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Special Issue "Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes: Structure, Activity and Reaction Products"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2019) | Viewed by 39016

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Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Stefano Benini
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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Carbohydrate-active enzymes are responsible for both biosynthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. They are involved in many metabolic pathways, in the biosynthesis and degradation of various biomolecules such as bacterial exopolysaccharides, starch, cellulose and lignin, and in the glycosylation of proteins and lipids. Carbohydrate-active enzymes are classified into glycoside hydrolases, glycosyltransferases, polysaccharide lyases, carbohydrate esterases, and enzymes with auxiliary activities (CAZy database, www.cazy.org). Glycosyltransferases synthesize a huge variety of complex carbohydrates with different degrees of polymerization, moieties and branching. On the other hand, complex carbohydrates breakdown is carried out by glycoside hydrolases, polysaccharide lyases and carbohydrate esterases. Their interesting reactions have attracted the attention of researchers belonging to different scientific fields ranging from basic research to biotechnology. Interest in carbohydrate-active enzymes is due not only to their ability to build and degrade biopolymers—which is highly relevant in biotechnology—but also because they are involved in bacterial biofilm formation, and in glycosylation of proteins and lipids, with important health implications.

This Special Issue aims at gathering new research results to broaden our understanding about carbohydrate-active enzymes, their mutants and their reaction products at the molecular level.

It focuses on enzymes active in the biosynthesis, modification and degradation of oligo and polysaccharides, and glycoproteins and glycolipids.

Authors are invited to submit their original research and review articles.

The following topics are relevant to this Special Issue.

  • Purification and biochemical characterization of enzymes and/or their mutants
  • Biophysical characterization of enzymes and/or their mutants;
  • Investigation of structure and function relationship by NMR and X-ray crystallography;
  • Structural and functional comparison of enzymes from different organisms;
  • Proposals of substrate binding mode and reaction mechanism of enzymes and/or their mutants;
  • Study of the functional and conformational changes of enzymes upon mutation;
  • Homology modelling of enzymes;
  • Molecular docking of substrates/products in the active site of enzymes and/or their mutants;
  • Molecular characterization of oligo and polysaccharides;
  • Enzyme engineering

Prof. Dr. Stefano Benini
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biochemistry
  • X-ray crystallography
  • NMR
  • Enzyme engineering
  • Directed evolution
  • Protein Glycosylation
  • Lipid Glycosylation
  • Glycosyltransferase
  • Glycoside hydrolase
  • Polysaccharide lyase
  • Carbohydrate esterase
  • Oligosaccharide
  • Polysaccharide
  • Glycoprotein
  • Glycolipid
  • Structure and function relationship

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Published Papers (21 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes: Structure, Activity, and Reaction Products
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2727; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082727 - 15 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 982
Abstract
Carbohydrate-active enzymes are responsible for both the biosynthesis and breakdown of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Vertebrate Alpha2,8-Sialyltransferases (ST8Sia): A Teleost Perspective
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 513; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020513 - 14 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1575
Abstract
We identified and analyzed α2,8-sialyltransferases sequences among 71 ray-finned fish species to provide the first comprehensive view of the Teleost ST8Sia repertoire. This repertoire expanded over the course of Vertebrate evolution and was primarily shaped by the whole genome events R1 and R2, [...] Read more.
We identified and analyzed α2,8-sialyltransferases sequences among 71 ray-finned fish species to provide the first comprehensive view of the Teleost ST8Sia repertoire. This repertoire expanded over the course of Vertebrate evolution and was primarily shaped by the whole genome events R1 and R2, but not by the Teleost-specific R3. We showed that duplicated st8sia genes like st8sia7, st8sia8, and st8sia9 have disappeared from Tetrapods, whereas their orthologues were maintained in Teleosts. Furthermore, several fish species specific genome duplications account for the presence of multiple poly-α2,8-sialyltransferases in the Salmonidae (ST8Sia II-r1 and ST8Sia II-r2) and in Cyprinus carpio (ST8Sia IV-r1 and ST8Sia IV-r2). Paralogy and synteny analyses provided more relevant and solid information that enabled us to reconstruct the evolutionary history of st8sia genes in fish genomes. Our data also indicated that, while the mammalian ST8Sia family is comprised of six subfamilies forming di-, oligo-, or polymers of α2,8-linked sialic acids, the fish ST8Sia family, amounting to a total of 10 genes in fish, appears to be much more diverse and shows a patchy distribution among fish species. A focus on Salmonidae showed that (i) the two copies of st8sia2 genes have overall contrasted tissue-specific expressions, with noticeable changes when compared with human co-orthologue, and that (ii) st8sia4 is weakly expressed. Multiple sequence alignments enabled us to detect changes in the conserved polysialyltransferase domain (PSTD) of the fish sequences that could account for variable enzymatic activities. These data provide the bases for further functional studies using recombinant enzymes. Full article
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Article
Identification and Characterization of a β-N-Acetylhexosaminidase with a Biosynthetic Activity from the Marine Bacterium Paraglaciecola hydrolytica S66T
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 417; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020417 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1724
Abstract
β-N-Acetylhexosaminidases are glycoside hydrolases (GHs) acting on N-acetylated carbohydrates and glycoproteins with the release of N-acetylhexosamines. Members of the family GH20 have been reported to catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to an acceptor, i.e., the reverse of [...] Read more.
