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Plant Defense-Related Genes and Their Networks

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Genetics and Genomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2024 | Viewed by 6007

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, College of Life Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072, China
Interests: plant disease resistance; plant-pathogen interaction; transcriptional regulatory network; integrated disease control; stress biology

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

During the plant-pathogen interactions, whatever earlier pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs)-triggered immunity (PTI) or later effector-triggered immunity (ETI) response, numerous host genes could be altered expression which is defined as defense-related (DR) genes or defense-responsive genes. The DR genes and their products was participated into plant immunity as well as to be restricted transcriptional regulation and modification. They play as the hubs to cluster the complex disease resistance signaling networks including the cross-talk of PTI and ETI for plant immunity. The late Professor Shiping Wang in Huazhong Agricultural University had the first nominated that some DR genes are genetic associated with the mapped disease resistance QTLs, and she had made important contributions. DR genes are also involved in cross with other biotic and abiotic stress responses and balance the growth or development. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Molecular Sciences, we aim to publish high-quality research articles and reviews on the understanding of functions, transcriptional module, signaling transduction and protein modification for DR genes in plants.

Prof. Dr. Zhaohui Chu
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • defence-related gene
  • defence-responsive genes
  • disease resistance
  • plant-pathogen interaction
  • plant immunity
  • protein modification
  • transcriptional profiling

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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12 pages, 2092 KiB  
Article
Arabidopsis SEC13B Interacts with Suppressor of Frigida 4 to Repress Flowering
by Yanqi Yang, Hao Tian, Chunxue Xu, Haitao Li, Yan Li, Haitao Zhang, Biaoming Zhang and Wenya Yuan
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(24), 17248; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms242417248 - 8 Dec 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
SECRETORY13 (SEC13) is an essential member of the coat protein complex II (COPII), which was reported to mediate vesicular-specific transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus and plays a crucial role in early secretory pathways. In Arabidopsis, there are [...] Read more.
SECRETORY13 (SEC13) is an essential member of the coat protein complex II (COPII), which was reported to mediate vesicular-specific transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus and plays a crucial role in early secretory pathways. In Arabidopsis, there are two homologous proteins of SEC13: SEC13A and SEC13B. SUPPRESSOR OF FRIGIDA 4 (SUF4) encodes a C2H2-type zinc finger protein that inhibits flowering by transcriptionally activating the FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) through the FRIGIDA (FRI) pathway in Arabidopsis. However, it remains unclear whether SEC13 proteins are involved in Arabidopsis flowering. In this study, we first identified that the sec13b mutant exhibited early flowering under both long-day and short-day conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT–PCR) analysis showed that both SEC13A and SEC13B were expressed in all the checked tissues, and transient expression assays indicated that SEC13A and SEC13B were localized not only in the ER but also in the nucleus. Then, we identified that SEC13A and SEC13B could interact with SUF4 in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, both sec13b and suf4 single mutants flowered earlier than the wild type (Col-0), whereas the sec13b suf4 double mutant flowered even earlier than all the others. In addition, the expression of flowering inhibitor FLC was down-regulated, and the expressions of flowering activator FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), CONSTANS (CO), and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CO 1 (SOC1) were up-regulated in sec13b, suf4, and sec13b suf4 mutants, compared with Col-0. Taken together, our results indicated that SEC13B interacted with SUF4, and they may co-regulate the same genes in flowering-regulation pathways. These results also suggested that the COPII component could function in flowering in Arabidopsis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Defense-Related Genes and Their Networks)
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18 pages, 5170 KiB  
Article
Activated Expression of Rice DMR6-like Gene OsS3H Partially Explores the Susceptibility to Bacterial Leaf Streak Mediated by Knock-Out OsF3H04g
by Tao Wu, Yunya Bi, Yue Yu, Zhou Zhou, Bin Yuan, Xinhua Ding, Qingxia Zhang, Xiangsong Chen, Hong Yang, Haifeng Liu and Zhaohui Chu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(17), 13263; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241713263 - 26 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Downy Mildew Resistance 6-like (DMR6-like) genes are identified as salicylic acid (SA) hydroxylases and negative regulators of plant immunity. Previously, we identified two rice DMR6-like genes, OsF3H03g, and OsF3H04g, that act as susceptible targets of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. [...] Read more.
Downy Mildew Resistance 6-like (DMR6-like) genes are identified as salicylic acid (SA) hydroxylases and negative regulators of plant immunity. Previously, we identified two rice DMR6-like genes, OsF3H03g, and OsF3H04g, that act as susceptible targets of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc), which causes bacterial leaf streak (BLS) in rice. Furthermore, all four homologs of rice DMR6-like proteins were identified to predominantly carry the enzyme activity of SA 5-hydroxylase (S5H), negatively regulate rice broad-spectrum resistance, and cause the loss of function of these OsDMR6s, leading to increased resistance to rice blast and bacterial blight (BB). Here, we curiously found that an OsF3H04g knock-out mutant created by T-DNA insertion, osf3h04g, was remarkedly susceptible to BLS and BB and showed an extreme reduction in SA content. OsF3H04g knock-out rice lines produced by gene-editing were mildly susceptible to BLS and reduced content of SA. To explore the susceptibility mechanism in OsF3H04g loss-of-function rice lines, transcriptome sequencing revealed that another homolog, OsS3H, had induced expression in the loss-of-function OsF3H04g rice lines. Furthermore, we confirmed that a great induction of OsS3H downstream and genomically adjacent to OsF3H04g in osf3h04g was primarily related to the inserted T-DNA carrying quadruple enhancer elements of 35S, while a slight induction was caused by an unknown mechanism in gene-editing lines. Then, we found that the overexpression of OsS3H increased rice susceptibility to BLS, while gene-editing mediated the loss-of-function OsS3H enhanced rice resistance to BLS. However, the knock-out of both OsF3H04g and OsS3H by gene-editing only neutralized rice resistance to BLS. Thus, we concluded that the knock-out of OsF3H04g activated the expression of the OsS3H, partially participating in the susceptibility to BLS in rice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Defense-Related Genes and Their Networks)
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13 pages, 7423 KiB  
Article
Transcriptome Sequencing and WGCNA Reveal Key Genes in Response to Leaf Blight in Poplar
by Ruiqi Wang, Yuting Wang, Wenjing Yao, Wengong Ge, Tingbo Jiang and Boru Zhou
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(12), 10047; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241210047 - 12 Jun 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2012
Abstract
Leaf blight is a fungal disease that mainly affects the growth and development of leaves in plants. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf blight defense in poplar, we performed RNA-Seq and enzyme activity assays on the Populus simonii × Populus nigra leaves [...] Read more.
Leaf blight is a fungal disease that mainly affects the growth and development of leaves in plants. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of leaf blight defense in poplar, we performed RNA-Seq and enzyme activity assays on the Populus simonii × Populus nigra leaves inoculated with Alternaria alternate fungus. Through weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA), we obtained co-expression gene modules significantly associated with SOD and POD activities, containing 183 and 275 genes, respectively. We then constructed a co-expression network of poplar genes related to leaf blight resistance based on weight values. Additionally, we identified hub transcription factors (TFs) and structural genes in the network. The network was dominated by 15 TFs, and four out of them, including ATWRKY75, ANAC062, ATMYB23 and ATEBP, had high connectivity in the network, which might play important functions in leaf blight defense. In addition, GO enrichment analysis revealed a total of 44 structural genes involved in biotic stress, resistance, cell wall and immune-related biological processes in the network. Among them, there were 16 highly linked structural genes in the central part, which may be directly involved in poplar resistance to leaf blight. The study explores key genes associated with leaf blight defense in poplar, which further gains an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of biotic stress response in plants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Defense-Related Genes and Their Networks)
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Review

