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The Effect of Probiotics on Gut Homeostasis Regulation 2.0

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 18715

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Physiology and Pharmacology “V. Erspamer”, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome, Italy
Interests: leaky gut; enteric glia; colitis; engineered probiotics
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

By definition, probiotics are bacteria displaying beneficial effects on human health, and their consumption has seen a huge increase in the pharmaceutical market in the last few decades. The reasons for such increasing interest are different. Probiotics may regulate important functions in the maintenance of the gut immune system through direct interaction with intestinal mucosa. Although their real effectiveness is strain-, dose-, and disease-dependent and the duration of therapy depends on the clinical indication, there is converging evidence that probiotics are effective for acute infectious diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, hepatic encephalopathy, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome, functional gastrointestinal disorders, and necrotizing enterocolitis. Their capability to reduce intestinal hyperpermeability (leaky gut syndrome) has been postulated to be a key mechanism by which probiotics exert their beneficial activity. However, most of their properties, and especially how they interact with the host microbiota, are still not yet clarified. In addition to this, converging data show that via preservation of gut homeostasis, probiotics might, in some way, display beneficial effects in neuropsychiatric disorders induced by the so-called gut–brain axis connection. Moreover, in the last few years, a new class of recombinant probiotics has been attracting scientific interest, because they serve as bacteria capable of delivering therapeutic molecules to the gut. Such an approach could potentially be revolutionary in terms of novel therapeutic approaches for chronic diseases, and in some ways, it can go beyond the traditional “drug” concept. The present Special Issue is thus devoted to researchers from different areas, (i.e., basic and clinical gastroenterologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists, neuropsychopharmacologists) involved in this vast research field in the attempt to discuss new achievements in the field of probiotic impacts on human disease, starting with gut homeostasis control. In this sense, we also invite submissions on the intimate connection between probiotics and metabolic disorders featuring leaky gut conditions, such as diabetes and obesity, and the neuropsychiatric disorders associated with them.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Esposito
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Leaky gut
  • Colitis
  • Metabolic disorders
  • Obesity
  • Microbiota
  • Gut–brain axis

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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18 pages, 3552 KiB  
Article
Systematic Investigations on the Metabolic and Transcriptomic Regulation of Lactate in the Human Colon Epithelial Cells
by Chongyang Huang, Huanzhou Xu, Xin Zhou, Maili Liu, Jing Li and Chaoyang Liu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(11), 6262; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23116262 - 02 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2436
Abstract
Lactate, primarily produced by the gut microbiota, performs as a necessary “information transmission carrier” between the gut and the microbiota. To investigate the role of lactate in the gut epithelium cell–microbiota interactions as a metabolic signal, we performed a combinatory, global, and unbiased [...] Read more.
Lactate, primarily produced by the gut microbiota, performs as a necessary “information transmission carrier” between the gut and the microbiota. To investigate the role of lactate in the gut epithelium cell–microbiota interactions as a metabolic signal, we performed a combinatory, global, and unbiased analysis of metabolomic and transcriptional profiling in human colon epithelial cells (Caco-2), using a lactate treatment at the physiological concentration (8 mM). The data demonstrated that most of the genes in oxidative phosphorylation were significantly downregulated in the Caco-2 cells due to lactate treatment. Consistently, the levels of fumarate, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and creatine significantly decreased, and these are the metabolic markers of OXPHOS inhibition by mitochondria dysfunction. The one-carbon metabolism was affected and the polyol pathway was activated at the levels of gene expression and metabolic alternation. In addition, lactate significantly upregulated the expressions of genes related to self-protection against apoptosis. In conclusion, lactate participates in gut–gut microbiota communications by remodeling the metabolomic and transcriptional signatures, especially for the regulation of mitochondrial function. This work contributes comprehensive information to disclose the molecular mechanisms of lactate-mediated functions in human colon epithelial cells that can help us understand how the microbiota communicates with the intestines through the signaling molecule, lactate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Probiotics on Gut Homeostasis Regulation 2.0)
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21 pages, 3111 KiB  
Article
Protective Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum Lac16 on Clostridium perfringens Infection-Associated Injury in IPEC-J2 Cells
by Yuanhao Zhou, Baikui Wang, Qi Wang, Li Tang, Peng Zou, Zihan Zeng, Huihua Zhang, Li Gong and Weifen Li
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(22), 12388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222212388 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2235
Abstract
Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) causes intestinal injury through overgrowth and the secretion of multiple toxins, leading to diarrhea and necrotic enteritis in animals, including pigs, chickens, and sheep. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. [...] Read more.
Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) causes intestinal injury through overgrowth and the secretion of multiple toxins, leading to diarrhea and necrotic enteritis in animals, including pigs, chickens, and sheep. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) Lac16 on C. perfringens infection-associated injury in intestinal porcine epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2). The results showed that L. plantarum Lac16 significantly inhibited the growth of C. perfringens, which was accompanied by a decrease in pH levels. In addition, L. plantarum Lac16 significantly elevated the mRNA expression levels of host defense peptides (HDPs) in IPEC-J2 cells, decreased the adhesion of C. perfringens to IPEC-J2 cells, and attenuated C. perfringens-induced cellular cytotoxicity and intestinal barrier damage. Furthermore, L. plantarum Lac16 significantly suppressed C. perfringens-induced gene expressions of proinflammatory cytokines and pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in IPEC-J2 cells. Moreover, L. plantarum Lac16 preincubation effectively inhibited the phosphorylation of p65 caused by C. perfringens infection. Collectively, probiotic L. plantarum Lac16 exerts protective effects against C. perfringens infection-associated injury in IPEC-J2 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Probiotics on Gut Homeostasis Regulation 2.0)
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Review