β-N-Acetylhexosaminidases are glycoside hydrolases (GHs) acting on N-acetylated carbohydrates and glycoproteins with the release of N-acetylhexosamines. Members of the family GH20 have been reported to catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to an acceptor, i.e., the reverse of hydrolysis, thus representing an alternative to chemical oligosaccharide synthesis. Two putative GH20 β-N-acetylhexosaminidases, PhNah20A and PhNah20B, encoded by the marine bacterium Paraglaciecola hydrolytica S66T, are distantly related to previously characterized enzymes. Remarkably, PhNah20A was located by phylogenetic analysis outside clusters of other studied β-N-acetylhexosaminidases, in a unique position between bacterial and eukaryotic enzymes. We successfully produced recombinant PhNah20A showing optimum activity at pH 6.0 and 50 °C, hydrolysis of GlcNAc β-1,4 and β-1,3 linkages in chitobiose (GlcNAc)2 and GlcNAc-1,3-β-Gal-1,4-β-Glc (LNT2), a human milk oligosaccharide core structure. The kinetic parameters of PhNah20A for p-nitrophenyl-GlcNAc and p-nitrophenyl-GalNAc were highly similar: kcat/KM being 341 and 344 mM−1·s−1, respectively. PhNah20A was unstable in dilute solution, but retained full activity in the presence of 0.5% bovine serum albumin (BSA). PhNah20A catalyzed the formation of LNT2, the non-reducing trisaccharide β-Gal-1,4-β-Glc-1,1-β-GlcNAc, and in low amounts the β-1,2- or β-1,3-linked trisaccharide β-Gal-1,4(β-GlcNAc)-1,x-Glc by a transglycosylation of lactose using 2-methyl-(1,2-dideoxy-α-d-glucopyrano)-oxazoline (NAG-oxazoline) as the donor. PhNah20A is the first characterized member of a distinct subgroup within GH20 β-N-acetylhexosaminidases. Full article
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Article
Low-Cost Cellulase-Hemicellulase Mixture Secreted by Trichoderma harzianum EM0925 with Complete Saccharification Efficacy of Lignocellulose
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020371 - 07 Jan 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 1622
Abstract
Fermentable sugars are important intermediate products in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and other value-added bio-products. The main bottlenecks limiting the production of fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass are the high cost and the low saccharification efficiency of degradation enzymes. Herein, [...] Read more.
Fermentable sugars are important intermediate products in the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and other value-added bio-products. The main bottlenecks limiting the production of fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass are the high cost and the low saccharification efficiency of degradation enzymes. Herein, we report the secretome of Trichoderma harzianum EM0925 under induction of lignocellulose. Numerously and quantitatively balanced cellulases and hemicellulases, especially high levels of glycosidases, could be secreted by T. harzianum EM0925. Compared with the commercial enzyme preparations, the T. harzianum EM0925 enzyme cocktail presented significantly higher lignocellulolytic enzyme activities and hydrolysis efficiency against lignocellulosic biomass. Moreover, 100% yields of glucose and xylose were obtained simultaneously from ultrafine grinding and alkali pretreated corn stover. These findings demonstrate a natural cellulases and hemicellulases mixture for complete conversion of biomass polysaccharide, suggesting T. harzianum EM0925 enzymes have great potential for industrial applications. Full article
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Article
Characterization of a Maltase from an Early-Diverged Non-Conventional Yeast Blastobotrys adeninivorans
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 297; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010297 - 31 Dec 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1878
Abstract
Genome of an early-diverged yeast Blastobotrys (Arxula) adeninivorans (Ba) encodes 88 glycoside hydrolases (GHs) including two α-glucosidases of GH13 family. One of those, the rna_ARAD1D20130g-encoded protein (BaAG2; 581 aa) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified [...] Read more.
