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Open AccessArticle

Evolutionary Plasticity in Detoxification Gene Modules: The Preservation and Loss of the Pregnane X Receptor in Chondrichthyes Lineages

1
CIIMAR/CIMAR—Interdisciplinary Centre of Marine and Environmental Research, 4450-208 Matosinhos, Portugal
2
FCUP—Faculty of Sciences, Department of Biology, University of Porto, 4150-177 Porto, Portugal
3
Comparative Genomics Laboratory, Institute of Molecular and Cell Biology, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), Biopolis, Singapore 138673, Singapore
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(9), 2331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092331
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 6 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms in Aquatic Toxicology)
To appraise how evolutionary processes, such as gene duplication and loss, influence an organism’s xenobiotic sensitivity is a critical question in toxicology. Of particular importance are gene families involved in the mediation of detoxification responses, such as members of the nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group I (NR1I), the pregnane X receptor (PXR), and the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). While documented in multiple vertebrate genomes, PXR and CAR display an intriguing gene distribution. PXR is absent in birds and reptiles, while CAR shows a tetrapod-specific occurrence. More elusive is the presence of PXR and CAR gene orthologs in early branching and ecologically-important Chondrichthyes (chimaeras, sharks and rays). Therefore, we investigated various genome projects and use them to provide the first identification and functional characterization of a Chondrichthyan PXR from the chimaera elephant shark (Callorhinchus milii, Holocephali). Additionally, we substantiate the targeted PXR gene loss in Elasmobranchii (sharks and rays). Compared to other vertebrate groups, the chimaera PXR ortholog displays a diverse expression pattern (skin and gills) and a unique activation profile by classical xenobiotic ligands. Our findings provide insights into the molecular landscape of detoxification mechanisms and suggest lineage-specific adaptations in response to xenobiotics in gnathostome evolution. View Full-Text
Keywords: nuclear receptors; gene loss; detoxification; endocrine disruption nuclear receptors; gene loss; detoxification; endocrine disruption
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fonseca, E.S.S.; Ruivo, R.; Machado, A.M.; Conrado, F.; Tay, B.-H.; Venkatesh, B.; Santos, M.M.; Castro, L.F.C. Evolutionary Plasticity in Detoxification Gene Modules: The Preservation and Loss of the Pregnane X Receptor in Chondrichthyes Lineages. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2331. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092331

AMA Style

Fonseca ESS, Ruivo R, Machado AM, Conrado F, Tay B-H, Venkatesh B, Santos MM, Castro LFC. Evolutionary Plasticity in Detoxification Gene Modules: The Preservation and Loss of the Pregnane X Receptor in Chondrichthyes Lineages. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 2019; 20(9):2331. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092331

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fonseca, Elza S.S.; Ruivo, Raquel; Machado, André M.; Conrado, Francisca; Tay, Boon-Hui; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Santos, Miguel M.; Castro, L. F.C. 2019. "Evolutionary Plasticity in Detoxification Gene Modules: The Preservation and Loss of the Pregnane X Receptor in Chondrichthyes Lineages" Int. J. Mol. Sci. 20, no. 9: 2331. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20092331

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