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Special Issue "Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Occupational Safety and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 August 2021) | Viewed by 39490

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Sara L. Tamers
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Science Integration, Washington, DC 20201, USA
Interests: Total Worker Health®; occupational safety and health; worker well-being; future of work; life course perspectives; obesogenic behaviors; social determinants of health; social networks and support; cross-country comparisons
Dr. Lewis Casey Chosewood
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Office of the Director, Atlanta, GA, 30329, U.S.A.
Interests: Total Worker Health®; worker well-being; social determinants of health; substance use disorder/overdose among working populations; work–family and work–life fit; chronic disease and work interaction; intervention effectiveness
Dr. Jessica Streit
E-Mail Website
Assistant Guest Editor
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Office of the Director, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
Interests: strategic foresight; health education; organizational design; well-being; occupational safety and health

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

The future of work is being shaped by rapid changes in the workplace, work, and workforce. Driven by advances in industry, this movement is marked by the accelerated pace of developments connecting people, places, and things. All these advances and developments have implications for worker safety, health, and well-being and require innovative and responsive occupational safety and health strategies. One such strategy is the Total Worker Health® framework, which recognizes work as a social determinant of health and prioritizes the principles of healthy work design to protect and advance worker safety, health, and well-being. Such efforts improve both our understanding of and capacity to address factors that present possible risks to today’s and tomorrow’s workforce, leading to empowered workers who thrive and contribute productively at work, at home, and across the U.S.A.

Papers addressing these topics are invited for this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH). We especially invite contributions that focus on future of work scenarios; their implications for worker safety, health, and well-being; and integrated occupational safety and health strategies to address them.

Dr. Sara L. Tamers
Dr. Lewis Casey Chosewood
Dr. Jessica Streit
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Future of work
  • Total Worker Health®
  • Healthy work design and well-being
  • organizational design
  • technological job displacement
  • work arrangements
  • artificial intelligence
  • technology
  • robotics
  • demographic shifts
  • economic security
  • skills
  • prevention and control of hazards and exposure
  • built environment supports
  • community supports
  • compensation and benefits
  • healthy leadership
  • policies
  • work organization-related chronic health conditions, including substance use disorders
  • occupational stress

Published Papers (30 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Promising Occupational Safety, Health, and Well-Being Approaches to Explore the Future of Work in the USA: An Editorial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1745; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031745 - 03 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 603
Abstract
The future of work continues to undergo profound and fundamental changes in response to shifting social, technological, economic, environmental, and political contexts [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)

Research

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Article
Leveraging an Implementation Science Framework to Measure the Impact of Efforts to Scale Out a Total Worker Health® Intervention to Employers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1372; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031372 - 26 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 781
Abstract
The role of dissemination and implementation (D&I) science is critical to the translation of Total Worker Health® into practice and to the success of interventions in addressing current and future implications for worker safety, health, and well-being. D&I frameworks can guide researchers [...] Read more.
The role of dissemination and implementation (D&I) science is critical to the translation of Total Worker Health® into practice and to the success of interventions in addressing current and future implications for worker safety, health, and well-being. D&I frameworks can guide researchers to design Total Worker Health (“TWH”) delivery approaches that use flexible implementation strategies to implement the core components of programs for employers with varying contextual factors, including small/mid/large-sized businesses and different industry types. To date, there have been very few examples of applying implementation frameworks for the translation and delivery of interventions into organizational settings that require adoption and implementation at the business level to benefit the working individuals. We present a TWH case study, Health Links™, to illustrate an approach to applying an existing implementation framework, RE-AIM, to plan, design, build, and then evaluate TWH implementation strategies. Our case study also highlights key concepts for scaling-out TWH evidence-based interventions where they are implemented in new workplace settings, new delivery systems, or both. Our example provides strong support of key implementation planning constructs including early and consistent stakeholder engagement, tailored messaging and marketing, flexibility, and adaptations in implementation strategies to maximize adoption, implementation, and maintenance among participating businesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Workplace Integrated Safety and Health Program Uptake in Nursing Homes: Associations with Ownership
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11313; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111313 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 802
Abstract
Workers in nursing homes are at high risk of occupational injury. Understanding whether—and which—nursing homes implement integrated policies to protect and promote worker health is crucial. We surveyed Directors of Nursing (DON) at nursing homes in three US states with the Workplace Integrated [...] Read more.
Workers in nursing homes are at high risk of occupational injury. Understanding whether—and which—nursing homes implement integrated policies to protect and promote worker health is crucial. We surveyed Directors of Nursing (DON) at nursing homes in three US states with the Workplace Integrated Safety and Health (WISH) assessment, a recently developed and validated instrument that assesses workplace policies, programs, and practices that affect worker safety, health, and wellbeing. We hypothesized that corporate and for-profit nursing homes would be less likely to report policies consistent with Total Worker Health (TWH) approaches. For each of the five validated WISH domains, we assessed the association between being in the lowest quartile of WISH score and ownership status using multivariable logistic regression. Our sample included 543 nursing homes, 83% which were corporate owned and 77% which were for-profit. On average, DONs reported a high implementation of TWH policies, as measured by the WISH. We did not find an association between either corporate ownership or for-profit status and WISH score for any WISH domain. Results were consistent across numerous sensitivity analyses. For-profit status and corporate ownership status do not identify nursing homes that may benefit from additional TWH approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
Article
Community Resident Perceptions of and Experiences with Precarious Work at the Neighborhood Level: The Greater Lawndale Healthy Work Project
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11101; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111101 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 880
Abstract
Work is a key social determinant of health. Community health and well-being may be impacted in neighborhoods with high proportions of people engaged in precarious work situations compounded by health inequities produced by other social determinants associated with their residential geography. However, little [...] Read more.
