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Special Issue "Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Occupational Safety and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 November 2017)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Johannes Siegrist

Senior Professorship on Work Stress Research, Life Science Centre, University of Düsseldorf, Merowingerplatz 1a, Düsseldorf 40225, Germany
Website | E-Mail
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Jian Li

1. Institute of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Centre for Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Düsseldorf, Universitätsstrasse 1, Düsseldorf 40225, Germany
2. Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Fielding School of Public Health; School of Nursing, University of California Los Angeles, 650 Charles E. Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA
Website | E-Mail

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue on the impact of work stress on the development of chronic diseases in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. The venue is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles and communications in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

In times of ageing populations, people work and live longer, but, while aging, they also suffer more often from chronic diseases. Analyzing the impact of work stress on the development of chronic diseases is, therefore, a topic of high relevance to science, as well as to policy. Considerable advances have been recently achieved with the availability of large data sets from epidemiological cohort studies, applying validated, theory-based measures of work stress. However, there are still many gaps of knowledge, e.g., concerning health outcomes other than affective or cardiovascular disorders, concerning psychobiological pathways linking chronic stress with diseases, or concerning health effects of interventions targeting stressful work.

With this Special Issue, we invite you to submit high-quality original research articles or reviews that provide solid new findings extending the current state of knowledge. Preference will be given to contributions using longitudinal data and or experimental/intervention designs. Studies with cross-sectional design will only be considered as exceptions if convincingly justified. All manuscripts will be peer-reviewed by experts in the field, and would be due no later than the end of November 2017.

Prof. Dr. Johannes Siegrist
Dr. Jian Li
Guest Editors

 

Keywords

  • Work stress
  • Job insecurity
  • Theoretical models of work stress
  • Stress-related disorders
  • Life course influences
  • Aging
  • Cohort studies
  • Psychobiological pathways
  • Interventions