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16 pages, 1251 KiB  
Review
Double- or Triple-Tiered Protection: Prospects for the Sustainable Application of Copper-Based Antimicrobial Compounds for Another Fourteen Decades
by Yue Yu, Haifeng Liu, Haoran Xia and Zhaohui Chu
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2023, 24(13), 10893; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms241310893 - 30 Jun 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1411
Abstract
Copper (Cu)-based antimicrobial compounds (CBACs) have been widely used to control phytopathogens for nearly fourteen decades. Since the first commercialized Bordeaux mixture was introduced, CBACs have been gradually developed from highly to slightly soluble reagents and from inorganic to synthetic organic, with nanomaterials [...] Read more.
Copper (Cu)-based antimicrobial compounds (CBACs) have been widely used to control phytopathogens for nearly fourteen decades. Since the first commercialized Bordeaux mixture was introduced, CBACs have been gradually developed from highly to slightly soluble reagents and from inorganic to synthetic organic, with nanomaterials being a recent development. Traditionally, slightly soluble CBACs form a physical film on the surface of plant tissues, separating the micro-organisms from the host, then release divalent or monovalent copper ions (Cu2+ or Cu+) to construct a secondary layer of protection which inhibits the growth of pathogens. Recent progress has demonstrated that the release of a low concentration of Cu2+ may elicit immune responses in plants. This supports a triple-tiered protection role of CBACs: break contact, inhibit microorganisms, and stimulate host immunity. This spatial defense system, which is integrated both inside and outside the plant cell, provides long-lasting and broad-spectrum protection, even against emergent copper-resistant strains. Here, we review recent findings and highlight the perspectives underlying mitigation strategies for the sustainable utilization of CBACs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Defense-Related Genes and Their Networks)
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