Work is a key social determinant of health. Community health and well-being may be impacted in neighborhoods with high proportions of people engaged in precarious work situations compounded by health inequities produced by other social determinants associated with their residential geography. However, little is known about how community residents experience work at the neighborhood level nor how work impacts health at the community-level, particularly in communities with a high proportion of residents engaged in precarious work. We sought to understand, through participatory research strategies, how work is experienced at the community level and to identify community interventions to establish a culture of healthy work. As part of a mixed-methods community health assessment, community researchers conducted focus groups with residents in two high social and economic hardship neighborhoods on Chicago’s southwest side. Community and academic researchers engaged in participatory data analysis and developed and implemented member-checking modules to engage residents in the data interpretation process. Twelve focus group discussions (77 community resident participants) were completed. Three major themes emerged: systematic marginalization from the pathways to healthy work situations; contextual and structural hostility to sustain healthy work; and violations in the rights, agency, and autonomy of resident workers. Findings were triangulated with findings from the concept-mapping research component of the project to inform the development of a community health survey focused on work characteristics and experiences. Listening to residents in communities with a high proportion of residents engaging in precarious work allows for the identification of nuanced community-informed intervention points to begin to build a culture of healthy work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Here for My Peer: The Future of First Responder Mental Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11097; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111097 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1044
Abstract
Workplace interventions that leverage social tactics to improve health and well-being are becoming more common. As an example, peer mental health support interventions aim to reduce stigma and promote treatment seeking in first responder populations. Given the social nature of these interventions, it [...] Read more.
Workplace interventions that leverage social tactics to improve health and well-being are becoming more common. As an example, peer mental health support interventions aim to reduce stigma and promote treatment seeking in first responder populations. Given the social nature of these interventions, it is important to consider how the preexisting social context influences intervention outcomes. A peer mental health support intervention was delivered among first responders, and self-efficacy and intention to have supportive peer conversations were measured pre-and post-intervention. Trust in peers was measured prior to the intervention. Results suggest a floor effect may exist for self-efficacy, in which a foundational level of trust and pre-intervention self-efficacy may be needed to maximize intervention effectiveness. As the future of work brings complex safety and health challenges, collaborative solutions that engage multiple stakeholders (employees, their peers, and their organization) will be needed. This study suggests that more frequent attention to pre-existing intervention context, particularly social context in peer-focused intervention, will enhance intervention outcomes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
Article
Intermediary Perspectives on Total Worker Health in Small Businesses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10398; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910398 - 02 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
The future of work will include not only more small business employment, but also a need for greater consideration of more holistic approaches to addressing worker well-being. Previous research has suggested smaller firms need external assistance to add new or improve existing workplace [...] Read more.
The future of work will include not only more small business employment, but also a need for greater consideration of more holistic approaches to addressing worker well-being. Previous research has suggested smaller firms need external assistance to add new or improve existing workplace health and safety activities. A Total Worker Health® (TWH) approach is potentially appealing to small employers as it is intended to identify and support comprehensive practices and policies that take into account the work environment (both physical and organizational) while also addressing the personal health risks of individuals, thus being more effective in preventing disease and promoting health and safety than each approach taken separately. NIOSH researchers applied the NIOSH Small Business Intervention Diffusion Model to conduct parallel community-based TWH activities in two geographically distinct communities in a large metropolitan area. Data were collected from intermediary organizations that work with or serve small businesses about their perceptions of the TWH approach as a potential service for them to offer small firms. Intermediary organizations engaged in implementation of TWH approaches with small businesses in the respective geographic areas for approximately one year. Results indicated intermediary organizations find value in providing TWH assistance to small employers, but several challenges for intermediaries implementing TWH among small employers remain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Evaluation of an Online Training for Supervisors of Young Agricultural Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10395; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910395 - 02 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
Adolescents and young adults (<25 years) working in agriculture are at greater risk of injury than youth working in other industries. Supervisors play an important role in protecting these young workers who lack workplace experience and whose bodies and brains are still developing. [...] Read more.
Adolescents and young adults (<25 years) working in agriculture are at greater risk of injury than youth working in other industries. Supervisors play an important role in protecting these young workers who lack workplace experience and whose bodies and brains are still developing. A theoretically based approach was used to develop an online training for supervisors of young agricultural workers. The training addresses an expanded view of occupational safety that not only addresses injury prevention, but also focuses on health promotion and worker well-being using a Total Worker Health approach. A pre-post/post study design was used to evaluate the training. Questionnaires included demographics, workplace characteristics, knowledge, beliefs about protecting young workers, and supervisors’ communication behaviors. One-hundred-eighty-two participants completed all parts of the efficacy trial. A post-test administered immediately after completing the training, indicated that supervisors had greater understanding of the risks to young workers and at 3-month follow-up were more likely to engage in communication behaviors to protect the safety and health of young workers. Positive changes in when, how, and under what circumstances supervisors talk about safety and health occurred. Establishing patterns of protective behaviors in the workplace can have lifelong impact, particularly among young workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Framing Future of Work Considerations through Climate and Built Environment Assessment of Volunteer Work Practices in the United States Equine Assisted Services
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10385; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910385 - 02 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
The foundation of healthy workplace design is an understanding of work practices. Volunteers comprise the majority of the workforce in care centers using horses to address human health issues. Documentation is lacking on protections for worker well-being in equestrian microenvironments which are known [...] Read more.
