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Special Issue "Update on Basic and Molecular Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Alfredo Papa
Website
Guest Editor
Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology Department, Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli, Catholic University of Rome, 00168 Rome, Italy
Interests: inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); ulcerative colitis; Crohn’s disease; target therapy; biologic agents; small molecules; adhesion antagonists; anti-TNF; IBD vascular complications; stem-cells application in IBD; intestinal mucosal healing; gut microbiota
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Loris Riccardo Lopetuso

Guest Editor
Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology Department, IRCCS Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli, Catholic University of Rome, 00168 Rome, Italy
Interests: inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); target therapy; mucosal immunology; inflammatory cytokines; gut microbiota; intestinal mucosal healing; IBD murine models; tumorigenesis associated with chronic inflammation
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

In the recent years, many advances in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, have emerged with a substantial impact on daily clinical practice. These new findings allowed the introduction of new molecular markers and innovative drugs useful for an innovative clinical approach to IBD. We propose to your attention a special issue of IJMS including Reviews and Research Articles regarding recent advances in the field of basic and molecular research with translational applications in IBD.


The establishment of new goals in the management of IBD and the continuation in the understanding of the IBD pathogenic mechanisms have introduced new concepts in the area of intestinal fibrogenesis, small oral therapeutic molecules, gut microbiota, molecular markers of intestinal healing, molecular predictive markers of response to therapy.

In this Special Issue, we will welcome your contributions in the form of original research and review articles facing each side of basic and molecular research in IBD.

Dr. Alfredo Papa
Dr. Loris Riccardo Lopetuso
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • IBD molecular pathogenesis
  • Intestinal mucosal healing
  • Gut microbiota in IBD
  • Faecal microbiota transplantation
  • Target therapy in IBD
  • Stem cells therapy
  • Biologic agents
  • Small molecules
  • Adhesion antagonists
  • Inflammatory cytokines
  • Lymphocyte control

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Altered Structural Expression and Enzymatic Activity Parameters in Quiescent Ulcerative Colitis: Are These Potential Normalization Criteria?
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1887; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051887 - 10 Mar 2020
Abstract
Mucosal healing determined by endoscopy is currently the remission standard for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, new criteria for remission are emerging, such as histologic normalization, which appears to correlate better to the risk of relapse. Here, we study mucosal healing on a molecular [...] Read more.
Mucosal healing determined by endoscopy is currently the remission standard for ulcerative colitis (UC). However, new criteria for remission are emerging, such as histologic normalization, which appears to correlate better to the risk of relapse. Here, we study mucosal healing on a molecular and functional level in quiescent UC. We obtained endoscopic biopsies from 33 quiescent UC patients and from 17 controls. Histology was assessed using Geboes score. Protein and mRNA levels were evaluated for the tight junction proteins claudin-2, claudin-4, occludin, and tricellulin, as well as Cl/HCO3 exchanger DRA, and cyclo-oxygenase enzymes (COX-1, COX-2). The mucosal activity of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes was assessed in modified Ussing chambers, measuring electrogenic ion transport (short-circuit current, SCC). Chronic inflammation was present in most UC patients. The protein level of claudin-4 was reduced, while mRNA-levels of claudin-2 and claudin-4 were upregulated in UC patients. Surprisingly, the mRNA level of COX-1 was downregulated, but was unaltered for COX-2. Basal ion transport was not affected, while COX-2 inhibition induced a two-fold larger decrease in SCC in UC patients. Despite being in clinical and endoscopic remission, quiescent UC patients demonstrated abnormal mucosal barrier properties at the molecular and functional level. Further exploration of mucosal molecular signature for revision of current remission standards should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Basic and Molecular Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Transcriptional and Metabolomic Analysis of L-Arginine/Nitric Oxide Pathway in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Its Association with Local Inflammatory and Angiogenic Response: Preliminary Findings
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(5), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21051641 - 28 Feb 2020
Cited by 5
Abstract
L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is poorly investigated. The aim of current study is to quantify pathway serum metabolites in 52 CD (40 active), 48 UC (33 active), and 18 irritable bowel syndrome patients and 40 controls [...] Read more.