Genome of an early-diverged yeast Blastobotrys (Arxula) adeninivorans (Ba) encodes 88 glycoside hydrolases (GHs) including two α-glucosidases of GH13 family. One of those, the rna_ARAD1D20130g-encoded protein (BaAG2; 581 aa) was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. We showed that maltose, other maltose-like substrates (maltulose, turanose, maltotriose, melezitose, malto-oligosaccharides of DP 4‒7) and sucrose were hydrolyzed by BaAG2, whereas isomaltose and isomaltose-like substrates (palatinose, α-methylglucoside) were not, confirming that BaAG2 is a maltase. BaAG2 was competitively inhibited by a diabetes drug acarbose (Ki = 0.8 µM) and Tris (Ki = 70.5 µM). BaAG2 was competitively inhibited also by isomaltose-like sugars and a hydrolysis product—glucose. At high maltose concentrations, BaAG2 exhibited transglycosylating ability producing potentially prebiotic di- and trisaccharides. Atypically for yeast maltases, a low but clearly recordable exo-hydrolytic activity on amylose, amylopectin and glycogen was detected. Saccharomyces cerevisiae maltase MAL62, studied for comparison, had only minimal ability to hydrolyze these polymers, and its transglycosylating activity was about three times lower compared to BaAG2. Sequence identity of BaAG2 with other maltases was only moderate being the highest (51%) with the maltase MalT of Aspergillus oryzae. Full article
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Article
The Structure of Sucrose-Soaked Levansucrase Crystals from Erwinia tasmaniensis reveals a Binding Pocket for Levanbiose
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(1), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21010083 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
Given its potential role in the synthesis of novel prebiotics and applications in the pharmaceutical industry, a strong interest has developed in the enzyme levansucrase (LSC, EC 2.4.1.10). LSC catalyzes both the hydrolysis of sucrose (or sucroselike substrates) and the transfructosylation of a [...] Read more.
Given its potential role in the synthesis of novel prebiotics and applications in the pharmaceutical industry, a strong interest has developed in the enzyme levansucrase (LSC, EC 2.4.1.10). LSC catalyzes both the hydrolysis of sucrose (or sucroselike substrates) and the transfructosylation of a wide range of acceptors. LSC from the Gram-negative bacterium Erwinia tasmaniensis (EtLSC) is an interesting biocatalyst due to its high-yield production of fructooligosaccharides (FOSs). In order to learn more about the process of chain elongation, we obtained the crystal structure of EtLSC in complex with levanbiose (LBS). LBS is an FOS intermediate formed during the synthesis of longer-chain FOSs and levan. Analysis of the LBS binding pocket revealed that its structure was conserved in several related species. The binding pocket discovered in this crystal structure is an ideal target for future mutagenesis studies in order to understand its biological relevance and to engineer LSCs into tailored products. Full article
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Article
Cloning and Partial Characterization of an Endo-α-(1→6)-d-Mannanase Gene from Bacillus circulans
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(24), 6244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20246244 - 11 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1434
Abstract
Mycobacteria produce two major lipoglycans, lipomannan (LM) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM), whose broad array of biological activities are tightly related to the fine details of their structure. However, the heterogeneity of these molecules in terms of internal and terminal covalent modifications and complex internal [...] Read more.
Mycobacteria produce two major lipoglycans, lipomannan (LM) and lipoarabinomannan (LAM), whose broad array of biological activities are tightly related to the fine details of their structure. However, the heterogeneity of these molecules in terms of internal and terminal covalent modifications and complex internal branching patterns represent significant obstacles to their structural characterization. Previously, an endo-α-(1→6)-D-mannanase from Bacillus circulans proved useful in cleaving the mannan backbone of LM and LAM, allowing the reducing end of these molecules to be identified as Manp-(1→6) [Manp-(1→2)]-Ino. Although first reported 45 years ago, no easily accessible form of this enzyme was available to the research community, a fact that may in part be explained by a lack of knowledge of its complete gene sequence. Here, we report on the successful cloning of the complete endo-α-(1→6)-D-mannanase gene from Bacillus circulans TN-31, herein referred to as emn. We further report on the successful production and purification of the glycosyl hydrolase domain of this enzyme and its use to gain further insight into its substrate specificity using synthetic mannoside acceptors as well as LM and phosphatidyl-myo-inositol mannoside precursors purified from mycobacteria. Full article
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Article
Crystal Structure of a GH3 β-Glucosidase from the Thermophilic Fungus Chaetomium thermophilum
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(23), 5962; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20235962 - 27 Nov 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Beta-glucosidases (β-glucosidases) have attracted considerable attention in recent years for use in various biotechnological applications. They are also essential enzymes for lignocellulose degradation in biofuel production. However, cost-effective biomass conversion requires the use of highly efficient enzymes. Thus, the search for new enzymes [...] Read more.
