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Special Issue "Glycosylation and Glycoproteins 2017"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2017).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Patricia Berninsone
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biology, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, Nevada, USA
Interests: protein glycosylation, regulation of glycosylation reactions, roles of glycosylation in development and disease.
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Joe Tiralongo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Institute for Glycomics, Gold Coast Campus, Griffith University, Queensland 4222, Australia

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue is the continuation of our 2015 Special Issue, "Glycosylation and Glycoproteins" (https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijms/special_issues/glyco).

Sugars, which represent one of the four fundamental building blocks of life, are the most abundant biological molecules on our planet. Sugars can be combined in a myriad number of ways to form complex carbohydrate structures (glycans). The glycan repertoire (glycome) of a given cell or organism is thus many orders of magnitude more complex than the genome or the proteome. However, only over the past two decades have we begun to truly appreciate the extent to which glycan function permeates biological systems, including human health and disease.
Glycosylation is the process by which a sugar is enzymatically attached to proteins, lipids, or other organic molecules. In particular, glycosylation increases protein diversity and structure, and as such significantly impacts on the function of the resulting glycoprotein.
As the roles of glycosylation in physiological and pathological processes are increasingly being recognized, the field of glycobiology is eliciting an unprecedented interest. However, the extreme complexity and structural diversity of glycans, combined with their “non-template”-driven synthesis, pose a significant technical challenge that has stimulated advances in the field.
This Special Issue will welcome contributions in all areas of glycobiology, including studies on the function of glycans in basic biological processes and human diseases, and the regulation of glycosylation reactions in vivo, as well as technical advances to analyze the complexities of the glycoproteome.

Prof. Dr. Patricia Berninsone
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Joe Tiralongo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • glycosylation
  • carbohydrate
  • glycosyl donor
  • glycosyl acceptor
  • glycan
  • protein
  • lipid
  • co-translation
  • post-translation
  • glypiation
  • glycosidic bond
  • mannosylation
  • oligosaccharide chain
  • glycoprotein
  • protein
  • mucins
  • glycoprotein IIb/IIIa
  • zona pellucida
  • miraculin
  • transferrin
  • ceruloplasmin
  • immunoglobins
  • histocompatibility antigens
  • human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
  • thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • patatin
  • lectin
  • selectin
  • calnexin
  • calreticulin

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
In Planta Preliminary Screening of ER Glycoprotein Folding Quality Control (ERQC) Modulators
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(7), 2135; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19072135 - 23 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Small molecule modulators of the Endoplasmic Reticulum glycoprotein folding quality control (ERQC) machinery have broad-spectrum antiviral activity against a number of enveloped viruses and have the potential to rescue secretion of misfolded but active glycoproteins in rare diseases. In vivo assays of candidate [...] Read more.
Small molecule modulators of the Endoplasmic Reticulum glycoprotein folding quality control (ERQC) machinery have broad-spectrum antiviral activity against a number of enveloped viruses and have the potential to rescue secretion of misfolded but active glycoproteins in rare diseases. In vivo assays of candidate inhibitors in mammals are expensive and cannot be afforded at the preliminary stages of drug development programs. The strong conservation of the ERQC machinery across eukaryotes makes transgenic plants an attractive system for low-cost, easy and fast proof-of-concept screening of candidate ERQC inhibitors. The Arabidopsis thaliana immune response is mediated by glycoproteins, the folding of which is controlled by ERQC. We have used the plant response to bacterial peptides as a means of assaying an ERQC inhibitor in vivo. We show that the treatment of the plant with the iminosugar NB-DNJ, which is a known ER α-glucosidase inhibitor in mammals, influences the immune response of the plant to the bacterial peptide elf18 but not to the flagellin-derived flg22 peptide. In the NB-DNJ-treated plant, the responses to elf18 and flg22 treatments closely follow the ones observed for the ER α-glucosidase II impaired plant, At psl5-1. We propose Arabidopsis thaliana as a promising platform for the development of low-cost proof-of-concept in vivo ERQC modulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosylation and Glycoproteins 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Cellular Consequences of Diminished Protein O-Mannosyltransferase Activity in Baker’s Yeast
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061226 - 09 Jun 2017
Cited by 3
Abstract
O-Mannosylation is a type of protein glycosylation initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the protein O-mannosyltransferase (PMT) family. Despite the vital role of O-mannosylation, its molecular functions and regulation are not fully characterized. To further explore the cellular impact [...] Read more.
