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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7(9), 363;

Cross-Domain Building Models—A Step towards Interoperability

Research Studios Austria—Studio iSPACE, Schillerstraße 25, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
Research Group Geoinformation, Institute of Geodesy, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
Department of Geoinformatics-Z_GIS, University of Salzburg, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
Centre for SDIs and Land Administration, Department of Infrastructure Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne 3010, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
PDF [1855 KB, uploaded 4 September 2018]


Buildings have a multifunctional character, which makes it hard to define just one model for all their diverse functions. As these diverse functions are addressed by actors of different perspectives and domain backgrounds, the possibility to exchange available building information would be desirable. Two main models for the creation of building information are Industry Foundation Classes/Building Information Modelling (IFC/BIM) and City Geography Markup Language (CityGML). As the importance of information interchange has been recognized, several authors have tried to develop intermediate models for the information exchange between IFC/BIM and CityGML, e.g., the Unified Building Model (UBM), the BIM Oriented Indoor data Model (BO-IDM), the Indoor Emergency Spatial Model (IESM) and the BIM-GIS integration model for Flood Damage Assessment (FDA model). Nevertheless, all these models have been created with a certain use in mind. Our focus in this article is to identify common elements amongst these proposed models and to combine them into one “core model” that is as simple as possible, while simultaneously containing all important elements. Furthermore, this base model extracted from proposed intermediate models can then be expanded to serve specific use requirements, while still being exchangeable. To show this cross-domain character of the core model, we validated the resulting model with two cases of use (production environment/maintenance and 3D digital cadaster). View Full-Text
Keywords: building information modelling; BIM; IFC; CityGML; core model; cross-domain; multi-purpose; geospatial model building information modelling; BIM; IFC; CityGML; core model; cross-domain; multi-purpose; geospatial model

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Knoth, L.; Scholz, J.; Strobl, J.; Mittlböck, M.; Vockner, B.; Atzl, C.; Rajabifard, A.; Atazadeh, B. Cross-Domain Building Models—A Step towards Interoperability. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2018, 7, 363.

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