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Role of Mutations and Polymorphisms in Various Diseases

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Molecular Genetics and Genomics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 June 2024 | Viewed by 1515

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Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology, University of Warmia and Mazury, Oczapowskiego 1A Street, 10-719 Olsztyn, Poland
Interests: molecular biology; biochemistry; food allergy; milk allergy; allergy; allergen; ELISA; serotonin; opioid peptides; cell culture; hypersensitivity; cytokines
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Dear Colleagues,

Genetic polymorphisms and mutations can affect gene expression, modify the quantity and quality of the encoded product (protein), and significantly alter the metabolic pathway and its control, thus causing changes in the functioning of metabolic pathways. In this way, some changes in the genome are involved in not only the initiation but also the progression/regression of diseases.

In this Special Issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences, we focus our attention on the latest discoveries and developments in correlations between genetic mutations, their relation with diseases in animals and human studies, and their possible underlying mechanisms. We also will study metabolic pathways that are considered to have an impact on the development of diseases, as well as genes and polymorphisms involved in the process.

We will provide a comprehensive update on the literature that is accessible to scientists from the field. Thus, we wish to invite investigators from basic, genetic, pathophysiological, nutritional, and metabolism research backgrounds or closely related disciplines to contribute original articles, reviews, communications, and conceptual papers.

Dr. Anna Cieślińska
Dr. Ewa Fiedorowicz
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • nutrigenomics
  • polymorphism
  • SNPs
  • mutations
  • predisposition
  • correlation
  • diversity
  • deletion
  • insertion