Beta-glucosidases (β-glucosidases) have attracted considerable attention in recent years for use in various biotechnological applications. They are also essential enzymes for lignocellulose degradation in biofuel production. However, cost-effective biomass conversion requires the use of highly efficient enzymes. Thus, the search for new enzymes as better alternatives of the currently available enzyme preparations is highly important. Thermophilic fungi are nowadays considered as a promising source of enzymes with improved stability. Here, the crystal structure of a family GH3 β-glucosidase from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum (CtBGL) was determined at a resolution of 2.99 Å. The structure showed the three-domain architecture found in other β-glucosidases with variations in loops and linker regions. The active site catalytic residues in CtBGL were identified as Asp287 (nucleophile) and Glu517 (acid/base). Structural comparison of CtBGL with Protein Data Bank (PDB)-deposited structures revealed variations among glycosylated Asn residues. The enzyme displayed moderate glycosylation compared to other GH3 family β-glucosidases with similar structure. A new glycosylation site at position Asn504 was identified in CtBGL. Moreover, comparison with respect to several thermostability parameters suggested that glycosylation and charged residues involved in electrostatic interactions may contribute to the stability of the enzyme at elevated temperatures. The reported CtBGL structure provides additional insights into the family GH3 enzymes and could offer new ideas for further improvements in β-glucosidases for more efficient use in biotechnological applications regarding cellulose degradation. Full article
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Article
Two Homologous Enzymes of the GalU Family in Rhodococcus opacus 1CP—RoGalU1 and RoGalU2
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5809; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225809 - 19 Nov 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1730
Abstract
Uridine-5’-diphosphate (UDP)-glucose is reported as one of the most versatile building blocks within the metabolism of pro- and eukaryotes. The activated sugar moiety is formed by the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (GalU). Two homologous enzymes (designated as RoGalU1 and RoGalU2) are encoded [...] Read more.
Uridine-5’-diphosphate (UDP)-glucose is reported as one of the most versatile building blocks within the metabolism of pro- and eukaryotes. The activated sugar moiety is formed by the enzyme UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (GalU). Two homologous enzymes (designated as RoGalU1 and RoGalU2) are encoded by most Rhodococcus strains, known for their capability to degrade numerous compounds, but also to synthesize natural products such as trehalose comprising biosurfactants. To evaluate their functionality respective genes of a trehalose biosurfactant producing model organism—Rhodococcus opacus 1CP—were cloned and expressed, proteins produced (yield up to 47 mg per L broth) and initially biochemically characterized. In the case of RoGalU2, the Vmax was determined to be 177 U mg−1 (uridine-5’-triphosphate (UTP)) and Km to be 0.51 mM (UTP), respectively. Like other GalUs this enzyme seems to be rather specific for the substrates UTP and glucose 1-phosphate, as it accepts only dTTP and galactose 1-phoshate in addition, but both with solely 2% residual activity. In comparison to other bacterial GalU enzymes the RoGalU2 was found to be somewhat higher in activity (factor 1.8) even at elevated temperatures. However, RoGalU1 was not obtained in an active form thus it remains enigmatic if this enzyme participates in metabolism. Full article
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Article
The C-Type Lysozyme from the upper Gastrointestinal Tract of Opisthocomus hoatzin, the Stinkbird
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5531; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225531 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2925
Abstract
Muramidases/lysozymes are important bio-molecules, which cleave the glycan backbone in the peptidoglycan polymer found in bacterial cell walls. The glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 22 C-type lysozyme, from the folivorous bird Opisthocomus hoazin (stinkbird), was expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, and a set of [...] Read more.
Muramidases/lysozymes are important bio-molecules, which cleave the glycan backbone in the peptidoglycan polymer found in bacterial cell walls. The glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 22 C-type lysozyme, from the folivorous bird Opisthocomus hoazin (stinkbird), was expressed in Aspergillus oryzae, and a set of variants was produced. All variants were enzymatically active, including those designed to probe key differences between the Hoatzin enzyme and Hen Egg White lysozyme. Four variants showed improved thermostability at pH 4.7, compared to the wild type. The X-ray structure of the enzyme was determined in the apo form and in complex with chitin oligomers. Bioinformatic analysis of avian GH22 amino acid sequences showed that they separate out into three distinct subgroups (chicken-like birds, sea birds and other birds). The Hoatzin is found in the “other birds” group and we propose that this represents a new cluster of avian upper-gut enzymes. Full article
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Article
Deep Eutectic Solvents as New Reaction Media to Produce Alkyl-Glycosides Using Alpha-Amylase from Thermotoga maritima
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5439; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215439 - 31 Oct 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) were investigated as new reaction media for the synthesis of alkyl glycosides catalyzed by the thermostable α-amylase from Thermotoga maritima Amy A. The enzyme was almost completely deactivated when assayed in a series of pure DES, but as cosolvents, [...] Read more.
