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Special Issue "Plant Hormones Brassinosteroids and Its Actions in Plants"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Plant Sciences".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2021) | Viewed by 6628

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Jana Oklestkova
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Laboratory of Growth Regulators, Institute of Experimental Botany of the Czech Academy of Science & Palacky University, Olomouc, Czech Republic
Interests: phytohormones; brassinosteroids; plant steroids; immunoassays (polyclonal/monoclonal antibodies); methods for the determination of plant hormones
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The plant steroid hormones brassinosteroids (BRs) and their precursors play major roles in plant growth, development, and stress tolerance. They act independently and/or in conjuction with other phytohormones. BRs are observed in many plant species and are present in nearly every part of the plant. BRs control, at the cellular level, cell elongation, division, and differentiation and also several traits of agronomic importance such as seed germination, plant architecture, senescence, flowering time, and seed yield and protect plants from a variety of environmental stresses. Over the last two decades, much progress has been made in identifying genes involved in their biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling pathways. However, there are still some reaction steps and mechanisms of action that remain to be elucidated. Further studies should expand our knowledge of how brassinosteroids are perceived and transduced to regulate plant development and improve crop productivity.

This Special Issue will focus on the latest advances in brassinosteroids research, particularly their biosynthesis, metabolism, interaction with other phytohormones, use in the chemical synthesis of new derivatives and inhibitors, biological activities, and practical use in agriculture. Original research articles and reviews in this field are welcome.

Dr. Jana Oklestkova
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • brassinosteroids
  • biosynthesis and metabolism
  • signaling pathways
  • phytohormonal crosstalk
  • synthetic derivatives and inhibitors
  • isolation and quantification methods
  • agricultural applications

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Article
Characterization of Endogenous Levels of Brassinosteroids and Related Genes in Grapevines
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1827; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031827 - 05 Feb 2022
Viewed by 580
Abstract
Agronomic breeding practices for grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) include the application of growth regulators in the field. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a family of sterol-derived plant hormones that regulate several physiological processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In grapevine berries, the [...] Read more.
Agronomic breeding practices for grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) include the application of growth regulators in the field. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a family of sterol-derived plant hormones that regulate several physiological processes and responses to biotic and abiotic stress. In grapevine berries, the production of biologically active BRs, castasterone and 6-deoxocastasterone, has been reported. In this work, key BR genes were identified, and their expression profiles were determined in grapevine. Bioinformatic homology analyses of the Arabidopsis genome found 14 genes associated with biosynthetic, perception and signaling pathways, suggesting a partial conservation of these pathways between the two species. The tissue- and development-specific expression profiles of these genes were determined by qRT-PCR in nine different grapevine tissues. Using UHPLC-MS/MS, 10 different BR compounds were pinpointed and quantified in 20 different tissues, each presenting specific accumulation patterns. Although, in general, the expression profile of the biosynthesis pathway genes of BRs did not directly correlate with the accumulation of metabolites, this could reflect the complexity of the BR biosynthesis pathway and its regulation. The development of this work thus generates a contribution to our knowledge about the presence, and diversity of BRs in grapevines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Hormones Brassinosteroids and Its Actions in Plants)
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Article
Brassinosteroids Mitigate Cadmium Effects in Arabidopsis Root System without Any Cooperation with Nitric Oxide
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(2), 825; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020825 - 13 Jan 2022
Viewed by 633
Abstract
The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) affects root system development and quiescent center (QC)-definition in Arabidopsis root-apices. The brassinosteroids-(BRs)-mediated tolerance to heavy metals has been reported to occur by a modulation of nitric oxide (NO) and root auxin-localization. However, how BRs counteract Cd-action in [...] Read more.
