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Special Issue "Mechanisms in Aquatic Toxicology"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Toxicology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2019).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Dries Knapen
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Zebrafishlab, Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerpen, Belgium
Interests: aquatic toxicology; systems biology; developmental biology; endocrine disruption; stress physiology; embryonic development; zebrafish; alternative testing approaches; adverse outcome pathways

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Aquatic toxicologists are faced with the daunting task of generating, understanding, predicting and applying scientific data on the potential adverse effects of a rapidly increasing number of chemicals in the aquatic environment. Molecular technologies have enabled the development of systems biology approaches allowing us to describe the underlying toxicological mechanisms to an incredible level of detail. Simultaneously, conceptual frameworks for organizing and structuring toxicological information—most notably the adverse outcome pathway framework—are currently being adopted worldwide, facilitating real-life decision making processes by identifying causal linkages between mechanistic data and biological endpoints that are relevant to risk assessment. This convergence of high-quality, data-rich fundamental science with tractable and transparent application strategies provides a strong basis for facing the complex toxicological challenges of 21st century society. This Special Issue aims to advance our understanding of the impact of toxicants on aquatic organisms and ecosystems, and to contribute to the development of new approaches and applications in aquatic toxicology. We welcome manuscripts that focus on any of these areas, from the fundamental understanding of toxicological mechanisms to computational prediction and regulatory applications of mechanistic aquatic toxicity data.

Prof. Dr. Dries Knapen
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. There is an Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal. For details about the APC please see here. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • aquatic toxicology
  • molecular mechanisms
  • toxicokinetics
  • model organisms
  • systems biology
  • adverse outcome pathways
  • alternative testing approaches
  • cross-species extrapolation
  • computational toxicology
  • hazard and risk assessment

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dietary Bisphenol A on the Reproductive Function of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Testes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205003 - 10 Oct 2019
Abstract
Bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), was administered by diet to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) in order to study its effects on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and gonadal steroidogenesis. 2-year-old male gilthead sea bream were fed with [...] Read more.
Bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), was administered by diet to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) in order to study its effects on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and gonadal steroidogenesis. 2-year-old male gilthead sea bream were fed with two different concentrations of BPA (LOW at 4 and HIGH at 4000 µg/kg body weight for 21 days during the reproductive season. Exposure to 4000 µg BPA/kg bw/day (BPA HIGH) reduced sperm motility and altered the straight-line velocity (VSL) and linearity (LIN). Effects on steroidogenesis were evident, with testosterone (T) being up-regulated by both treatments and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) down-regulated by BPA HIGH. Plasma levels of 17β-estradiol (E2) were not affected. The Gonadosomatic Index (GSI) increased in the BPA HIGH group. Interestingly, the levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like compounds were significantly reduced after both treatments. Unpredictably, a few changes were noticed in the expression of genes coding for ECS enzymes, while the receptors were up-regulated depending on the BPA dose. Reproductive markers in testis (leptin receptor (lepr), estrogen receptors (era, erb), progesterone receptors (pr) and the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (gnrhr)) were up-regulated. BPA induced the up-regulation of the hepatic genes involved in oogenesis (vitellogenin (vtg) and zona pellucida 1 (zp1)). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms in Aquatic Toxicology)
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Open AccessArticle
Evolutionary Plasticity in Detoxification Gene Modules: The Preservation and Loss of the Pregnane X Receptor in Chondrichthyes Lineages
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092331 - 10 May 2019
Abstract
To appraise how evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication and loss, influence an organism’s xenobiotic sensitivity is a critical question in toxicology. Of particular importance are gene families involved in the mediation of detoxification responses, such as members of the nuclear receptor subfamily [...] Read more.
To appraise how evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication and loss, influence an organism’s xenobiotic sensitivity is a critical question in toxicology. Of particular importance are gene families involved in the mediation of detoxification responses, such as members of the nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I (NR1I), the pregnane X receptor (PXR), and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). While documented in multiple vertebrate genomes, PXR and CAR display an intriguing gene distribution. PXR is absent in birds and reptiles, while CAR shows a tetrapod-specific occurrence. More elusive is the presence of PXR and CAR gene orthologs in early branching and ecologically-important Chondrichthyes (chimaeras, sharks and rays). Therefore, we investigated various genome projects and use them to provide the first identification and functional characterization of a Chondrichthyan PXR from the chimaera elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii, Holocephali). Additionally, we substantiate the targeted PXR gene loss in Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays). Compared to other vertebrate groups, the chimaera PXR ortholog displays a diverse expression pattern (skin and gills) and a unique activation profile by classical xenobiotic ligands. Our findings provide insights into the molecular landscape of detoxification mechanisms and suggest lineage-specific adaptations in response to xenobiotics in gnathostome evolution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms in Aquatic Toxicology)
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