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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Dietary Bisphenol A on the Reproductive Function of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Testes

1
Dipartimento Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy
2
Institute of Marine Biology, Biotechnology and Aquaculture, Hellenic Center for Marine Research, P.O. Box 2214, Heraklion, 71003 Crete, Greece
3
Endocannabinoid Research Group, Istituto di Chimica Biomolecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Campi Flegrei, 80078 Pozzuoli, Italy
4
Canada Excellence Research Chair on the Microbiome-Endocannabinoidome Axis in Metabolic Health, Université Laval, Quebec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
5
Nutrigenomics and Fish Endocrinology Group, Institute of Aquaculture Torre de la Sal (IATS-CSIC), 12595 Ribera de Cabanes, Castellón, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205003
Received: 18 September 2019 / Revised: 3 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 October 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms in Aquatic Toxicology)
Bisphenol A (BPA), a known endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), was administered by diet to gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) in order to study its effects on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and gonadal steroidogenesis. 2-year-old male gilthead sea bream were fed with two different concentrations of BPA (LOW at 4 and HIGH at 4000 µg/kg body weight for 21 days during the reproductive season. Exposure to 4000 µg BPA/kg bw/day (BPA HIGH) reduced sperm motility and altered the straight-line velocity (VSL) and linearity (LIN). Effects on steroidogenesis were evident, with testosterone (T) being up-regulated by both treatments and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) down-regulated by BPA HIGH. Plasma levels of 17β-estradiol (E2) were not affected. The Gonadosomatic Index (GSI) increased in the BPA HIGH group. Interestingly, the levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-like compounds were significantly reduced after both treatments. Unpredictably, a few changes were noticed in the expression of genes coding for ECS enzymes, while the receptors were up-regulated depending on the BPA dose. Reproductive markers in testis (leptin receptor (lepr), estrogen receptors (era, erb), progesterone receptors (pr) and the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (gnrhr)) were up-regulated. BPA induced the up-regulation of the hepatic genes involved in oogenesis (vitellogenin (vtg) and zona pellucida 1 (zp1)). View Full-Text
Keywords: BPA; endocannabinoids; gonads; gilthead sea bream BPA; endocannabinoids; gonads; gilthead sea bream
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Forner-Piquer, I.; Fakriadis, I.; Mylonas, C.C.; Piscitelli, F.; Di Marzo, V.; Maradonna, F.; Calduch-Giner, J.; Pérez-Sánchez, J.; Carnevali, O. Effects of Dietary Bisphenol A on the Reproductive Function of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Testes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5003.

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