Deep Eutectic Solvents (DES) were investigated as new reaction media for the synthesis of alkyl glycosides catalyzed by the thermostable α-amylase from Thermotoga maritima Amy A. The enzyme was almost completely deactivated when assayed in a series of pure DES, but as cosolvents, DES containing alcohols, sugars, and amides as hydrogen-bond donors (HBD) performed best. A choline chloride:urea based DES was further characterized for the alcoholysis reaction using methanol as a nucleophile. As a cosolvent, this DES increased the hydrolytic and alcoholytic activity of the enzyme at low methanol concentrations, even when both activities drastically dropped when methanol concentration was increased. To explain this phenomenon, variable-temperature, circular dichroism characterization of the protein was conducted, finding that above 60 °C, Amy A underwent large conformational changes not observed in aqueous medium. Thus, 60 °C was set as the temperature limit to carry out alcoholysis reactions. Higher DES contents at this temperature had a detrimental but differential effect on hydrolysis and alcoholysis reactions, thus increasing the alcoholyisis/hydrolysis ratio. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the effect of DES and temperature on an enzyme in which structural studies made it possible to establish the temperature limit for a thermostable enzyme in DES. Full article
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Article
A Genome-Centric Approach Reveals a Novel Glycosyltransferase from the GA A07 Strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Responsible for Catalyzing 15-O-Glycosylation of Ganoderic Acid A
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5192; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205192 - 20 Oct 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
Strain GA A07 was identified as an intestinal Bacillus bacterium of zebrafish, which has high efficiency to biotransform the triterpenoid, ganoderic acid A (GAA), into GAA-15-O-β-glucoside. To date, only two known enzymes (BsUGT398 and BsUGT489) of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 strain [...] Read more.
Strain GA A07 was identified as an intestinal Bacillus bacterium of zebrafish, which has high efficiency to biotransform the triterpenoid, ganoderic acid A (GAA), into GAA-15-O-β-glucoside. To date, only two known enzymes (BsUGT398 and BsUGT489) of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 strain can biotransform GAA. It is thus worthwhile to identify the responsible genes of strain GA A07 by whole genome sequencing. A complete genome of strain GA A07 was successfully assembled. A phylogenomic analysis revealed the species of the GA A07 strain to be Bacillus thuringiensis. Forty glycosyltransferase (GT) family genes were identified from the complete genome, among which three genes (FQZ25_16345, FQZ25_19840, and FQZ25_19010) were closely related to BsUGT398 and BsUGT489. Two of the three candidate genes, FQZ25_16345 and FQZ25_19010, were successfully cloned and expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding proteins, BtGT_16345 and BtGT_19010, were purified for a biotransformation activity assay. An ultra-performance liquid chromatographic analysis further confirmed that only the purified BtGT_16345 had the key biotransformation activity of catalyzing GAA into GAA-15-O-β-glucoside. The suitable conditions for this enzyme activity were pH 7.5, 10 mM of magnesium ions, and 30 °C. In addition, BtGT_16345 showed glycosylation activity toward seven flavonoids (apigenein, quercetein, naringenein, resveratrol, genistein, daidzein, and 8-hydroxydaidzein) and two triterpenoids (GAA and antcin K). A kinetic study showed that the catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) of BtGT_16345 was not significantly different compared with either BsUGT398 or BsUGT489. In short, this study identified BtGT_16345 from B. thuringiensis GA A07 is the catalytic enzyme responsible for the 15-O-glycosylation of GAA and it was also regioselective toward triterpenoid substrates. Full article
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Article
Structural and Functional Characterization of Three Novel Fungal Amylases with Enhanced Stability and pH Tolerance
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4902; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194902 - 03 Oct 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2238
Abstract
Amylases are probably the best studied glycoside hydrolases and have a huge biotechnological value for industrial processes on starch. Multiple amylases from fungi and microbes are currently in use. Whereas bacterial amylases are well suited for many industrial processes due to their high [...] Read more.