The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) affects root system development and quiescent center (QC)-definition in Arabidopsis root-apices. The brassinosteroids-(BRs)-mediated tolerance to heavy metals has been reported to occur by a modulation of nitric oxide (NO) and root auxin-localization. However, how BRs counteract Cd-action in different root types is unknown. This research aimed to find correlations between BRs and NO in response to Cd in Arabidopsis’s root system, monitoring their effects on QC-definition and auxin localization in root-apices. To this aim, root system developmental changes induced by low levels of 24-epibrassinolide (eBL) or by the BR-biosynthesis inhibitor brassinazole (Brz), combined or not with CdSO4, and/or with the NO-donor nitroprusside (SNP), were investigated using morpho-anatomical and NO-epifluorescence analyses, and monitoring auxin-localization by the DR5::GUS system. Results show that eBL, alone or combined with Cd, enhances lateral (LR) and adventitious (AR) root formation and counteracts QC-disruption and auxin-delocalization caused by Cd in primary root/LR/AR apices. Exogenous NO enhances LR and AR formation in Cd-presence, without synergism with eBL. The NO-signal is positively affected by eBL, but not in Cd-presence, and BR-biosynthesis inhibition does not change the low NO-signal caused by Cd. Collectively, results show that BRs ameliorate Cd-effects on all root types acting independently from NO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Hormones Brassinosteroids and Its Actions in Plants)
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Article
Brassinazole Resistant 1 Activity Is Organ-Specific and Genotype-Dependent in Barley Seedlings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(24), 13572; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222413572 - 17 Dec 2021
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Brassinosteroids (BRs) control many plant developmental processes by regulating different groups of transcription factors, and consequently gene expressions. The most known is BZR1, the main member of the BES1 family. However, to date, it is poorly characterized in crop species. The main goal [...] Read more.
Brassinosteroids (BRs) control many plant developmental processes by regulating different groups of transcription factors, and consequently gene expressions. The most known is BZR1, the main member of the BES1 family. However, to date, it is poorly characterized in crop species. The main goal of the presented study was to identify HvBZR1 and determine its activity in 5-day-old barley (the stage is related to one leaf on the main shoot and a few seminal roots) using two cultivars with different sensitivities to BRs. Using the anti-OsBZR1 antibody, we identified the forms of HvBZR1 transcription factor with different molecular weights, which can be related to different phosphorylated forms of serine/threonine residues. Two phosphorylated forms in the shoots and one dephosphorylated form in the roots were determined. A minor amount of the dephosphorylated form of the HvBZR1 in the Haruna Nijo shoots was also found. The phosphorylated forms gave a higher band intensity for Golden Promise than Haruna Nijo. The bands were similar in their intensity, when two different phosphorylated forms were compared in Golden Promise, while a reduced intensity was detected for the phosphorylated form with a lower molecular weight for Haruna Nijo. Degradation of the phosphorylated forms in the shoots (complete degradation in Golden Promise and significant but not complete in Haruna Nijo) and the presence of the dephosphorylated form in the roots were proven for the etiolated barley. In the case of Haruna Nijo, a wider range of the regulators of the BR biosynthesis and signaling pathways induced the expected effects, 24-EBL (0.001 µM) and bikinin (10 and 50 µM) caused low amount of the phosphorylated forms, and at the same time, a tiny band of dephosphorylated form was detected. However, the expression of genes related to the BR biosynthesis and signaling pathways was not a determinant for the protein amount. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Hormones Brassinosteroids and Its Actions in Plants)
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Article
Wheat Type One Protein Phosphatase Participates in the Brassinosteroid Control of Root Growth via Activation of BES1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10424; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910424 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Brassinosteroids (BRs) play key roles in diverse plant growth processes through a complex signaling pathway. Components orchestrating the BR signaling pathway include receptors such as kinases, transcription factors, protein kinases and phosphatases. The proper functioning of the receptor kinase BRI1 and the transcription [...] Read more.