The foundation of healthy workplace design is an understanding of work practices. Volunteers comprise the majority of the workforce in care centers using horses to address human health issues. Documentation is lacking on protections for worker well-being in equestrian microenvironments which are known to have the potential for dust exposures. Climate acts as a master variable in equestrian facility design and ventilation usage to address dust and temperature concerns. Using climate as an independent variable, our objective was to characterize space usage, safety, environmental control, and organizational practices through a national survey of equine assisted programs. We found that more fully enclosed indoor arena spaces were in cold/very cold and mixed-humid climates (p = 0.0114). Annually more volunteers (p = 0.0073) work in these two climate groups averaging 100 volunteers per location. A total of 34% of all facilities, regardless of climate, do not use mechanical ventilation systems (e.g., fans). As volunteer worker time in the arena increased, time in the barn microenvironment tended to decrease (p = 0.0538). We identified facility designs, ventilation usage, and worker arrangements to refine the scalability of future air contaminant monitoring and to provide frameworks for education, workplace design, and prevention of exposure to dust. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Understanding Worker Well-Being Relative to High-Workload and Recovery Activities across a Whole Day: Pilot Testing an Ecological Momentary Assessment Technique
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910354 - 01 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1036
Abstract
Occupational health and safety is experiencing a paradigm shift from focusing only on health at the workplace toward a holistic approach and worker well-being framework that considers both work and non-work factors. Aligned with this shift, the purpose of this pilot study was [...] Read more.
Occupational health and safety is experiencing a paradigm shift from focusing only on health at the workplace toward a holistic approach and worker well-being framework that considers both work and non-work factors. Aligned with this shift, the purpose of this pilot study was to examine how, within a person, frequencies of high-workload and recovery activities from both work and non-work periods were associated with same day well-being measures. We analyzed data on 45 workers with type 1 diabetes from whom we collected activity data 5–6 times daily over 14 days. More frequent engagement in high-workload activities was associated with lower well-being on multiple measures including higher stress. Conversely, greater recovery activity frequency was mostly associated with higher well-being indicated by lower stress and higher positive affect. Overall, our results provide preliminary validity evidence for measures of high-workload and recovery activity exposure covering both work and non-work periods that can inform and support evaluations of worker well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Winter Weather-Related Crashes during the Commute to Work: An Opportunity for Total Worker Health®
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910268 - 29 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
Background: The ways workers interface with their workplace and work are changing. These changes provide challenges and opportunities for health and safety professionals attempting to improve worker wellbeing for the future of work. For many workers, the morning commute, an activity typically outside [...] Read more.
Background: The ways workers interface with their workplace and work are changing. These changes provide challenges and opportunities for health and safety professionals attempting to improve worker wellbeing for the future of work. For many workers, the morning commute, an activity typically outside the scope of workplace policies, is the most hazardous portion of the day. The hazard increases if workers are required to drive during winter weather or in other hazardous conditions in order to adhere to strict workplace start times. This research describes the role winter weather plays during the morning commute, demonstrating the need for organizational design and work arrangements that improve safety during the commute to work. Methods: Crash data from the Iowa Department of Transportation for the years 2013–2017 was linked to county level characteristics from the American Community Survey. Crashes were characterized by 30-min time intervals. The likelihood of the crash involving winter weather as a contributing circumstance was compared across time-intervals. Results: Winter weather was more likely to contribute to crashes during the commuting hours compared to 11:00 to 11:59 am. Winter weather was most frequently a contributing circumstance during 8:00–8:29 a.m. (OR = 2.21 95% CI: 1.93–2.52). Conclusions: Winter weather plays a role in crashes during commuting hours. Workplaces can adopt policies for flexible work start times or for telecommuting to empower workers to avoid hazardous driving conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
Article
Has the COVID-19 Pandemic Accelerated the Future of Work or Changed Its Course? Implications for Research and Practice
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910199 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique transboundary crisis which has disrupted people’s way of life more dramatically than any event in generations. Given the ambiguity surrounding the end of the COVID-19 pandemic and its enduring negative effects, it is important to understand how [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic is a unique transboundary crisis which has disrupted people’s way of life more dramatically than any event in generations. Given the ambiguity surrounding the end of the COVID-19 pandemic and its enduring negative effects, it is important to understand how this has affected important future of work trends. The aim of the current paper is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on commonly discussed future of work trends relevant to occupational safety and health priority areas. These topics include work arrangements, compensation and benefits, and the organization of work. For each topic, we assess trends leading up to the COVID-19 pandemic, discuss the impact of the pandemic on these trends, and conclude with implications for research and practice. Overall, the pandemic appears to have both accelerated and disrupted various trends associated with future of work topic areas. These effects are discussed in terms of implications for both policymakers and organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
Article
Working Conditions Influencing Drivers’ Safety and Well-Being in the Transportation Industry: “On Board” Program
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910173 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 865
Abstract
The conditions of work for professional drivers can contribute to adverse health and well-being outcomes. Fatigue can result from irregular shift scheduling, stress may arise due to the intense job demands, back pain may be due to prolonged sitting and exposure to vibration, [...] Read more.