Amylases are probably the best studied glycoside hydrolases and have a huge biotechnological value for industrial processes on starch. Multiple amylases from fungi and microbes are currently in use. Whereas bacterial amylases are well suited for many industrial processes due to their high stability, fungal amylases are recognized as safe and are preferred in the food industry, although they lack the pH tolerance and stability of their bacterial counterparts. Here, we describe three amylases, two of which have a broad pH spectrum extending to pH 8 and higher stability well suited for a broad set of industrial applications. These enzymes have the characteristic GH13 α-amylase fold with a central (β/α)8-domain, an insertion domain with the canonical calcium binding site and a C-terminal β-sandwich domain. The active site was identified based on the binding of the inhibitor acarbose in form of a transglycosylation product, in the amylases from Thamnidium elegans and Cordyceps farinosa. The three amylases have shortened loops flanking the nonreducing end of the substrate binding cleft, creating a more open crevice. Moreover, a potential novel binding site in the C-terminal domain of the Cordyceps enzyme was identified, which might be part of a starch interaction site. In addition, Cordyceps farinosa amylase presented a successful example of using the microseed matrix screening technique to significantly speed-up crystallization. Full article
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Article
Directed Evolution of Clostridium thermocellum β-Glucosidase A Towards Enhanced Thermostability
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4701; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194701 - 23 Sep 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1813
Abstract
β-Glucosidases are key enzymes in the process of cellulose utilization. It is the last enzyme in the cellulose hydrolysis chain, which converts cellobiose to glucose. Since cellobiose is known to have a feedback inhibitory effect on a variety of cellulases, β-glucosidase can prevent [...] Read more.
β-Glucosidases are key enzymes in the process of cellulose utilization. It is the last enzyme in the cellulose hydrolysis chain, which converts cellobiose to glucose. Since cellobiose is known to have a feedback inhibitory effect on a variety of cellulases, β-glucosidase can prevent this inhibition by hydrolyzing cellobiose to non-inhibitory glucose. While the optimal temperature of the Clostridium thermocellum cellulosome is 70 °C, C. thermocellum β-glucosidase A is almost inactive at such high temperatures. Thus, in the current study, a random mutagenesis directed evolutionary approach was conducted to produce a thermostable mutant with Kcat and Km, similar to those of the wild-type enzyme. The resultant mutant contained two mutations, A17S and K268N, but only the former was found to affect thermostability, whereby the inflection temperature (Ti) was increased by 6.4 °C. A17 is located near the central cavity of the native enzyme. Interestingly, multiple alignments revealed that position 17 is relatively conserved, whereby alanine is replaced only by serine. Upon the addition of the thermostable mutant to the C. thermocellum secretome for subsequent hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose at 70 °C, a higher soluble glucose yield (243%) was obtained compared to the activity of the secretome supplemented with the wild-type enzyme. Full article
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Article
Active Site Architecture and Reaction Mechanism Determination of Cold Adapted β-d-galactosidase from Arthrobacter sp. 32cB
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4301; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174301 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2173
Abstract
ArthβDG is a dimeric, cold-adapted β-d-galactosidase that exhibits high hydrolytic and transglycosylation activity. A series of crystal structures of its wild form, as well as its ArthβDG_E441Q mutein complexes with ligands were obtained in order to describe the mode [...] Read more.
ArthβDG is a dimeric, cold-adapted β-d-galactosidase that exhibits high hydrolytic and transglycosylation activity. A series of crystal structures of its wild form, as well as its ArthβDG_E441Q mutein complexes with ligands were obtained in order to describe the mode of its action. The ArthβDG_E441Q mutein is an inactive form of the enzyme designed to enable observation of enzyme interaction with its substrate. The resulting three-dimensional structures of complexes: ArthβDG_E441Q/LACs and ArthβDG/IPTG (ligand bound in shallow mode) and structures of complexes ArthβDG_E441Q/LACd, ArthβDG/ONPG (ligands bound in deep mode), and galactose ArthβDG/GAL and their analysis enabled structural characterization of the hydrolysis reaction mechanism. Furthermore, comparative analysis with mesophilic analogs revealed the most striking differences in catalysis mechanisms. The key role in substrate transfer from shallow to deep binding mode involves rotation of the F581 side chain. It is worth noting that the 10-aa loop restricting access to the active site in mesophilic GH2 βDGs, in ArthβDG is moved outward. This facilitates access of substrate to active site. Such a permanent exposure of the entrance to the active site may be a key factor for improved turnover rate of the cold adapted enzyme and thus a structural feature related to its cold adaptation. Full article
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Article
Structural Comparison of a Promiscuous and a Highly Specific Sucrose 6F-Phosphate Phosphorylase
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 3906; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20163906 - 11 Aug 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
In family GH13 of the carbohydrate-active enzyme database, subfamily 18 contains glycoside phosphorylases that act on α-sugars and glucosides. Because their phosphorolysis reactions are effectively reversible, these enzymes are of interest for the biocatalytic synthesis of various glycosidic compounds. Sucrose 6F-phosphate [...] Read more.