Brassinosteroids (BRs) play key roles in diverse plant growth processes through a complex signaling pathway. Components orchestrating the BR signaling pathway include receptors such as kinases, transcription factors, protein kinases and phosphatases. The proper functioning of the receptor kinase BRI1 and the transcription factors BES1/BZR1 depends on their dephosphorylation by type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2A). In this work, we report that an additional phosphatase family, type one protein phosphatases (PP1), contributes to the regulation of the BR signaling pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation and BiFC experiments performed in Arabidopsis plants overexpressing durum wheat TdPP1 showed that TdPP1 interacts with dephosphorylated BES1, but not with the BRI1 receptor. Higher levels of dephosphorylated, active BES1 were observed in these transgenic lines upon BR treatment, indicating that TdPP1 modifies the BR signaling pathway by activating BES1. Moreover, ectopic expression of durum wheat TdPP1 lead to an enhanced growth of primary roots in comparison to wild-type plants in presence of BR. This phenotype corroborates with a down-regulation of the BR-regulated genes CPD and DWF4. These data suggest a role of PP1 in fine-tuning BR-driven responses, most likely via the control of the phosphorylation status of BES1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Hormones Brassinosteroids and Its Actions in Plants)
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Article
BZR1 Physically Interacts with SPL9 to Regulate the Vegetative Phase Change and Cell Elongation in Arabidopsis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(19), 10415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910415 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 815
Abstract
As sessile organisms, the precise development phase transitions are very important for the success of plant adaptability, survival and reproduction. The transition from juvenile to the adult phase—referred to as the vegetative phase change—is significantly influenced by numbers of endogenous and environmental signals. [...] Read more.
As sessile organisms, the precise development phase transitions are very important for the success of plant adaptability, survival and reproduction. The transition from juvenile to the adult phase—referred to as the vegetative phase change—is significantly influenced by numbers of endogenous and environmental signals. Here, we showed that brassinosteroid (BR), a major growth-promoting steroid hormone, positively regulates the vegetative phase change in Arabidopsis thaliana. The BR-deficient mutant det2-1 and BR-insensitive mutant bri1-301 displayed the increased ratio of leaf width to length and reduced blade base angle. The plant specific transcription factors SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) are key masters for the vegetative phase transition in plants. The expression levels of SPL9, SPL10 and SPL15 were significantly induced by BR treatment, but reduced in bri1-116 mutant compared to wild-type plants. The gain-of-function pSPL9:rSPL9 transgenic plants displayed the BR hypersensitivity on hypocotyl elongation and partially suppressed the delayed vegetative phase change of det2-1 and bri1-301. Furthermore, we showed that BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT 1 (BZR1), the master transcription factor of BR signaling pathway, interacted with SPL9 to cooperatively regulate the expression of downstream genes. Our findings reveal an important role for BRs in promoting vegetative phase transition through regulating the activity of SPL9 at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Hormones Brassinosteroids and Its Actions in Plants)
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Article
Optimal Brassinosteroid Levels Are Required for Soybean Growth and Mineral Nutrient Homeostasis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(16), 8400; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22168400 - 05 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 659
Abstract
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid phytohormones that are known to regulate plant growth and nutrient uptake and distribution. However, how BRs regulate nutrient uptake and balance in legume species is not fully understood. Here, we show that optimal BR levels are required for soybean [...] Read more.
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid phytohormones that are known to regulate plant growth and nutrient uptake and distribution. However, how BRs regulate nutrient uptake and balance in legume species is not fully understood. Here, we show that optimal BR levels are required for soybean (Glycine max L.) seedling growth, as treatments with both 24-epicastasterone (24-epiCS) and the BR biosynthesis inhibitor propiconazole (PPZ) inhibit root growth, including primary root elongation and lateral root formation and elongation. Specifically, 24-epiCS and PPZ reduced the total phosphorus and potassium levels in the shoot and affected several minor nutrients, such as magnesium, iron, manganese, and molybdenum. A genome-wide transcriptome analysis identified 3774 and 4273 differentially expressed genes in the root tip after brassinolide and PPZ treatments, respectively. The gene ontology (GO) analysis suggested that genes related to “DNA-replication”, “microtubule-based movement”, and “plant-type cell wall organization” were highly responsive to the brassinolide and PPZ treatments. Furthermore, consistent with the effects on the nutrient concentrations, corresponding mineral transporters were found to be regulated by BR levels, including the GmPHT1s, GmKTs, GmVIT2, GmZIPs, and GmMOT1 genes. Our study demonstrates that optimal BR levels are important for growth and mineral nutrient homeostasis in soybean seedlings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Hormones Brassinosteroids and Its Actions in Plants)
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Review

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Review
Brassinosteroids (BRs) Role in Plant Development and Coping with Different Stresses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(3), 1012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23031012 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 719
Abstract
Plants are vulnerable to a number of abiotic and biotic stresses that cause a substantial decrease in the production of plants. Plants respond to different environmental stresses by experiencing a series of molecular and physiological changes coordinated by various phytohormones. The use of [...] Read more.