The conditions of work for professional drivers can contribute to adverse health and well-being outcomes. Fatigue can result from irregular shift scheduling, stress may arise due to the intense job demands, back pain may be due to prolonged sitting and exposure to vibration, and a poor diet can be attributed to limited time for breaks and rest. This study aimed to identify working conditions and health outcomes in a bussing company by conducting focus groups and key informant interviews to inform a Total Worker Health® organizational intervention. Our thematic analysis identified three primary themes: lack of trust between drivers and supervisors, the scheduling of shifts and routes, and difficulty performing positive health behaviors. These findings demonstrate the value of using participatory methods with key stakeholders to determine the unique working conditions and pathways that may be most critical to impacting safety, health, and well-being in an organization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
An Exploratory, Qualitative Study of How Organizations Implement the Hierarchy of Controls Applied to Total Worker Health®
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10032; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910032 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 973
Abstract
Understanding of how Total Worker Health® (TWH) guidelines are implemented in employment organizations in the USA is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to explore how the principles of the Hierarchy of Controls Applied to NIOSH Total Worker Health [...] Read more.
Understanding of how Total Worker Health® (TWH) guidelines are implemented in employment organizations in the USA is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to explore how the principles of the Hierarchy of Controls Applied to NIOSH Total Worker Health (TWH HoC), have been implemented among organizations featured as Promising Practices for TWH between 2012–2019, with special focus on the work-related issues of fatigue, stress, sedentary work, and tobacco control. We also sought to identify benefits, obstacles, and lessons learned in the implementation of the TWH HoC. Eighteen organizations were identified to be included in the study. Using a qualitative cross-sectional design and purposive sampling, seven in-depth interviews were conducted with thirteen key informants. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used to guide the thematic analysis and interpretation of qualitative data. Four themes identified include recognition of the TWH approach and TWH HoC, implementation of the TWH HoC, barriers and facilitators in addressing specific work-related issues, and implementation climate primes benefits, obstacles, and lessons learned. The inner setting (i.e., culture, implementation climate, readiness for implementation) of organizations was a prominent determinant of the implementation of integrated worker safety, health, and well-being interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Public Health Impacts of Underemployment and Unemployment in the United States: Exploring Perceptions, Gaps and Opportunities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910021 - 23 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1967
Abstract
Background: Unemployment, underemployment, and the quality of work are national occupational health risk factors that drive critical national problems; however, to date, there have been no systematic efforts to document the public health impact of this situation. Methods: An environmental scan was conducted [...] Read more.
Background: Unemployment, underemployment, and the quality of work are national occupational health risk factors that drive critical national problems; however, to date, there have been no systematic efforts to document the public health impact of this situation. Methods: An environmental scan was conducted to explore the root causes and health impacts of underemployment and unemployment and highlight multilevel perspectives and factors in the landscape of underemployment and unemployment. Methods: included a review of gray literature and research literature, followed by key informant interviews with nine organizational representatives in employment research and policy, workforce development, and industry to assess perceived needs and gaps in practice. Results: Evidence highlights the complex nature of underemployment and unemployment, with multiple macro-level underlying drivers, including the changing nature of work, a dynamic labor market, inadequate enforcement of labor protection standards, declining unions, wage depression, and weak political will interacting with multiple social determinants of health. Empirical literature on unemployment and physical, mental, and psychological well-being, substance abuse, depression in young adults, and suicides is quite extensive; however, there are limited data on the impacts of underemployment on worker health and well-being. Additionally, organizations do not routinely consider health outcomes as they relate to their work in workforce or policy development. Discussion and Conclusions: Several gaps in data and research will need to be addressed in order to assess the full magnitude of the public health burden of underemployment and unemployment. Public health needs to champion a research and practice agenda in partnership with multisector stakeholders to illuminate the role of employment quality and status in closing the gap on health inequities, and to integrate workforce health and well-being into labor and economic development agendas across government agencies and industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Total Worker Health® and Small Business Employee Perceptions of Health Climate, Safety Climate, and Well-Being during COVID-19
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9702; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189702 - 15 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1110
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic created workplace challenges for employee safety and health, especially in small enterprises. We used linear mixed-effects regression to examine changes in health climate, safety climate, and worker well-being, prior to the pandemic and at two timepoints during it. We also [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic created workplace challenges for employee safety and health, especially in small enterprises. We used linear mixed-effects regression to examine changes in health climate, safety climate, and worker well-being, prior to the pandemic and at two timepoints during it. We also examined whether employees at organizations that had received a TWH leadership development intervention prior to COVID-19 would better maintain pre-pandemic perceptions of climates and well-being. The final study cohort consisted of 261 employees from 31 organizations. No differences were observed in mean outcome scores between the leadership intervention groups at any of the survey timepoints. We combined intervention groups to examine the difference across timepoints. Perceptions of health and safety climates remained stable across all timepoints. However, employee well-being scores declined between the pre-pandemic period and subsequent COVID-19 timepoints. These findings suggest that while small organizations continued to be viewed as supporting employees’ health and safety over the course of the pandemic, well-being scores declined, indicating that other factors contributed to decreased well-being. The findings from this study have implications for small business leaders as they navigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the health, safety, and well-being on their organizations and employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Evaluation of the HearWell Pilot Program: A Participatory Total Worker Health® Approach to Hearing Conservation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9529; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189529 - 10 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 995
Abstract
Our objective was to pilot test HearWell, an intervention created to preserve hearing among highway maintainers, by using a participatory Total Worker Health® (TWH) approach to designing, implementing and evaluating interventions. Regional maintenance garages were randomized to control (n = 6); [...] Read more.
