenetic modulators have been revealed to regulate wheat powdery mildew resistance. In this study, the histone deacetylase 2 (HD2) type histone deacetylase TaHDT701 was identified as a negative regulator of wheat defense responses to Bgt. Using multiple approaches, we demonstrated that TaHDT701 associates with the RPD3 type histone deacetylase TaHDA6 and the WD40-repeat protein TaHOS15 to constitute a histone deacetylase complex, in which TaHDT701 could stabilize the TaHDA6-TaHOS15 association. Furthermore, knockdown of TaHDT701, TaHDA6, and TaHOS15 resulted in enhanced wheat powdery mildew resistance, suggesting that the TaHDT701-TaHDA6-TaHOS15 histone deacetylase complex negatively regulates wheat defense responses to Bgt. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that TaHDT701 could function in concert with TaHOS15 to recruit TaHDA6 to the promoters of defense-related genes such as TaPR1, TaPR2, TaPR5, and TaWRKY45. In addition, silencing of TaHDT701, TaHDA6, and TaHOS15 resulted in the up-regulation of TaPR1, TaPR2, TaPR5, and TaWRKY45 accompanied with increased histone acetylation and methylation, as well as reduced nucleosome occupancy, at their promoters, suggesting that the TaHDT701-TaHDA6-TaHOS15 histone deacetylase complex suppresses wheat powdery mildew resistance by modulating chromatin state at defense-related genes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Candidate Genes for Freezing and Drought Tolerance Selected on the Basis of Proteome Analysis in Doubled Haploid Lines of Barley
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(6), 2062; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21062062 - 17 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Plant tolerance to environmental stress is determined by a very complicated network composed of many intra- and extracellular factors. The aim of this study was to select candidate genes involved in responses to freezing and drought in barley on the basis of previous [...] Read more.
Plant tolerance to environmental stress is determined by a very complicated network composed of many intra- and extracellular factors. The aim of this study was to select candidate genes involved in responses to freezing and drought in barley on the basis of previous proteomic studies and to analyze changes in their expression caused by application of both stress factors. Six candidate genes for freezing tolerance (namely the genes encoding elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A), ferredoxin-NADP reductase, a 14-3-3a protein, β-fructofuranosidase, CBF2A and CBF4B) and six for drought tolerance (encoding transketolase, periplasmic serine protease, triosephosphate isomerase, a protein with a co-chaperon region (GroEs), pfam14200 and actin) were chosen arbitrarily on the basis of in silico bioinformatic analyses. The expression levels of these genes were measured under control and stress conditions in six DH (doubled haploid) lines with differing freezing and drought tolerance. The results of gene expression analysis confirmed the roles of the candidate genes preselected in this study on the basis of previous proteome analysis in contributing to the differences in freezing and drought tolerance observed in the studied population of DH lines of winter barley. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
HSP Transcript and Protein Accumulation in Brassinosteroid Barley Mutants Acclimated to Low and High Temperatures
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1889; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051889 - 10 Mar 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
In temperature stress, the main role of heat-shock proteins (HSP) is to act as molecular chaperones for other cellular proteins. However, knowledge about the hormonal regulation of the production of the HSP is quite limited. Specifically, little is known about the role of [...] Read more.
In temperature stress, the main role of heat-shock proteins (HSP) is to act as molecular chaperones for other cellular proteins. However, knowledge about the hormonal regulation of the production of the HSP is quite limited. Specifically, little is known about the role of the plant steroid hormones—brassinosteroids (BR)—in regulating the HSP expression. The aim of our study was to answer the question of how a BR deficit or disturbances in its signaling affect the accumulation of the HSP90, HSP70, HSP18, and HSP17 transcripts and protein in barley growing at 20 °C (control) and during the acclimation of plants at 5 °C and 27 °C. In barley, the temperature of plant growth modified the expression of HSPs. Furthermore, the BR-deficient mutants (mutations in the HvDWARF or HvCPD genes) and BR-signaling mutants (mutation in the HvBRI1 gene) were characterized by altered levels of the transcripts and proteins of the HSP group compared to the wild type. The BR-signaling mutant was characterized by a decreased level of the HSP transcripts and heat-shock proteins. In the BR-deficient mutants, there were temperature-dependent cases when the decreased accumulation of the HSP70 and HSP90 transcripts was connected to an increased accumulation of these HSP. The significance of changes in the accumulation of HSPs during acclimation at 27 °C and 5 °C is discussed in the context of the altered tolerance to more extreme temperatures of the studied mutants (i.e., heat stress and frost, respectively). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Disclosure of the Molecular Mechanism of Wheat Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana through Comparative Transcriptome and Metabolomics Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 6090; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20236090 - 03 Dec 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Wheat yield is greatly reduced because of the occurrence of leaf spot diseases. Bipolaris sorokiniana is the main pathogenic fungus in leaf spot disease. In this study, B. sorokiniana from wheat leaf (W-B. sorokiniana) showed much stronger pathogenicity toward wheat than [...] Read more.