L-arginine/nitric oxide pathway in Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) is poorly investigated. The aim of current study is to quantify pathway serum metabolites in 52 CD (40 active), 48 UC (33 active), and 18 irritable bowel syndrome patients and 40 controls using mass spectrometry and at determining mRNA expression of pathway-associated enzymes in 91 bowel samples. Arginine and symmetric dimethylarginine decreased (p < 0.05) in active-CD (129 and 0.437 µM) compared to controls (157 and 0.494 µM) and active-UC (164 and 0.52 µM). Citrulline and dimethylamine increased (p < 0.05) in active-CD (68.7 and 70.9 µM) and active-UC (65.9 and 73.9 µM) compared to controls (42.7 and 50.4 µM). Compared to normal, CD-inflamed small bowel had downregulated (p < 0.05) arginase-2 by 2.4-fold and upregulated dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH)-2 (1.5-fold) and arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT)-2 (1.6-fold). Quiescent-CD small bowel had upregulated (p < 0.05) arginase-2 (1.8-fold), DDAH1 (2.9-fold), DDAH2 (1.5-fold), PRMT1 (1.5-fold), PRMT2 (1.7-fold), and PRMT5 (1.4-fold). Pathway enzymes were upregulated in CD-inflamed/quiescent and UC-inflamed colon as compared to normal. Compared to inflamed, quiescent CD-colon had upregulated DDAH1 (5.7-fold) and ornithine decarboxylase (1.6-fold). Concluding, the pathway is deregulated in CD and UC, also in quiescent bowel, reflecting inflammation severity and angiogenic potential. Functional analysis of PRMTs and DDAHs as potential targets for therapy is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Basic and Molecular Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Physiologically Responsive Human iPSC-Derived Intestinal Epithelium to Study Barrier Dysfunction in IBD
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1438; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041438 - 20 Feb 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the intestinal epithelium is characterized by increased permeability both in active disease and remission states. The genetic underpinnings of this increased intestinal permeability are largely unstudied, in part due to a lack of appropriate modelling systems. Our aim [...] Read more.
In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the intestinal epithelium is characterized by increased permeability both in active disease and remission states. The genetic underpinnings of this increased intestinal permeability are largely unstudied, in part due to a lack of appropriate modelling systems. Our aim is to develop an in vitro model of intestinal permeability using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived human intestinal organoids (HIOs) and human colonic organoids (HCOs) to study barrier dysfunction. iPSCs were generated from healthy controls, adult onset IBD, and very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD) patients and differentiated into HIOs and HCOs. EpCAM+ selected cells were seeded onto Transwell inserts and barrier integrity studies were carried out in the presence or absence of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFα and IFNγ. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and immunofluorescence were used to determine altered tight and adherens junction protein expression or localization. Differentiation to HCO indicated an increased gene expression of CDX2, CD147, and CA2, and increased basal transepithelial electrical resistance compared to HIO. Permeability studies were carried out in HIO- and HCO-derived epithelium, and permeability of FD4 was significantly increased when exposed to TNFα and IFNγ. TEM and immunofluorescence imaging indicated a mislocalization of E-cadherin and ZO-1 in TNFα and IFNγ challenged organoids with a corresponding decrease in mRNA expression. Comparisons between HIO- and HCO-epithelium show a difference in gene expression, electrophysiology, and morphology: both are responsive to TNFα and IFNγ stimulation resulting in enhanced permeability, and changes in tight and adherens junction architecture. This data indicate that iPSC-derived HIOs and HCOs constitute an appropriate physiologically responsive model to study barrier dysfunction and the role of the epithelium in IBD and VEO-IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Basic and Molecular Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation between Antibodies to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharides and Barrier Proteins in Sera Positive for ASCA and ANCA
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(4), 1381; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21041381 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Individuals with intestinal barrier dysfunction are more prone to autoimmunity. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from gut bacteria have been shown to play a role in systemic inflammation, leading to the opening of the gut and blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study aims to measure antibodies against [...] Read more.
Individuals with intestinal barrier dysfunction are more prone to autoimmunity. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from gut bacteria have been shown to play a role in systemic inflammation, leading to the opening of the gut and blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study aims to measure antibodies against LPS and barrier proteins in samples positive for anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and compare them with these same antibodies in controls to determine whether a correlation between LPS and barrier proteins could be found. We obtained 94 ASCA- and 94 ANCA-positive blood samples, as well as 188 blood samples from healthy controls. Samples were assessed for antibodies to LPS, zonulin+occludin, S100B, and aquaporin-4 (AQP4). Results show significant elevation in antibodies in about 30% of ASCA- and ANCA-positive sera and demonstrate positive linear relationships between these antibodies. The findings suggest that individuals positive for ASCA and ANCA have increased odds of developing intestinal and BBB permeability compared to healthy subjects. The levels of LPS antibodies in both ASCA- and ANCA-positive and negative specimens showed from low and moderate to high correlation with antibodies to barrier proteins. This study shows that LPS, by damaging the gut and BBBs, contribute to the extra-intestinal manifestation of IBD. We conclude that IBD patients should be screened for LPS antibodies in an effort to detect or prevent possible barrier damage at the earliest stage possible to abrogate disease symptoms in IBS and associated disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Basic and Molecular Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Topical Therapy with Antisense Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Using Novel β-Glucan-Based Drug Delivery System Ameliorates Intestinal Inflammation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(2), 683; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21020683 - 20 Jan 2020
Cited by 4
Abstract
Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antibodies are effective in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the effect is not optimal because a sufficient concentration of antibodies cannot be maintained at the site of inflammation. Thus, a macromolecular complex was developed with schizophyllan [...] Read more.
Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antibodies are effective in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the effect is not optimal because a sufficient concentration of antibodies cannot be maintained at the site of inflammation. Thus, a macromolecular complex was developed with schizophyllan (SPG) and antisense oligonucleotides. In the present study, an SPG-antisense TNF-α complex was prepared, and its therapeutic efficacy was examined using a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model. The TNF-α production in CD11b+ macrophages significantly increased in the colon of DSS-treated mice. Dectin-1, a receptor of SPG, binds with SPG and is subsequently taken into the cells via phagocytosis. The expression of dectin-1 by CD11b+ macrophages significantly increased in DSS-treated mice. Flow cytometry revealed that the uptake of SPG-antisense TNF-α in the macrophages was efficient. TNF-α production was suppressed significantly by SPG-antisense TNF-α in vitro, which was administered via enema to evaluate its efficacy. The intrarectal administration of SPG-antisense TNF-α ameliorated the intestinal inflammation. In this study, we showed that the delivery system that conjugates SPG and antisense can have higher therapeutic efficacy. Thus, the new therapeutic approach presented in this study may be used in the management of IBD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Basic and Molecular Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Oversecretion and Overexpression of Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/Pre-B Colony-Enhancing Factor/Visfatin in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Reflects the Disease Activity, Severity of Inflammatory Response and Hypoxia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(1), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20010166 - 04 Jan 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase’s (Nampt) association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. The study was aimed at unraveling Nampt’s clinical and diagnostic relevance. The serum concentration (Luminex-xMAP® technology) was measured in 113 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), 127 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 60 [...] Read more.
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase’s (Nampt) association with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unclear. The study was aimed at unraveling Nampt’s clinical and diagnostic relevance. The serum concentration (Luminex-xMAP® technology) was measured in 113 patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), 127 with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 60 non-IBD controls: 40 healthy individuals and 20 with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The leukocyte (44 CD/37 UC/19 IBS) and bowel expression (186 samples) was also evaluated (RT-qPCR). All were referred to IBD phenotype, activity, treatment, and inflammatory/nutritional/angiogenic/hypoxia indices. Serum-Nampt and leukocyte-Nampt were positively correlated and were more elevated in active-IBD than in IBS, with leukocyte-Nampt being a fair differential marker. Serum-Nampt in UC positively correlated with its clinical and endoscopic activity as well as with pro-inflammatory cytokines. Serum-Nampt ≤1.54 ng/mL was a good indicator of mucosal healing. The expression of Nampt was up-regulated both in inflamed and quiescent colon and reflected, similarly to leukocyte-Nampt, the clinical activity of IBD. Bowel-Nampt was independently associated with IL1B and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A) expression in inflamed bowel but with FGF2 expression in quiescent bowel. In summary, Nampt’s elevation in IBD at local and systemic levels, and protein and mRNA levels, reflects IBD activity and is associated with inflammation, hypoxia (active) and tissue repair (inactive disease). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Basic and Molecular Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
C-C Motif Ligand 20 (CCL20) and C-C Motif Chemokine Receptor 6 (CCR6) in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: Dysregulated in Ulcerative Colitis and a Potential Role for CCL20 in IL-1β Release
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 3257; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19103257 - 20 Oct 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
The chemokine C-C motif ligand 20 (CCL20) is increased in the colonic mucosa during active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and can be found both in the epithelium and immune cells in the lamina propria. The present study investigated CCL20 and C-C motif Chemokine [...] Read more.