Our objective was to pilot test HearWell, an intervention created to preserve hearing among highway maintainers, by using a participatory Total Worker Health® (TWH) approach to designing, implementing and evaluating interventions. Regional maintenance garages were randomized to control (n = 6); HearWell (n = 4) or HearWell Design Team (n = 2) arms. Maintainer representatives from the HearWell Design Team garages identified barriers to hearing health and collaborated to design interventions including a safety leadership training for managers, a noise hazard management scheme to identify noise levels and indicate the hearing protection device (HPD) needed, and a comprehensive HearWell training video and protocol. These worker-designed interventions, after manager input, were delivered to the HearWell Design Team and the HearWell garages. Control garages received standard industry hearing conservation training. Periodic surveys of workers in all 12 garages collected information on the frequency of HPD use and a new hearing climate measure to evaluate changes in behaviors and attitudes over the study period and following interventions. An intention-to-treat approach was utilized; differences and trends in group HPD use and hearing climate were analyzed using a mixed-effects model to account for repeated measures from individual participants. The HearWell Design Team maintainers reported the highest frequency of HPD use. Hearing climate improved in each group 6 months following intervention implementation, with the largest increase and highest value for the HearWell Design Team workers. The HearWell pilot intervention showed promising results in improving HPD use through a participatory TWH approach to hearing conservation. Furthermore, results suggest that employee participation in hearing conservation programs may be necessary for maximal effectiveness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Using Total Worker Health® Implementation Guidelines to Design an Organizational Intervention for Low-Wage Food Service Workers: The Workplace Organizational Health Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179383 - 06 Sep 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1233
Abstract
Total Worker Health® (TWH) interventions that utilize integrated approaches to advance worker safety, health, and well-being can be challenging to design and implement in practice. This may be especially true for the food service industry, characterized by high levels of injury and [...] Read more.
Total Worker Health® (TWH) interventions that utilize integrated approaches to advance worker safety, health, and well-being can be challenging to design and implement in practice. This may be especially true for the food service industry, characterized by high levels of injury and turnover. This paper illustrates how we used TWH Implementation Guidelines to develop and implement an organizational intervention to improve pain, injury, and well-being among low-wage food service workers. We used the Guidelines to develop the intervention in two main ways: first, we used the six key characteristics of an integrated approach (leadership commitment; participation; positive working conditions; collaborative strategies; adherence; data-driven change) to create the foundation of the intervention; second, we used the four stages to guide integrated intervention planning. For each stage (engaging collaborators; planning; implementing; evaluating for improvement), the Guidelines provided a flexible and iterative process to plan the intervention to improve safety and ergonomics, work intensity, and job enrichment. This paper provides a real-world example of how the Guidelines can be used to develop a complex TWH intervention for food service workers that is responsive to organizational context and addresses targeted working conditions. Application of the Guidelines is likely transferable to other industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Development and Implementation of a Total Worker Health® Mentoring Program in a Correctional Workforce
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8712; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168712 - 18 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 849
Abstract
Correctional officers (COs) are exposed to a number of occupational stressors, and their health declines early in their job tenure. Interventions designed to prevent early decline in CO health are limited. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a one-year peer [...] Read more.
Correctional officers (COs) are exposed to a number of occupational stressors, and their health declines early in their job tenure. Interventions designed to prevent early decline in CO health are limited. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a one-year peer health mentoring program (HMP) guided by Total Worker Health® principles and using a participatory action research to collectively address worker safety, health, and well-being of newly hired COs. The HMP aimed to provide new COs with emotional and tangible forms of support during their first year of employment, including peer coaching to prevent early decline in physical fitness and health. The development and implementation of the HMP occurred across five main steps: (1) participatory design focus groups with key stakeholders; (2) adaptation of an existing mentoring handbook and training methods; (3) development of mentor–mentee recruitment criteria and assignment; (4) designing assessment tools; and (5) the initiation of a mentor oversight committee consisting of union leadership, corrections management, and research staff. Correctional employee engagement in the design and implementation process proved to be efficacious in the implementation and adaptation of the program by staff. Support for the HMP remained high as program evaluation efforts continued. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Impact of a Total Worker Health® Mentoring Program in a Correctional Workforce
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168436 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 966
Abstract
(1) Background: Correctional Officers show signs of adverse health early in their careers. We evaluated the impact of a one-year peer health mentoring program for new officers based on a Total Worker Health® approach; (2) Methods: Cadets (n = 269) were [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Correctional Officers show signs of adverse health early in their careers. We evaluated the impact of a one-year peer health mentoring program for new officers based on a Total Worker Health® approach; (2) Methods: Cadets (n = 269) were randomly assigned to a mentored or control group. Cadets in this mixed methods design completed physical assessments, and surveys at three time points to assess demographics, health, mentoring, and workplace variables. Physical testing included several health markers. Surveys and physical data were analyzed as repeated measures. Regression analyses were used to analyze the relationship between mentoring characteristics and outcomes. A semi-structured interview of mentors was analyzed qualitatively. (3) Results: Higher mentoring frequency was associated with lower burnout. Health behaviors and outcomes declined over time in all groups, but mentees displayed slower decline for body mass index (BMI) and hypertension compared to controls. (4) Conclusions: A continuous peer health mentoring program seemed protective to new officers in reducing burnout and also declines in BMI and hypertension. Short-term physical health markers in younger officers may not be an index of psycho-social effects. A participatory design approach is recommended for a long-term health mentoring program to be both effective and sustainable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Applying the Social Vulnerability Index as a Leading Indicator to Protect Fire-Based Emergency Medical Service Responders’ Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8049; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158049 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1360
Abstract
During emergencies, areas with higher social vulnerability experience an increased risk for negative health outcomes. However, research has not extrapolated this concept to understand how the workers who respond to these areas may be affected. Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety [...] Read more.