O-Mannosylation is a type of protein glycosylation initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the protein O-mannosyltransferase (PMT) family. Despite the vital role of O-mannosylation, its molecular functions and regulation are not fully characterized. To further explore the cellular impact of protein O-mannosylation, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with increased sensitivity towards the PMT-specific inhibitor compound R3A-5a. We identified the cell wall and the ER as the cell compartments affected most upon PMT inhibition. Especially mutants with defects in N-glycosylation, biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and cell wall β-1,6-glucan showed impaired growth when O-mannosylation became limiting. Signaling pathways that counteract cell wall defects and unbalanced ER homeostasis, namely the cell wall integrity pathway and the unfolded protein response, were highly crucial for the cell growth. Moreover, among the most affected mutants, we identified Ost3, one of two homologous subunits of the oligosaccharyltransferase complexes involved in N-glycosylation, suggesting a functional link between the two pathways. Indeed, we identified Pmt2 as a substrate for Ost3 suggesting that the reduced function of Pmt2 in the absence of N-glycosylation promoted sensitivity to the drug. Interestingly, even though S. cerevisiae Pmt1 and Pmt2 proteins are highly similar on the sequence, as well as the structural level and act as a complex, we identified only Pmt2, but not Pmt1, as an Ost3-specific substrate protein. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosylation and Glycoproteins 2017)
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Open AccessArticle
Chlorpromazine Increases the Expression of Polysialic Acid (PolySia) in Human Neuroblastoma Cells and Mouse Prefrontal Cortex
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2017, 18(6), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms18061123 - 24 May 2017
Cited by 6
Abstract
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is modified by polysialic acid (polySia or PSA) in embryonic brains. In adult brains, polySia modification of NCAM is only observed in restricted areas where neural plasticity, remodeling of neural connections, or neural generation is ongoing although [...] Read more.
The neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is modified by polysialic acid (polySia or PSA) in embryonic brains. In adult brains, polySia modification of NCAM is only observed in restricted areas where neural plasticity, remodeling of neural connections, or neural generation is ongoing although the amount of NCAM remains unchanged. Impairments of the polySia-expression and several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the polysialyltransferase (polyST) ST8SIA2 gene are reported to be associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is well-known as an agent for treating schizophrenia, and our hypothesis is that CPZ may affect the polySia expression or the gene expression of polySTs or NCAM. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the effects of CPZ on the expression of polySia-NCAM on human neuroblastoma cell line, IMR-32 cells, by immunochemical and chemical methods. Interestingly, the cell surface expression of polySia, especially those with lower chain lengths, was significantly increased on the CPZ-treated cells, while mRNAs for polySTs and NCAM, and the amounts of total polySia-NCAM remained unchanged. The addition of brefeldin A, an inhibitor of endocytosis, suppressed the CPZ-induced cell surface polySia expression. In addition, polySia-NCAM was also observed in the vesicle compartment inside the cell. All these data suggest that the level of cell surface expression of polySia in IMR-32 is highly regulated and that CPZ changes the rate of the recycling of polySia-NCAM, leading to the up-regulation of polySia-NCAM on the cell surface. We also analyzed the effect of CPZ on polySia-expression in various brain regions in adult mice and found that CPZ only influenced the total amounts of polySia-NCAM in prefrontal cortex. These results suggest a brain-region-specific effect of CPZ on the expression of total polySia in mouse brain. Collectively, anti-schizophrenia agent CPZ consistently up-regulates the expression polySia at both cellular and animal levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosylation and Glycoproteins 2017)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Impact of Fetuin-A (AHSG) on Tumor Progression and Type 2 Diabetes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(8), 2211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19082211 - 29 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Fetuin-A is the protein product of the AHSG gene in humans. It is mainly synthesized by the liver in adult humans and is secreted into the blood where its concentration can vary from a low of ~0.2 mg/mL to a high of ~0.8 [...] Read more.
Fetuin-A is the protein product of the AHSG gene in humans. It is mainly synthesized by the liver in adult humans and is secreted into the blood where its concentration can vary from a low of ~0.2 mg/mL to a high of ~0.8 mg/mL. Presently, it is considered to be a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in diabetes, kidney disease, and cancer, as well as in inhibition of ectopic calcification. In this review we have focused on work that has been done regarding its potential role(s) in tumor progression and sequelae of diabetes. Recently a number of laboratories have demonstrated that a subset of tumor cells such as pancreatic, prostate and glioblastoma multiform synthesize ectopic fetuin-A, which drives their progression. Fetuin-A that is synthesized, modified, and secreted by tumor cells may be more relevant in understanding the pathophysiological role of this enigmatic protein in tumors, as opposed to the relatively high serum concentrations of the liver derived protein. Lastly, auto-antibodies to fetuin-A frequently appear in the sera of tumor patients that could be useful as biomarkers for early diagnosis. In diabetes, solid experimental evidence shows that fetuin-A binds the β-subunit of the insulin receptor to attenuate insulin signaling, thereby contributing to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Fetuin-A also may, together with free fatty acids, induce apoptotic signals in the beta islets cells of the pancreas, reducing the secretion of insulin and further exacerbating T2DM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosylation and Glycoproteins 2017)
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Open AccessReview
The Modulatory Roles of N-glycans in T-Cell-Mediated Autoimmune Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030780 - 08 Mar 2018
Cited by 5
Abstract
Glycosylation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification of proteins that occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi. N-glycans and mucin-type O-glycans are achieved via a series of glycohydrolase- and glycosyltransferase-mediated reactions. Glycosylation modulates immune responses by regulating thymocyte development and T helper cell differentiation. [...] Read more.