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 536; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030536
Received: 11 March 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
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Abstract
In modern societies, major changes have occurred in the world of work and employment in the recent past.
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Evaluation of the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard: Effect on Adverse Psychosocial Work Factors and Psychological Distress
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 426; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030426
Received: 11 December 2017 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (814 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Adverse psychosocial work factors are recognized as a significant source of psychological distress, resulting in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The impact of occupational health standards that aim to reduce these adverse work factors, such as the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard (QHES), is of [...] Read more.
Adverse psychosocial work factors are recognized as a significant source of psychological distress, resulting in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The impact of occupational health standards that aim to reduce these adverse work factors, such as the Quebec Healthy Enterprise Standard (QHES), is of great interest for public health. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the effect of QHES interventions targeting adverse psychosocial work factors on the prevalence of these factors and of psychological distress among ten Quebec organizations. These outcomes were assessed by questionnaire using validated instruments before (T1, n = 2849) and 2–3 years following (T2, n = 2560) QHES implementation. Beneficial effects of interventions were observed for two adverse psychosocial work factors: low rewards (ratio of prevalence ratios (PRs) = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66–0.91) and low social support at work (ratio of PRs = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.77–1.03). Moreover, beneficial effects of interventions were also observed on the prevalence of high psychological distress (ratio of PRs = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75–0.998). Psychosocial interventions implemented in the context of this standard improved the psychosocial work environment and had beneficial effects on workers’ mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Circulatory Diseases from Psychosocial Safety Climate: A Prospective Cohort Study from Australia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 415; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030415
Received: 12 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Circulatory diseases (CDs) (including myocardial infarction, angina, stroke or hypertension) are among the leading causes of death in the world. In this paper, we explore for the first time the impact of a specific aspect of organizational climate, Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC), on [...] Read more.
Circulatory diseases (CDs) (including myocardial infarction, angina, stroke or hypertension) are among the leading causes of death in the world. In this paper, we explore for the first time the impact of a specific aspect of organizational climate, Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC), on CDs. We used two waves of interview data from Australia, with an average lag of 5 years (excluding baseline CDs, final n = 1223). Logistic regression was conducted to estimate the prospective associations between PSC at baseline on incident CDs at follow-up. It was found that participants in low PSC environments were 59% more likely to develop new CD than those in high PSC environments. Logistic regression showed that high PSC at baseline predicts lower CD risk at follow-up (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.96–1.00) and this risk remained unchanged even after additional adjustment for known job design risk factors (effort reward imbalance and job strain). These results suggest that PSC is an independent risk factor for CDs in Australia. Beyond job design this study implicates organizational climate and prevailing management values regarding worker psychological health as the genesis of CDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Work Stress Interventions in Hospital Care: Effectiveness of the DISCovery Method
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020332
Received: 29 November 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 February 2018 / Published: 13 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (449 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Effective interventions to prevent work stress and to improve health, well-being, and performance of employees are of the utmost importance. This quasi-experimental intervention study presents a specific method for diagnosis of psychosocial risk factors at work and subsequent development and implementation of tailored [...] Read more.
Effective interventions to prevent work stress and to improve health, well-being, and performance of employees are of the utmost importance. This quasi-experimental intervention study presents a specific method for diagnosis of psychosocial risk factors at work and subsequent development and implementation of tailored work stress interventions, the so-called DISCovery method. This method aims at improving employee health, well-being, and performance by optimizing the balance between job demands, job resources, and recovery from work. The aim of the study is to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of the DISCovery method in hospital care. Specifically, we used a three-wave longitudinal, quasi-experimental multiple-case study approach with intervention and comparison groups in health care work. Positive changes were found for members of the intervention groups, relative to members of the corresponding comparison groups, with respect to targeted work-related characteristics and targeted health, well-being, and performance outcomes. Overall, results lend support for the effectiveness of the DISCovery method in hospital care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Do Working Conditions of Patients in Psychotherapeutic Consultation in the Workplace Differ from Those in Outpatient Care? Results from an Observational Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020227
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In previous studies, it was found that patients treated at a psychosomatic outpatient clinic (PSOC) for common mental disorders showed more severe symptoms than those who used a psychotherapeutic consultation service at the workplace (PSIW). This study examines whether the higher symptom severity [...] Read more.
In previous studies, it was found that patients treated at a psychosomatic outpatient clinic (PSOC) for common mental disorders showed more severe symptoms than those who used a psychotherapeutic consultation service at the workplace (PSIW). This study examines whether the higher symptom severity of the PSOC patients in comparison to their PSIW counterparts is also related to higher levels of occupational stress as measured by the demand-control-support model (DCS). N = 253 participants (PSIW n = 100; PSOC n = 153) provided self-reported data on demands, decision latitude, social support, and health before consultation. The association between mental health care setting, symptom level and demands, decision latitude, and social support was assessed by means of a path model. Results of the path model indicated that the higher level of depression in PSOC patients was related to higher levels of demands and lower levels of social support. Demands and social support were found to be indirectly associated with treatment setting. No interaction effect between demands, decision latitude, social support, and depression was found. Results of this study reveal that the working conditions influenced the pathway to care process via symptom severity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Allostatic Load and Effort-Reward Imbalance: Associations over the Working-Career