During emergencies, areas with higher social vulnerability experience an increased risk for negative health outcomes. However, research has not extrapolated this concept to understand how the workers who respond to these areas may be affected. Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) merged approximately 160,000 emergency response calls received from three fire departments during the COVID-19 pandemic with the CDC’s publicly available Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) to examine the utility of SVI as a leading indicator of occupational health and safety risks. Multiple regressions, binomial logit models, and relative weights analyses were used to answer the research questions. Researchers found that higher social vulnerability on household composition, minority/language, and housing/transportation increase the risk of first responders’ exposure to SARS-CoV-2. Higher socioeconomic, household, and minority vulnerability were significantly associated with response calls that required emergency treatment and transport in comparison to fire-related or other calls that are also managed by fire departments. These results have implications for more strategic emergency response planning during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as improving Total Worker Health® and future of work initiatives at the worker and workplace levels within the fire service industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Thriving from Work: Conceptualization and Measurement
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7196; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137196 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1755
Abstract
Work is a major contributor to our health and well-being. Workers’ thriving is directly influenced by their job design, work environment and organization. The purpose of this report is to describe the qualitative methods used to develop the candidate items for a novel [...] Read more.
Work is a major contributor to our health and well-being. Workers’ thriving is directly influenced by their job design, work environment and organization. The purpose of this report is to describe the qualitative methods used to develop the candidate items for a novel measure of Thriving from Work through a multi-step iterative process including: a literature review, workshop, interviews with experts, and cognitive testing of the candidate items. Through this process, we defined Thriving from Work as the state of positive mental, physical, and social functioning in which workers’ experiences of their work and working conditions enable them to thrive in their overall lives, contributing to their ability to achieve their full potential in their work, home, and community. Thriving from Work was conceptualized into 37 attributes across seven dimensions: psychological, emotional, social, work–life integration, basic needs, experience of work, and health. We ultimately identified, developed and/or modified 87 candidate questionnaire items mapped to these attributes that performed well in cognitive testing in demographically and occupationally diverse workers. The Thriving from Work Questionnaire will be subjected to psychometric testing and item reduction in future studies. Individual items demonstrated face validity and good cognitive response properties and may be used independently from the questionnaire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
Article
Workplace Health in Kentucky: A Statewide Comparison
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5473; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105473 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 806
Abstract
The objectives of this study were to assess the state of Kentucky’s workplace health promotion and occupational safety and health programs, to ensure the ability to comprehend any possible trends over the past six years in the state’s progress in offering workplace health [...] Read more.
The objectives of this study were to assess the state of Kentucky’s workplace health promotion and occupational safety and health programs, to ensure the ability to comprehend any possible trends over the past six years in the state’s progress in offering workplace health promotion and health protection programs, to compare the results of this survey with the 2013 Kentucky state-wide assessment, and to identify gaps in Kentucky’s workplace health promotion and occupational safety and health based on Total Worker Health® (TWH) concepts. Using Qualtrics research software, the Workplace Health in America assessment was sent to companies located in Kentucky and having 10 or more employees. Participants were identified using Dun and Bradstreet’s Hoover’s database. The results showed that, as with the 2013 survey, larger workplaces significantly were more likely to offer workplace health promotion programs than smaller companies (X2 = 24.30; p < 0.001). However, more companies (78%) reported offering programs compared to the 2013 assessment (49%). Given the results of the current study as compared to the statewide assessment conducted in 2013, Kentucky’s WHP is moving in a positive direction; yet, there is still much to be done. There remains a strong need to provide cost-effective and accessible resources for all elements of TWH to small workplaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
Article
Work Flexibility and Work-Related Well-Being
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(6), 3254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063254 - 21 Mar 2021
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3212
Abstract
Work organization practices, including work flexibility, are changing and can affect worker well-being. Common work flexibility types include working at home, taking time off when needed, and changing one’s work schedule. Given the changes in and the importance of work flexibility, the study [...] Read more.