The chemokine C-C motif ligand 20 (CCL20) is increased in the colonic mucosa during active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and can be found both in the epithelium and immune cells in the lamina propria. The present study investigated CCL20 and C-C motif Chemokine Receptor 6 (CCR6) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (n = 40) from IBD patients and healthy controls, to identify inductors of CCL20 release encountered in a local proinflammatory environment. CCL20 release from PBMCs was increased when activating TLR2/1 or NOD2, suggesting that CCL20 is part of a first line response to danger-associated molecular patterns also in immune cells. Overall, ulcerative colitis (UC) had a significantly stronger CCL20 release than Crohn’s disease (CD) (+242%, p < 0.01), indicating that the CCL20-CCR6 axis may be more involved in UC. The CCL20 receptor CCR6 is essential for the chemotactic function of CCL20. UC with active inflammation had significantly decreased CCR6 expression and a reduction in CCR6+ cells in circulation, indicating chemoattraction of CCR6+ cells from circulation towards peripheral tissues. We further examined CCL20 induced release of cytokines from PBMCs. Stimulation with CCL20 combined with TNF increased IL-1β release from PBMCs. By attracting additional immune cells, as well as inducing proinflammatory IL-1β release from immune cells, CCL20 may protract the inflammatory response in ulcerative colitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Basic and Molecular Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Microparticles Produced by Activated Platelets Carry a Potent and Functionally Active Angiogenic Signal in Subjects with Crohn’s Disease
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(10), 2921; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19102921 - 26 Sep 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
Microparticles (MPs) are submicron vesicles shed from various cell types upon activation, stimulation, and death. Activated platelets are an important source of circulating MPs in subjects with inflammatory diseases, including Crohn’s disease (CD). Angiogenesis is a hallmark of inflammation in CD and plays [...] Read more.
Microparticles (MPs) are submicron vesicles shed from various cell types upon activation, stimulation, and death. Activated platelets are an important source of circulating MPs in subjects with inflammatory diseases, including Crohn’s disease (CD). Angiogenesis is a hallmark of inflammation in CD and plays an active role in sustaining disease progression, while targeting angiogenesis may be an effective approach to block colitis. In this study, we analyzed the angiogenic content of the MPs produced by activated platelets in subjects with CD. We also evaluated whether the angiogenic signal carried by these MPs was functionally active, or able to induce angiogenesis. We found that, in subjects with CD, MPs produced by activated platelets contain significantly higher levels of angiogenic mRNAs, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), platelet-derived growth factor-α (PDGFα), fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), and angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT1), compared to MPs isolated from control subjects. They also contain significantly higher levels of prototypical angiogenic proteins, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), angiopoietin-1, endoglin, endothelin-1, pentraxin 3, platelet factor-4, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1), and thrombospondin 1. The protein content of these MPs is functionally active, since it has the ability to induce a robust angiogenic process in an endothelial cell/interstitial cell co-culture in vitro assay. Our results reveal a potential novel mechanism through which the angiogenic signal is delivered in subjects with CD, with potentially important clinical and therapeutic implications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Basic and Molecular Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Cannabis and Canabidinoids on the Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Going Beyond Misuse
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21(8), 2940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21082940 - 22 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by a chronic and recurrent gastrointestinal condition, including mainly ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Cannabis sativa (CS) is widely used for medicinal, recreational, and religious purposes. The most studied compound of CS is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by a chronic and recurrent gastrointestinal condition, including mainly ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Cannabis sativa (CS) is widely used for medicinal, recreational, and religious purposes. The most studied compound of CS is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Besides many relevant therapeutic roles such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, there is still much controversy about the consumption of this plant since the misuse can lead to serious health problems. Because of these reasons, the aim of this review is to investigate the effects of CS on the treatment of UC and CD. The literature search was performed in PubMed/Medline, PMC, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases. The use of CS leads to the improvement of UC and CD scores and quality of life. The medical use of CS is on the rise. Although the literature shows relevant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects that could improve UC and CD scores, it is still not possible to establish a treatment criterion since the studies have no standardization regarding the variety and part of the plant that is used, route of administration and doses. Therefore, we suggest caution in the use of CS in the therapeutic approach of IBD until clinical trials with standardization and a relevant number of patients are performed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Basic and Molecular Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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Open AccessReview
Omega Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: An Overview
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4851; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194851 - 30 Sep 2019
Cited by 8
Abstract
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, inflammatory processes that affect the gastrointestinal tract and are mainly represented by ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Omega 3 (ω3) fatty acids (eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) show an indispensable role in the inflammatory processes [...] Read more.
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, inflammatory processes that affect the gastrointestinal tract and are mainly represented by ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Omega 3 (ω3) fatty acids (eicosapentanoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid) show an indispensable role in the inflammatory processes and, for these reasons, we aimed to review the effects of these acids on UC and CD. Databases such as PUMED and EMBASE were searched, and the final selection included fifteen studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The results showed that ω3 fatty acids reduce intestinal inflammation, induce and maintain clinical remission in UC patients, and are related with the reduction of proinflammatory cytokines, decrease disease activity and increase the quality of life of CD patients. Furthermore, the consumption of these fatty acids may be related to a reduced risk of developing IBD. Many studies have shown the beneficial effects of ω3 as adjunctive in the treatment or prevention of UC or CD. Nevertheless, most were performed with a small number of patients and there are many variations in the mode of consumption, the type of food or the type of formulation used. All these factors substantially interfere with the results and do not allow reliable comparisons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on Basic and Molecular Research in Inflammatory Bowel Disease)
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