In family GH13 of the carbohydrate-active enzyme database, subfamily 18 contains glycoside phosphorylases that act on α-sugars and glucosides. Because their phosphorolysis reactions are effectively reversible, these enzymes are of interest for the biocatalytic synthesis of various glycosidic compounds. Sucrose 6F-phosphate phosphorylases (SPPs) constitute one of the known substrate specificities. Here, we report the characterization of an SPP from Ilumatobacter coccineus with a far stricter specificity than the previously described promiscuous SPP from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum. Crystal structures of both SPPs were determined to provide insight into their similarities and differences. The residues responsible for binding the fructose 6-phosphate group in subsite +1 were found to differ considerably between the two enzymes. Furthermore, several variants that introduce a higher degree of substrate promiscuity in the strict SPP from I. coccineus were designed. These results contribute to an expanded structural knowledge of enzymes in subfamily GH13_18 and facilitate their rational engineering. Full article
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Article
A Novel PL9 Pectate Lyase from Paenibacillus polymyxa KF-1: Cloning, Expression, and Its Application in Pectin Degradation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 3060; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123060 - 22 Jun 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1614
Abstract
Pectate lyases play an important role in pectin degradation, and therefore are highly useful in the food and textile industries. Here, we report on the cloning of an alkaline pectate lyase gene (pppel9a) from Paenibacillus polymyxa KF-1. The full-length gene (1350 [...] Read more.
Pectate lyases play an important role in pectin degradation, and therefore are highly useful in the food and textile industries. Here, we report on the cloning of an alkaline pectate lyase gene (pppel9a) from Paenibacillus polymyxa KF-1. The full-length gene (1350 bp) encodes for a 449-residue protein that belongs to the polysaccharide lyase family 9 (PL9). Recombinant PpPel9a produced in Escherichia coli was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a single step using Ni2+-NTA affinity chromatography. The enzyme activity of PpPel9a (apparent molecular weight of 45.3 kDa) was found to be optimal at pH 10.0 and 40 °C, with substrate preference for homogalacturonan type (HG) pectins vis-à-vis rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I) type pectins. Using HG-type pectins as substrate, PpPel9a showed greater activity with de-esterified HGs. In addition, PpPel9a was active against water-soluble pectins isolated from different plants. Using this lyase, we degraded citrus pectin, purified fractions using Diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-sepharose column chromatography, and characterized the main fraction MCP-0.3. High-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) analysis showed that the molecular mass of citrus pectin (~230.2 kDa) was reduced to ~24 kDa upon degradation. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS) and monosaccharide composition analyses demonstrated that PpPel9a worked as an endo-pectate lyase, which acted primarily on the HG domain of citrus pectin. In vitro testing showed that the degradation product MCP-0.3 significantly promotes the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum and L. rhamnosus. In this regard, the enzyme has potential in the preparation of pharmacologically active pectin products. Full article
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Article
Characterizing a Halo-Tolerant GH10 Xylanase from Roseithermus sacchariphilus Strain RA and Its CBM-Truncated Variant
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092284 - 09 May 2019
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2074
Abstract
A halo-thermophilic bacterium, Roseithermus sacchariphilus strain RA (previously known as Rhodothermaceae bacterium RA), was isolated from a hot spring in Langkawi, Malaysia. A complete genome analysis showed that the bacterium harbors 57 glycoside hydrolases (GHs), including a multi-domain xylanase (XynRA2). The full-length XynRA2 [...] Read more.
A halo-thermophilic bacterium, Roseithermus sacchariphilus strain RA (previously known as Rhodothermaceae bacterium RA), was isolated from a hot spring in Langkawi, Malaysia. A complete genome analysis showed that the bacterium harbors 57 glycoside hydrolases (GHs), including a multi-domain xylanase (XynRA2). The full-length XynRA2 of 813 amino acids comprises a family 4_9 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM4_9), a family 10 glycoside hydrolase catalytic domain (GH10), and a C-terminal domain (CTD) for type IX secretion system (T9SS). This study aims to describe the biochemical properties of XynRA2 and the effects of CBM truncation on this xylanase. XynRA2 and its CBM-truncated variant (XynRA2ΔCBM) was expressed, purified, and characterized. The purified XynRA2 and XynRA2ΔCBM had an identical optimum temperature at 70 °C, but different optimum pHs of 8.5 and 6.0 respectively. Furthermore, XynRA2 retained 94% and 71% of activity at 4.0 M and 5.0 M NaCl respectively, whereas XynRA2ΔCBM showed a lower activity (79% and 54%). XynRA2 exhibited a turnover rate (kcat) of 24.8 s−1, but this was reduced by 40% for XynRA2ΔCBM. Both the xylanases hydrolyzed beechwood xylan predominantly into xylobiose, and oat-spelt xylan into a mixture of xylo-oligosaccharides (XOs). Collectively, this work suggested CBM4_9 of XynRA2 has a role in enzyme performance. Full article
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Review

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Review
β-Xylosidases: Structural Diversity, Catalytic Mechanism, and Inhibition by Monosaccharides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(22), 5524; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20225524 - 06 Nov 2019
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
Xylan, a prominent component of cellulosic biomass, has a high potential for degradation into reducing sugars, and subsequent conversion into bioethanol. This process requires a range of xylanolytic enzymes. Among them, β-xylosidases are crucial, because they hydrolyze more glycosidic bonds than any of [...] Read more.