Work organization practices, including work flexibility, are changing and can affect worker well-being. Common work flexibility types include working at home, taking time off when needed, and changing one’s work schedule. Given the changes in and the importance of work flexibility, the study assesses its prevalence and association with worker well-being in the United States. We used 2002–2018 General Social Survey—Quality of Worklife (GSS-QWL) data, descriptive statistics, and regression analyses to assess the reported likelihood of job stress, job satisfaction, healthy days, and days with activity limitations among workers reporting work flexibility. The prevalence of work flexibility remained relatively stable during the period examined. Working at home increased the likelihood of job stress by 22% and job satisfaction by 65%. Taking time off decreased the likelihood of job stress by 56% and days with activity limitations by 24%, and more than doubled the likelihood of job satisfaction. Changing one’s schedule decreased the likelihood of job stress by 20% and increased the likelihood of job satisfaction by 62%. This study used all the available data from GSS-QWL and demonstrated the ongoing importance of work flexibility for well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Article
Worker Perspectives on Incorporating Artificial Intelligence into Office Workspaces: Implications for the Future of Office Work
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1690; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041690 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2458
Abstract
Workplace environments have a significant impact on worker performance, health, and well-being. With machine learning capabilities, artificial intelligence (AI) can be developed to automate individualized adjustments to work environments (e.g., lighting, temperature) and to facilitate healthier worker behaviors (e.g., posture). Worker perspectives on [...] Read more.
Workplace environments have a significant impact on worker performance, health, and well-being. With machine learning capabilities, artificial intelligence (AI) can be developed to automate individualized adjustments to work environments (e.g., lighting, temperature) and to facilitate healthier worker behaviors (e.g., posture). Worker perspectives on incorporating AI into office workspaces are largely unexplored. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore office workers’ views on including AI in their office workspace. Six focus group interviews with a total of 45 participants were conducted. Interview questions were designed to generate discussion on benefits, challenges, and pragmatic considerations for incorporating AI into office settings. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an iterative approach. Two primary constructs emerged. First, participants shared perspectives related to preferences and concerns regarding communication and interactions with the technology. Second, numerous conversations highlighted the dualistic nature of a system that collects large amounts of data; that is, the potential benefits for behavior change to improve health and the pitfalls of trust and privacy. Across both constructs, there was an overarching discussion related to the intersections of AI with the complexity of work performance. Numerous thoughts were shared relative to future AI solutions that could enhance the office workplace. This study’s findings indicate that the acceptability of AI in the workplace is complex and dependent upon the benefits outweighing the potential detriments. Office worker needs are complex and diverse, and AI systems should aim to accommodate individual needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Review

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Review
Industry Context as an Essential Tool for the Future of Healthy and Safe Work: Illustrative Examples for Occupational Health Psychology from the Hospitality Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10720; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010720 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 776
Abstract
Contextual nuance holds value for occupational health and safety, particularly as workplace challenges and solutions become more complex. However, disciplines that inform occupational safety and health vary in the degree to which they target breadth and depth of understanding. The future of work [...] Read more.
Contextual nuance holds value for occupational health and safety, particularly as workplace challenges and solutions become more complex. However, disciplines that inform occupational safety and health vary in the degree to which they target breadth and depth of understanding. The future of work presents challenges related to work, the workplace, and the workforce, and an appreciation of the context of industry will ready researchers and practitioners with the most informed solutions. Broadly developed solutions for future of work challenges may flounder without an appreciation for the context of industry, as evidenced by two examples provided in this review. As occupational safety and health disciplines answer the call provided by the future of work, this review provides an account for the value of industry context and recommendations for achieving both breadth and depth of scientific inquiry and practical reach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
Review
Ethics and Total Worker Health®: Constructs for Ethical Decision-Making and Competencies for Professional Practice
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(19), 10030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph181910030 - 24 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Work has become increasingly technologically driven and fast paced, with long work hours, new/emerging hazards, and rising health care costs. Threats to worker safety, health, and well-being including non-traditional work arrangements and practices, precarious work, uncertain hazardous exposures, and work organization issues, such [...] Read more.
Work has become increasingly technologically driven and fast paced, with long work hours, new/emerging hazards, and rising health care costs. Threats to worker safety, health, and well-being including non-traditional work arrangements and practices, precarious work, uncertain hazardous exposures, and work organization issues, such as heavy workloads, design of work, uneven work hours, and difficult interpersonal relationships among workers and managers are apparent. Furthermore, the relationship between personal health risk factors and workplace risks and exposures has drawn increased attention and concern. As employer economic pressures continue to build, it is anticipated that ethical dilemmas for practitioners will become increasingly complex. A review of relevant Total Worker Health® (TWH) literature, related ethical constructs and competencies, an examination of codes of ethics for occupational safety and health and health promotion/education disciplines was conducted. A case study for TWH utilizing an ethical decision-making model for the analysis of key ethical issues and solutions was completed. TWH approaches to protecting safety, promoting health, and advancing well-being are increasingly being adopted. These approaches can reveal ethical dilemmas, and ethical constructs are needed to guide decision-making. A core set of proposed ethical competencies for TWH professionals are identified as a transdisciplinary framework to support workplace ethical culture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Review
Leveraging Strategic Foresight to Advance Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8477; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168477 - 11 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2031
Abstract
Attending to the ever-expanding list of factors impacting work, the workplace, and the workforce will require innovative methods and approaches for occupational safety and health (OSH) research and practice. This paper explores strategic foresight as a tool that can enhance OSH capacity to [...] Read more.