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

20 pages, 1913 KiB  
Article
Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Quantitative Trait Loci and Candidate Genes Associated with High Interferon-gamma Production in Holstein Cattle Naturally Infected with Mycobacterium Bovis
by Gerard Badia-Bringué, María Canive, Patricia Vázquez, Joseba M. Garrido, Almudena Fernández, Ramón A. Juste, José Antonio Jiménez, Oscar González-Recio and Marta Alonso-Hearn
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(11), 6165; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25116165 - 3 Jun 2024
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Abstract
Mycobacterium bovis (Mb) is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTb). Genetic selection aiming to identify less susceptible animals has been proposed as a complementary measure in ongoing programs toward controlling Mb infection. However, individual animal phenotypes for bTb based on [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium bovis (Mb) is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (bTb). Genetic selection aiming to identify less susceptible animals has been proposed as a complementary measure in ongoing programs toward controlling Mb infection. However, individual animal phenotypes for bTb based on interferon-gamma (IFNɣ) and its use in bovine selective breeding programs have not been explored. In the current study, IFNɣ production was measured using a specific IFNɣ ELISA kit in bovine purified protein derivative (bPPD)-stimulated blood samples collected from Holstein cattle. DNA isolated from the peripheral blood samples collected from the animals included in the study was genotyped with the EuroG Medium Density bead Chip, and the genotypes were imputed to whole-genome sequences. A genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) revealed that the IFNɣ in response to bPPD was associated with a specific genetic profile (heritability = 0.23) and allowed the identification of 163 SNPs, 72 quantitative trait loci (QTLs), 197 candidate genes, and 8 microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with this phenotype. No negative correlations between this phenotype and other phenotypes and traits included in the Spanish breeding program were observed. Taken together, our results define a heritable and distinct immunogenetic profile associated with strong production of IFNɣ in response to Mb. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Mutations and Polymorphisms in Various Diseases)
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14 pages, 510 KiB  
Article
Single-Base Gene Variants in MIR-146A and SCN1A Genes Related to the Epileptogenic Process in Drug-Responsive and Drug-Resistant Temporal Lobe Epilepsy—A Preliminary Study in a Brazilian Cohort Sample
by Renata Parissi Buainain, André Rodrigues Sodré, Jéssica Silva dos Santos, Karen Antonia Girotto Takazaki, Luciano de Souza Queiroz, Carlos Tadeu Parisi de Oliveira, Paulo Henrique Pires de Aguiar, Fernando Augusto Lima Marson and Manoela Marques Ortega
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(11), 6005; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25116005 - 30 May 2024
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Abstract
The drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has recently been associated with single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in microRNA(miR)-146a (MIR-146A) (rs2910164) and Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Alpha Subunit 1 (SCN1A) (rs2298771 and rs3812718) genes. Moreover, no studies have shown an association between [...] Read more.
The drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has recently been associated with single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in microRNA(miR)-146a (MIR-146A) (rs2910164) and Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Alpha Subunit 1 (SCN1A) (rs2298771 and rs3812718) genes. Moreover, no studies have shown an association between these SNVs and susceptibility to drug-resistant and drug-responsive TLE in Brazil. Thus, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) samples from 120 patients with TLE (55 drug-responsive and 65 drug-resistant) were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 1171 healthy blood donor individuals from the Online Archive of Brazilian Mutations (ABraOM, from Portuguese Arquivo Brasileiro On-line de Mutações), a repository containing genomic variants of the Brazilian population, were added as a control population for the studied SNVs. MIR-146A and SCN1A relative expression was performed by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The statistical analysis protocol was performed using an alpha error of 0.05. TLE patient samples and ABraOM control samples were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium for all studied SNVs. For rs2910164, the frequencies of the homozygous genotype (CC) (15.00% vs. 9.65%) and C allele (37.80% vs. 29.97%) were superior in patients with TLE compared to controls with a higher risk for TLE disease [odds ratio (OR) = 1.89 (95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.06–3.37); OR = 1.38 (95%CI = 1.04–1.82), respectively]. Drug-responsive patients also presented higher frequencies of the CC genotype [21.81% vs. 9.65%; OR = 2.58 (95%CI = 1.25–5.30)] and C allele [39.09% vs. 29.97%; OR = 1.50 (95%CI = 1.01–2.22)] compared to controls. For rs2298771, the frequency of the heterozygous genotype (AG) (51.67% vs. 40.40%) was superior in patients with TLE compared to controls with a higher risk for TLE disease [OR = 2.42 (95%CI = 1.08–5.41)]. Drug-resistant patients presented a higher AG frequency [56.92% vs. 40.40%; OR = 3.36 (95%CI = 1.04–17.30)] compared to the control group. For rs3812718, the prevalence of genotypes and alleles were similar in both studied groups. The MIR-146A relative expression level was lower in drug-resistant compared to drug-responsive patients for GC (1.6 vs. 0.1, p-value = 0.049) and CC (1.8 vs. 0.6, p-value = 0.039). Also, the SCN1A relative expression levels in samples from TLE patients were significantly higher in AG [2.09 vs. 1.10, p-value = 0.038] and GG (3.19 vs. 1.10, p-value < 0.001) compared to the AA genotype. In conclusion, the rs2910164-CC and rs2298771-AG genotypes are exerting significant risk influence, respectively, on responsive disease and resistant disease, probably due to an upregulated nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB) and SCN1A loss of function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Mutations and Polymorphisms in Various Diseases)
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9 pages, 531 KiB  
Communication
Is a Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Complex Subunit 1 (VKORC1) Polymorphism a Risk Factor for Nephrolithiasis in Sarcoidosis?
by Marjolein Drent, Petal Wijnen, Otto Bekers and Aalt Bast
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2024, 25(8), 4448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms25084448 - 18 Apr 2024
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Abstract
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by granuloma formation in various organs. It has been associated with nephrolithiasis. The vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene, which plays a crucial role in vitamin K metabolism, has been implicated [...] Read more.
Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by granuloma formation in various organs. It has been associated with nephrolithiasis. The vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) gene, which plays a crucial role in vitamin K metabolism, has been implicated in the activation of proteins associated with calcification, including in the forming of nephrolithiasis. This study aimed to investigate the VKORC1 C1173T polymorphism (rs9934438) in a Dutch sarcoidosis cohort, comparing individuals with and without a history of nephrolithiasis. Retrospectively, 424 patients with sarcoidosis were divided into three groups: those with a history of nephrolithiasis (Group I: n = 23), those with hypercalcemia without nephrolithiasis (Group II: n = 38), and those without nephrolithiasis or hypercalcemia (Group III: n = 363). Of the 424 sarcoidosis patients studied, 5.4% had a history of nephrolithiasis (Group I), only two of whom possessed no VKORC1 polymorphisms (OR = 7.73; 95% CI 1.79–33.4; p = 0.001). The presence of a VKORC1 C1173T variant allele was found to be a substantial risk factor for the development of nephrolithiasis in sarcoidosis patients. This study provides novel insights into the genetic basis of nephrolithiasis in sarcoidosis patients, identifying VKORC1 C1173T as a potential contributor. Further research is warranted to elucidate the precise mechanisms and explore potential therapeutic interventions based on these genetic findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Mutations and Polymorphisms in Various Diseases)
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