Wheat yield is greatly reduced because of the occurrence of leaf spot diseases. Bipolaris sorokiniana is the main pathogenic fungus in leaf spot disease. In this study, B. sorokiniana from wheat leaf (W-B. sorokiniana) showed much stronger pathogenicity toward wheat than endophytic B. sorokiniana from Pogostemon cablin (P-B. sorokiniana). The transcriptomes and metabolomics of the two B. sorokiniana strains and transcriptomes of B. sorokiniana-infected wheat leaves were comparatively analyzed. In addition, the expression levels of unigenes related to pathogenicity, toxicity, and cell wall degradation were predicted and validated by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Results indicated that pathogenicity-related genes, especially the gene encoding loss-of-pathogenicity B (LopB) protein, cell wall-degrading enzymes (particularly glycosyl hydrolase-related genes), and killer and Ptr necrosis toxin-producing related unigenes in the W-B. sorokiniana played important roles in the pathogenicity of W-B. sorokiniana toward wheat. The down-regulation of cell wall protein, photosystem peptide, and rubisco protein suggested impairment of the phytosynthetic system and cell wall of B. sorokiniana-infected wheat. The up-regulation of hydrolase inhibitor, NAC (including NAM, ATAF1 and CUC2) transcriptional factor, and peroxidase in infected wheat tissues suggests their important roles in the defensive response of wheat to W-B. sorokiniana. This is the first report providing a comparison of the transcriptome and metabolome between the pathogenic and endophytic B. sorokiniana strains, thus providing a molecular clue for the pathogenic mechanism of W-B. sorokiniana toward wheat and wheat’s defensive response mechanism to W-B. sorokiniana. Our study could offer molecular clues for controlling the hazard of leaf spot and root rot diseases in wheat, thus improving wheat yield in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress)
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Open AccessArticle
Genetic Parameters and QTLs for Total Phenolic Content and Yield of Wheat Mapping Population of CSDH Lines under Drought Stress
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 6064; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20236064 - 01 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A doubled haploid population of 94 lines from the Chinese Spring × SQ1 wheat cross (CSDH) was used to evaluate additive and epistatic gene action effects on total phenolic content, grain yield of the main stem, grain number per plant, thousand grain weight, [...] Read more.
A doubled haploid population of 94 lines from the Chinese Spring × SQ1 wheat cross (CSDH) was used to evaluate additive and epistatic gene action effects on total phenolic content, grain yield of the main stem, grain number per plant, thousand grain weight, and dry weight per plant at harvest based on phenotypic and genotypic observations of CSDH lines. These traits were evaluated under moderate and severe drought stress and compared with well-watered plants. Plants were grown in pots in an open-sided greenhouse. Genetic parameters, such as additive and epistatic effects, affecting total phenolic content, were estimated for eight year-by-drought combinations. Twenty-one markers showed a significant additive effect on total phenolic content in all eight year-by-drought combinations. These markers were located on chromosomes: 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3A, 3B, 3D, 4A, and 4D. A region on 4AL with a stable QTL controlling the phenolic content, confirmed by various statistical methods is particularly noteworthy. In all years and treatments, three markers significantly linked to QTLs have been identified for both phenols and yield. Thirteen markers were coincident with candidate genes. Our results indicated the importance of both additive and epistatic gene effects on total phenolic content in eight year-by-drought combinations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress)
Open AccessArticle
Biosynthesis of Phenylamide Phytoalexins in Pathogen-Infected Barley
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5541; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225541 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Phytoalexins are inducible antimicrobial metabolites in plants, and have been indicated to be important for the rejection of microbial infection. HPLC analysis detected the induced accumulation of three compounds 13 in barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots infected by Fusarium culmorum [...] Read more.