Xylan, a prominent component of cellulosic biomass, has a high potential for degradation into reducing sugars, and subsequent conversion into bioethanol. This process requires a range of xylanolytic enzymes. Among them, β-xylosidases are crucial, because they hydrolyze more glycosidic bonds than any of the other xylanolytic enzymes. They also enhance the efficiency of the process by degrading xylooligosaccharides, which are potent inhibitors of other hemicellulose-/xylan-converting enzymes. On the other hand, the β-xylosidase itself is also inhibited by monosaccharides that may be generated in high concentrations during the saccharification process. Structurally, β-xylosidases are diverse enzymes with different substrate specificities and enzyme mechanisms. Here, we review the structural diversity and catalytic mechanisms of β-xylosidases, and discuss their inhibition by monosaccharides. Full article
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Review
Leloir Glycosyltransferases in Applied Biocatalysis: A Multidisciplinary Approach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(21), 5263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20215263 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 3116
Abstract
Enzymes are nature’s catalyst of choice for the highly selective and efficient coupling of carbohydrates. Enzymatic sugar coupling is a competitive technology for industrial glycosylation reactions, since chemical synthetic routes require extensive use of laborious protection group manipulations and often lack regio- and [...] Read more.
Enzymes are nature’s catalyst of choice for the highly selective and efficient coupling of carbohydrates. Enzymatic sugar coupling is a competitive technology for industrial glycosylation reactions, since chemical synthetic routes require extensive use of laborious protection group manipulations and often lack regio- and stereoselectivity. The application of Leloir glycosyltransferases has received considerable attention in recent years and offers excellent control over the reactivity and selectivity of glycosylation reactions with unprotected carbohydrates, paving the way for previously inaccessible synthetic routes. The development of nucleotide recycling cascades has allowed for the efficient production and reuse of nucleotide sugar donors in robust one-pot multi-enzyme glycosylation cascades. In this way, large glycans and glycoconjugates with complex stereochemistry can be constructed. With recent advances, LeLoir glycosyltransferases are close to being applied industrially in multi-enzyme, programmable cascade glycosylations. Full article
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Review
Pyruvate Substitutions on Glycoconjugates
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4929; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194929 - 05 Oct 2019
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
Glycoconjugates are the most diverse biomolecules of life. Mostly located at the cell surface, they translate into cell-specific “barcodes” and offer a vast repertoire of functions, including support of cellular physiology, lifestyle, and pathogenicity. Functions can be fine-tuned by non-carbohydrate modifications on the [...] Read more.
Glycoconjugates are the most diverse biomolecules of life. Mostly located at the cell surface, they translate into cell-specific “barcodes” and offer a vast repertoire of functions, including support of cellular physiology, lifestyle, and pathogenicity. Functions can be fine-tuned by non-carbohydrate modifications on the constituting monosaccharides. Among these modifications is pyruvylation, which is present either in enol or ketal form. The most commonly best-understood example of pyruvylation is enol-pyruvylation of N-acetylglucosamine, which occurs at an early stage in the biosynthesis of the bacterial cell wall component peptidoglycan. Ketal-pyruvylation, in contrast, is present in diverse classes of glycoconjugates, from bacteria to algae to yeast—but not in humans. Mild purification strategies preventing the loss of the acid-labile ketal-pyruvyl group have led to a collection of elucidated pyruvylated glycan structures. However, knowledge of involved pyruvyltransferases creating a ring structure on various monosaccharides is scarce, mainly due to the lack of knowledge of fingerprint motifs of these enzymes and the unavailability of genome sequences of the organisms undergoing pyruvylation. This review compiles the current information on the widespread but under-investigated ketal-pyruvylation of monosaccharides, starting with different classes of pyruvylated glycoconjugates and associated functions, leading to pyruvyltransferases, their specificity and sequence space, and insight into pyruvate analytics. Full article
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