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32 pages, 1645 KiB  
Review
Native and Engineered Probiotics: Promising Agents against Related Systemic and Intestinal Diseases
by Haokun Shen, Zitong Zhao, Zengjue Zhao, Yuyi Chen and Linghua Zhang
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2022, 23(2), 594; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms23020594 - 06 Jan 2022
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4192
Abstract
Intestinal homeostasis is a dynamic balance involving the interaction between the host intestinal mucosa, immune barrier, intestinal microecology, nutrients, and metabolites. Once homeostasis is out of balance, it will increase the risk of intestinal diseases and is also closely associated with some systemic [...] Read more.
Intestinal homeostasis is a dynamic balance involving the interaction between the host intestinal mucosa, immune barrier, intestinal microecology, nutrients, and metabolites. Once homeostasis is out of balance, it will increase the risk of intestinal diseases and is also closely associated with some systemic diseases. Probiotics (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, Akkermansia muciniphila, Clostridium butyricum, lactic acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp.), maintaining the gut homeostasis through direct interaction with the intestine, can also exist as a specific agent to prevent, alleviate, or cure intestinal-related diseases. With genetic engineering technology advancing, probiotics can also show targeted therapeutic properties. The aims of this review are to summarize the roles of potential native and engineered probiotics in oncology, inflammatory bowel disease, and obesity, discussing the therapeutic applications of these probiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Probiotics on Gut Homeostasis Regulation 2.0)
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19 pages, 1703 KiB  
Review
Gut-Microbial Metabolites, Probiotics and Their Roles in Type 2 Diabetes
by Lixiang Zhai, Jiayan Wu, Yan Y. Lam, Hiu Yee Kwan, Zhao-Xiang Bian and Hoi Leong Xavier Wong
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22(23), 12846; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312846 - 27 Nov 2021
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 9006
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide prevalent metabolic disorder defined by high blood glucose levels due to insulin resistance (IR) and impaired insulin secretion. Understanding the mechanism of insulin action is of great importance to the continuing development of novel therapeutic strategies [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a worldwide prevalent metabolic disorder defined by high blood glucose levels due to insulin resistance (IR) and impaired insulin secretion. Understanding the mechanism of insulin action is of great importance to the continuing development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of T2D. Disturbances of gut microbiota have been widely found in T2D patients and contribute to the development of IR. In the present article, we reviewed the pathological role of gut microbial metabolites including gaseous products, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) products, aromatic amino acids (AAAs) products, bile acids (BA) products, choline products and bacterial toxins in regulating insulin sensitivity in T2D. Following that, we summarized probiotics-based therapeutic strategy for the treatment of T2D with a focus on modulating gut microbiota in both animal and human studies. These results indicate that gut-microbial metabolites are involved in the pathogenesis of T2D and supplementation of probiotics could be beneficial to alleviate IR in T2D via modulation of gut microbiota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Effect of Probiotics on Gut Homeostasis Regulation 2.0)
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