Phytoalexins are inducible antimicrobial metabolites in plants, and have been indicated to be important for the rejection of microbial infection. HPLC analysis detected the induced accumulation of three compounds 13 in barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots infected by Fusarium culmorum, the causal agent of Fusarium root rot. Compounds 13 were identified as cinnamic acid amides of 9-hydroxy-8-oxotryptamine, 8-oxotryptamine, and (1H-indol-3-yl)methylamine, respectively, by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 had been previously reported from wheat, whereas 3 was an undescribed compound. We named 13 as triticamides A–C, respectively, because they were isolated from barley and wheat, which belong to the Triticeae tribe. These compounds showed antimicrobial activities, indicating that triticamides function as phytoalexins in barley. The administration of deuterium-labeled N-cinnamoyl tryptamine (CinTry) to barley roots resulted in the effective incorporation of CinTry into 1 and 2, which suggested that they were synthesized through the oxidation of CinTry. Nine putative tryptamine hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (THT)-encoding genes (HvTHT1HvTHT9) were identified by database search on the basis of homology to known THT gene sequences from rice. Since HvTHT7 and HvTHT8 had the same sequences except one base, we measured their expression levels in total by RT-qPCR. HvTHT7/8 were markedly upregulated in response to infection by F. culmorum. The HvTHT7 and HvTHT8 enzymes preferred cinnamoyl- and feruloyl-CoAs as acyl donors and tryptamine as an acyl acceptor, and (1H-indol-3-yl)methylamine was also accepted as an acyl acceptor. These findings suggested that HvTHT7/8 are responsible for the induced accumulation of triticamides in barley. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Abscisic Acid—Enemy or Savior in the Response of Cereals to Abiotic and Biotic Stresses?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(13), 4607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21134607 - 29 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Abscisic acid (ABA) is well-known phytohormone involved in the control of plant natural developmental processes, as well as the stress response. Although in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) its role in mechanism of the tolerance to most [...] Read more.
Abscisic acid (ABA) is well-known phytohormone involved in the control of plant natural developmental processes, as well as the stress response. Although in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) its role in mechanism of the tolerance to most common abiotic stresses, such as drought, salinity, or extreme temperatures seems to be fairly well recognized, not many authors considered that changes in ABA content may also influence the sensitivity of cereals to adverse environmental factors, e.g., by accelerating senescence, lowering pollen fertility, and inducing seed dormancy. Moreover, recently, ABA has also been regarded as an element of the biotic stress response; however, its role is still highly unclear. Many studies connect the susceptibility to various diseases with increased concentration of this phytohormone. Therefore, in contrast to the original assumptions, the role of ABA in response to biotic and abiotic stress does not always have to be associated with survival mechanisms; on the contrary, in some cases, abscisic acid can be one of the factors that increases the susceptibility of plants to adverse biotic and abiotic environmental factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress)
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Open AccessReview
Insight into the Role of Epigenetic Processes in Abiotic and Biotic Stress Response in Wheat and Barley
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041480 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
Environmental stresses such as salinity, drought, heat, freezing, heavy metal and even pathogen infections seriously threaten the growth and yield of important cereal crops including wheat and barley. There is growing evidence indicating that plants employ sophisticated epigenetic mechanisms to fine-tune their responses [...] Read more.
Environmental stresses such as salinity, drought, heat, freezing, heavy metal and even pathogen infections seriously threaten the growth and yield of important cereal crops including wheat and barley. There is growing evidence indicating that plants employ sophisticated epigenetic mechanisms to fine-tune their responses to environmental stresses. Here, we provide an overview of recent developments in understanding the epigenetic processes and elements—such as DNA methylation, histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and non-coding RNAs—involved in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses in wheat and barley. Potentials of exploiting epigenetic variation for the improvement of wheat and barley are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wheat and Barley: Acclimatization to Abiotic and Biotic Stress)
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