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020191
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 24 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (770 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Although associations between work stressors and stress-related biomarkers have been reported in cross-sectional studies, the use of single time measurements of work stressors could be one of the reasons for inconsistent associations. This study examines whether repeated reports of work stress towards the [...] Read more.
Although associations between work stressors and stress-related biomarkers have been reported in cross-sectional studies, the use of single time measurements of work stressors could be one of the reasons for inconsistent associations. This study examines whether repeated reports of work stress towards the end of the working career predicts allostatic load, a measure of chronic stress related physiological processes. Data from waves 2 to 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) were analysed, with a main analytical sample of 2663 older adults (aged 50+) who had at least one measurement of effort-reward imbalance between waves 2–6 and a measurement of allostatic load at wave 6. Cumulative work stress over waves 2–6 were measured by the effort-reward imbalance model. ELSA respondents who had reported two or more occasions of imbalance had a higher (0.3) estimate of the allostatic load index than those who did not report any imbalance, controlling for a range of health and socio-demographic factors, as well as allostatic load at baseline. More recent reports of imbalance were significantly associated with a higher allostatic load index, whereas reports of imbalance from earlier waves of ELSA were not. The accumulation of work related stressors could have adverse effects on chronic stress biological processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
A Long-Term Follow-Up of the Efficacy of Nature-Based Therapy for Adults Suffering from Stress-Related Illnesses on Levels of Healthcare Consumption and Sick-Leave Absence: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010137
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 4 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 15 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (687 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Stress-related illnesses are a growing health problem in the Western world; which also has economic significance for society. As a consequence; there is a growing demand for effective treatments. The study investigates the long-term efficacy of the Nacadia® nature-based therapy (NNBT) by [...] Read more.
Stress-related illnesses are a growing health problem in the Western world; which also has economic significance for society. As a consequence; there is a growing demand for effective treatments. The study investigates the long-term efficacy of the Nacadia® nature-based therapy (NNBT) by comparing it to the efficacy of a validated cognitive behavioral therapy, called STreSS. The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial in which 84 participants are randomly allocated between the treatments. Long-term efficacy is investigated through data extracts from the national database of Statistics Denmark on the sick leave and the health-care consumption. The results show that both the NNBT and the STreSS lead to a significant decrease in number of contacts with a general practitioner in the period from twelve months prior to treatment to twelve months after treatment; and, a significant decrease in long-term sick leave from the month prior to treatment to twelve months after treatment. The positive long-term effects provide validation for the NNBT as an efficient treatment of stress-related illnesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibiting the Physiological Stress Effects of a Sustained Attention Task on Shoulder Muscle Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010115
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (688 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate if a breathing technique could counteract the effects of hyperventilation due to a sustained attention task on shoulder muscle activity. Background: The trend towards higher levels of automation in industry is increasing. Consequently, manufacturing [...] Read more.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate if a breathing technique could counteract the effects of hyperventilation due to a sustained attention task on shoulder muscle activity. Background: The trend towards higher levels of automation in industry is increasing. Consequently, manufacturing operators often monitor automated process for long periods of their work shift. Prolonged monitoring work requires sustained attention, which is a cognitive process that humans are typically poor at and find stressful. As sustained attention becomes an increasing requirement of manufacturing operators’ job content, the resulting stress experienced could contribute to the onset of many health problems, including work related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSDs). Methods: The SART attention test was completed by a group of participants before and after a breathing intervention exercise. The effects of the abdominal breathing intervention on breathing rate, upper trapezius muscle activity and end-tidal CO2 were evaluated. Results: The breathing intervention reduced the moderation effect of end-tidal CO2 on upper trapezius muscle activity. Conclusions: Abdominal breathing could be a useful technique in reducing the effects of sustained attention work on muscular activity. Application: This research can be applied to highly-automated manufacturing industries, where prolonged monitoring of work is widespread and could, in its role as a stressor, be a potential contributor to WRMSDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Heart Rate Variability Frequency Domain Alterations among Healthy Nurses Exposed to Prolonged Work Stress
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010113
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 8 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 11 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1379 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The deregulation of the autonomic nervous system assessed through the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a promising pathway linking work stress and cardiovascular diseases. We aim to investigate the associations between HRV High Frequency (HF) and Low Frequency (LF) powers and work [...] Read more.
The deregulation of the autonomic nervous system assessed through the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a promising pathway linking work stress and cardiovascular diseases. We aim to investigate the associations between HRV High Frequency (HF) and Low Frequency (LF) powers and work stress in a sample of 36 healthy nurses. Perceived work stress was assessed twice one year apart, using the Job Content and Effort Reward Imbalance questionnaires. This allows to classify nurses in three exposure groups: “prolonged high stress” (PHS), “recent high stress” (RHS) and “stable low stress” (SLS). A 24-h ECG monitoring was later performed during a working day (WD) and a subsequent resting day (RD). Statistically significantly lower (p < 0.02) HF and LF means were found in PHS and RHS nurses during the working periods. In the subsequent resting periods, HF means showed increases over time in the RHS (beta = +0.41, p < 0.05), but not in PHS nurses. LF means did not show any substantial increases in the resting periods, in the PHS group with geometric means lower when compared to SLS, in the non-working and resting periods. Our study evidences that both prolonged and recent perceived high work stress were associated with a reduction of HF and LF powers during work. In addition, prolonged stress was associated with a lack of recovery during not-working and resting periods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