Attending to the ever-expanding list of factors impacting work, the workplace, and the workforce will require innovative methods and approaches for occupational safety and health (OSH) research and practice. This paper explores strategic foresight as a tool that can enhance OSH capacity to anticipate, and even shape, the future as it pertains to work. Equal parts science and art, strategic foresight includes the development and analysis of plausible alternative futures as inputs to strategic plans and actions. Here, we review several published foresight approaches and examples of work-related futures scenarios. We also present a working foresight framework tailored for OSH and offer recommendations for next steps to incorporate strategic foresight into research and practice in order to advance worker safety, health, and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Review
REDECA: A Novel Framework to Review Artificial Intelligence and Its Applications in Occupational Safety and Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 6705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18136705 - 22 Jun 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1893
Abstract
Introduction: The field of artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly expanding, with many applications seen routinely in health care, industry, and education, and increasingly in workplaces. Although there is growing evidence of applications of AI in workplaces across all industries to simplify and/or automate [...] Read more.
Introduction: The field of artificial intelligence (AI) is rapidly expanding, with many applications seen routinely in health care, industry, and education, and increasingly in workplaces. Although there is growing evidence of applications of AI in workplaces across all industries to simplify and/or automate tasks there is a limited understanding of the role that AI contributes in addressing occupational safety and health (OSH) concerns. Methods: This paper introduces a new framework called Risk Evolution, Detection, Evaluation, and Control of Accidents (REDECA) that highlights the role that AI plays in the anticipation and control of exposure risks in a worker’s immediate environment. Two hundred and sixty AI papers across five sectors (oil and gas, mining, transportation, construction, and agriculture) were reviewed using the REDECA framework to highlight current applications and gaps in OSH and AI fields. Results: The REDECA framework highlighted the unique attributes and research focus of each of the five industrial sectors. The majority of evidence of AI in OSH research within the oil/gas and transportation sectors focused on the development of sensors to detect hazardous situations. In construction the focus was on the use of sensors to detect incidents. The research in the agriculture sector focused on sensors and actuators that removed workers from hazardous conditions. Application of the REDECA framework highlighted AI/OSH strengths and opportunities in various industries and potential areas for collaboration. Conclusions: As AI applications across industries continue to increase, further exploration of the benefits and challenges of AI applications in OSH is needed to optimally protect worker health, safety and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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Other

Commentary
Health Equity and a Paradigm Shift in Occupational Safety and Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 349; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010349 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 953
Abstract
Despite significant improvements in occupational safety and health (OSH) over the past 50 years, there remain persistent inequities in the burden of injuries and illnesses. In this commentary, the authors assert that addressing these inequities, along with challenges associated with the fundamental reorganization [...] Read more.
Despite significant improvements in occupational safety and health (OSH) over the past 50 years, there remain persistent inequities in the burden of injuries and illnesses. In this commentary, the authors assert that addressing these inequities, along with challenges associated with the fundamental reorganization of work, will require a more holistic approach that accounts for the social contexts within which occupational injuries and illnesses occur. A biopsychosocial approach explores the dynamic, multidirectional interactions between biological phenomena, psychological factors, and social contexts, and can be a tool for both deeper understanding of the social determinants of health and advancing health equity. This commentary suggests that reducing inequities will require OSH to adopt the biopsychosocial paradigm. Practices in at least three key areas will need to adopt this shift. Research that explicitly examines occupational health inequities should do more to elucidate the effects of social arrangements and the interaction of work with other social determinants on work-related risks, exposures, and outcomes. OSH studies regardless of focus should incorporate inclusive methods for recruitment, data collection, and analysis to reflect societal diversity and account for differing experiences of social conditions. OSH researchers should work across disciplines to integrate work into the broader health equity research agenda. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
Commentary
Dissemination and Implementation Science Approaches for Occupational Safety and Health Research: Implications for Advancing Total Worker Health
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(21), 11050; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182111050 - 21 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 899
Abstract
Total Worker Health® (TWH), an initiative of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, is defined as policies, programs, and practices that integrate protection from work-related health and safety hazards by promoting efforts that advance worker well-being. Interventions that apply [...] Read more.
Total Worker Health® (TWH), an initiative of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, is defined as policies, programs, and practices that integrate protection from work-related health and safety hazards by promoting efforts that advance worker well-being. Interventions that apply the TWH paradigm improve workplace health more rapidly than wellness programs alone. Evidence of the barriers and facilitators to the adoption, implementation, and long-term maintenance of TWH programs is limited. Dissemination and implementation (D&I) science, the study of methods and strategies for bridging the gap between public health research and practice, can help address these system-, setting-, and worker-level factors to increase the uptake, impact, and sustainment of TWH activities. The purpose of this paper is to draw upon a synthesis of existing D&I science literature to provide TWH researchers and practitioners with: (1) an overview of D&I science; (2) a plain language explanation of key concepts in D&I science; (3) a case study example of moving a TWH intervention down the research-to-practice pipeline; and (4) a discussion of future opportunities for conducting D&I science in complex and dynamic workplace settings to increase worker safety, health, and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker Safety, Health, and Well-Being in the USA)
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