Glycosylation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification of proteins that occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi. N-glycans and mucin-type O-glycans are achieved via a series of glycohydrolase- and glycosyltransferase-mediated reactions. Glycosylation modulates immune responses by regulating thymocyte development and T helper cell differentiation. Autoimmune diseases result from an abnormal immune response by self-antigens and subsequently lead to the destruction of the target tissues. The modification of N-glycans has been studied in several animal models of T-cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. This review summarizes and highlights the modulatory effects of N-glycosylation in several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes mellitus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosylation and Glycoproteins 2017)
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Open AccessReview
Regulation of TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Signaling by Glycosylation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(3), 715; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19030715 - 02 Mar 2018
Cited by 17
Abstract
Tumor necrosis-factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand, also known as TRAIL or APO2L (Apo-2 ligand), is a cytokine of the TNF superfamily acknowledged for its ability to trigger selective apoptosis in tumor cells while being relatively safe towards normal cells. Its binding to its cognate [...] Read more.
Tumor necrosis-factor related apoptosis-inducing ligand, also known as TRAIL or APO2L (Apo-2 ligand), is a cytokine of the TNF superfamily acknowledged for its ability to trigger selective apoptosis in tumor cells while being relatively safe towards normal cells. Its binding to its cognate agonist receptors, namely death receptor 4 (DR4) and/or DR5, can induce the formation of a membrane-bound macromolecular complex, coined DISC (death-signaling inducing complex), necessary and sufficient to engage the apoptotic machinery. At the very proximal level, TRAIL DISC formation and activation of apoptosis is regulated both by antagonist receptors and by glycosylation. Remarkably, though, despite the fact that all membrane-bound TRAIL receptors harbor putative glycosylation sites, only pro-apoptotic signaling through DR4 and DR5 has, so far, been found to be regulated by N- and O-glycosylation, respectively. Because putative N-glycosylation sequons and O-glycosylation sites are also found and conserved in all these receptors throughout all animal species (in which these receptors have been identified), glycosylation is likely to play a more prominent role than anticipated in regulating receptor/receptor interactions or trafficking, ultimately defining cell fate through TRAIL stimulation. This review aims to present and discuss these emerging concepts, the comprehension of which is likely to lead to innovative anticancer therapies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosylation and Glycoproteins 2017)
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Open AccessReview
Glycosylation as a Main Regulator of Growth and Death Factor Receptors Signaling
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(2), 580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19020580 - 15 Feb 2018
Cited by 18
Abstract
Glycosylation is a very frequent and functionally important post-translational protein modification that undergoes profound changes in cancer. Growth and death factor receptors and plasma membrane glycoproteins, which upon activation by extracellular ligands trigger a signal transduction cascade, are targets of several molecular anti-cancer [...] Read more.
Glycosylation is a very frequent and functionally important post-translational protein modification that undergoes profound changes in cancer. Growth and death factor receptors and plasma membrane glycoproteins, which upon activation by extracellular ligands trigger a signal transduction cascade, are targets of several molecular anti-cancer drugs. In this review, we provide a thorough picture of the mechanisms bywhich glycosylation affects the activity of growth and death factor receptors in normal and pathological conditions. Glycosylation affects receptor activity through three non-mutually exclusive basic mechanisms: (1) by directly regulating intracellular transport, ligand binding, oligomerization and signaling of receptors; (2) through the binding of receptor carbohydrate structures to galectins, forming a lattice thatregulates receptor turnover on the plasma membrane; and (3) by receptor interaction with gangliosides inside membrane microdomains. Some carbohydrate chains, for example core fucose and β1,6-branching, exert a stimulatory effect on all receptors, while other structures exert opposite effects on different receptors or in different cellular contexts. In light of the crucial role played by glycosylation in the regulation of receptor activity, the development of next-generation drugs targeting glyco-epitopes of growth factor receptors should be considered a therapeutically interesting goal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosylation and Glycoproteins 2017)
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Open AccessReview
How Sweet Are Our Gut Beneficial Bacteria? A Focus on Protein Glycosylation in Lactobacillus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(1), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010136 - 03 Jan 2018
Cited by 9
Abstract
Protein glycosylation is emerging as an important feature in bacteria. Protein glycosylation systems have been reported and studied in many pathogenic bacteria, revealing an important diversity of glycan structures and pathways within and between bacterial species. These systems play key roles in virulence [...] Read more.
Protein glycosylation is emerging as an important feature in bacteria. Protein glycosylation systems have been reported and studied in many pathogenic bacteria, revealing an important diversity of glycan structures and pathways within and between bacterial species. These systems play key roles in virulence and pathogenicity. More recently, a large number of bacterial proteins have been found to be glycosylated in gut commensal bacteria. We present an overview of bacterial protein glycosylation systems (O- and N-glycosylation) in bacteria, with a focus on glycoproteins from gut commensal bacteria, particularly Lactobacilli. These emerging studies underscore the importance of bacterial protein glycosylation in the interaction of the gut microbiota with the host. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycosylation and Glycoproteins 2017)
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