Plants are vulnerable to a number of abiotic and biotic stresses that cause a substantial decrease in the production of plants. Plants respond to different environmental stresses by experiencing a series of molecular and physiological changes coordinated by various phytohormones. The use of phytohormones to alleviate stresses has recently achieved increasing interest. Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a group of polyhydroxylated steroidal phytohormones that are required for the development, growth, and productivity of plants. These hormones are involved in regulating the division, elongation, and differentiation of numerous cell types throughout the entire plant life cycle. BR studies have drawn the interest of plant scientists over the last few decades due to their flexible ability to mitigate different environmental stresses. BRs have been shown in numerous studies to have a positive impact on plant responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. BR receptors detect the BR at the cell surface, triggering a series of phosphorylation events that activate the central transcription factor (TF) Brassinazole-resistant 1 (BZR1), which regulates the transcription of BR-responsive genes in the nucleus. This review discusses the discovery, occurrence, and chemical structure of BRs in plants. Furthermore, their role in the growth and development of plants, and against various stresses, is discussed. Finally, BR signaling in plants is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Hormones Brassinosteroids and Its Actions in Plants)
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Review
Brassinosteroids and the Tolerance of Cereals to Low and High Temperature Stress: Photosynthesis and the Physicochemical Properties of Cell Membranes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(1), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23010342 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 731
Abstract
Cereals, which belong to the Poaceae family, are the most economically important group of plants. Among abiotic stresses, temperature stresses are a serious and at the same time unpredictable problem for plant production. Both frost (in the case of winter cereals) and high [...] Read more.
Cereals, which belong to the Poaceae family, are the most economically important group of plants. Among abiotic stresses, temperature stresses are a serious and at the same time unpredictable problem for plant production. Both frost (in the case of winter cereals) and high temperatures in summer (especially combined with a water deficit in the soil) can result in significant yield losses. Plants have developed various adaptive mechanisms that have enabled them to survive periods of extreme temperatures. The processes of acclimation to low and high temperatures are controlled, among others, by phytohormones. The current review is devoted to the role of brassinosteroids (BR) in cereal acclimation to temperature stress with special attention being paid to the impact of BR on photosynthesis and the membrane properties. In cereals, the exogenous application of BR increases frost tolerance (winter rye, winter wheat), tolerance to cold (maize) and tolerance to a high temperature (rice). Disturbances in BR biosynthesis and signaling are accompanied by a decrease in frost tolerance but unexpectedly an improvement of tolerance to high temperature (barley). BR exogenous treatment increases the efficiency of the photosynthetic light reactions under various temperature conditions (winter rye, barley, rice), but interestingly, BR mutants with disturbances in BR biosynthesis are also characterized by an increased efficiency of PSII (barley). BR regulate the sugar metabolism including an increase in the sugar content, which is of key importance for acclimation, especially to low temperatures (winter rye, barley, maize). BR either participate in the temperature-dependent regulation of fatty acid biosynthesis or control the processes that are responsible for the transport or incorporation of the fatty acids into the membranes, which influences membrane fluidity (and subsequently the tolerance to high/low temperatures) (barley). BR may be one of the players, along with gibberellins or ABA, in acquiring tolerance to temperature stress in cereals (particularly important for the acclimation of cereals to low temperature). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Hormones Brassinosteroids and Its Actions in Plants)
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