A Qualitative Study of HR/OHS Stress Interventions in Australian Universities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010103
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 3 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (307 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To enhance the understanding of psychosocial factors and extend research on work stress interventions, we investigated the key human resource (HR)/occupational health and safety (OHS) stress interventions implemented at five Australian universities over a three-year period. Five senior HR Directors completed an online [...] Read more.
To enhance the understanding of psychosocial factors and extend research on work stress interventions, we investigated the key human resource (HR)/occupational health and safety (OHS) stress interventions implemented at five Australian universities over a three-year period. Five senior HR Directors completed an online survey to identify the intervention strategies taken at their university in order to reduce stress and enhance employee well-being and morale. We also explored the types of individual-, organization-, and individual/organization-directed interventions that were implemented, and the strategies that were prioritized at each university. Across universities, the dominant interventions were strategies that aimed to balance the social exchange in the work contract between employee-organization with an emphasis on initiatives to: enhance training, career development and promotional opportunities; improve remuneration and recognition practices; and to enhance the fairness of organizational policies and procedures. Strategies to improve work-life balance were also prominent. The interventions implemented were predominantly proactive (primary) strategies focused at the organizational level and aimed at eliminating or reducing or altering work stressors. The findings contribute to the improved management of people at work by identifying university-specific HR/OHS initiatives, specifically leadership development and management skills programs which were identified as priorities at three universities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Workaholism as a Mediator between Work-Related Stressors and Health Outcomes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010073
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 30 December 2017 / Accepted: 2 January 2018 / Published: 5 January 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (306 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
It is currently unknown if unfavorable working conditions, reflected by the demand–control–support model and the effort–reward imbalance model, directly influence health or if the effects may be mediated by work-related attitudes and behaviors such as workaholism. In the present study, 988 employees (55.6% [...] Read more.
It is currently unknown if unfavorable working conditions, reflected by the demand–control–support model and the effort–reward imbalance model, directly influence health or if the effects may be mediated by work-related attitudes and behaviors such as workaholism. In the present study, 988 employees (55.6% males, mean age 36.09, SD = 9.23) from a large consultant firm participated in a cross-sectional survey assessing work variables such as job demands, job control, social support, effort, reward, and overcommitment. Workaholism was also assessed together with eight different health-related outcomes. Although direct effects of the work stressors on health were found on most health outcomes, the work-related stressors were overall strongly related to workaholism (R2 = 0.522), which, in turn, was positively related to four (anxiety/insomnia, somatic symptoms, emotional exhaustion, and social dysfunction) of the eight outcome variables. Of a total of 40 relationships between work-related stressors and health outcomes, workaholism fully mediated three of these, and partly mediated 12. Overall, the study suggests that the effects of work-related stressors on health in many cases may be mediated by workaholism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Is Job Control a Double-Edged Sword? A Cross-Lagged Panel Study on the Interplay of Quantitative Workload, Emotional Dissonance, and Job Control on Emotional Exhaustion
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121608
Received: 13 November 2017 / Revised: 8 December 2017 / Accepted: 16 December 2017 / Published: 20 December 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1179 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative [...] Read more.
Previous meta-analytic findings have provided ambiguous evidence on job control as a buffering moderator of the adverse impact of job demands on psychological well-being. To disentangle these mixed findings, we examine the moderating effect of job control on the adverse effects of quantitative workload and emotional dissonance as distinct work-related demands on emotional exhaustion over time. Drawing on the job demands-control model, the limited strength model of self-control, and the matching principle we propose that job control can facilitate coping with work-related demands but at the same time may also require employees’ self-control. Consequently, we argue that job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance, which also necessitates self-control. We examine the proposed relations among employees from an energy supplying company (N = 139) in a cross-lagged panel study with a six-month time lag. Our results demonstrate a mix of causal and reciprocal effects of job characteristics on emotional exhaustion over time. Furthermore, as suggested, our data provides evidence for contrasting moderating effects of job control. That is, job control buffers the adverse effects of quantitative workload while it reinforces the adverse effects of emotional dissonance on emotional exhaustion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Work–Life Imbalance and Musculoskeletal Disorders among South Korean Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1331; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111331
Received: 28 August 2017 / Revised: 19 October 2017 / Accepted: 27 October 2017 / Published: 1 November 2017
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Abstract
Employed workers often have family responsibilities such as childcare or homemaking. This dual burden may increase work-related health problems, particularly if there are conflicts between work and family responsibilities. This study assessed whether difficulty in work–life balance is associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) [...] Read more.
Employed workers often have family responsibilities such as childcare or homemaking. This dual burden may increase work-related health problems, particularly if there are conflicts between work and family responsibilities. This study assessed whether difficulty in work–life balance is associated with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among Korean employees. Data from the population-based Korean Working Conditions Survey of 2011, including 28,640 male and 21,392 female workers, were used. Men and women were analyzed separately to investigate gender differences. MSD were defined as pain in the back, neck, shoulder, or extremities during the past year. Self-assessed difficulty in work–life balance was defined as a work–life conflict (WLC). Adjustments for physical factors, as well as other occupational and socio-demographic variables, were made using multiple logistic regression analysis. Interaction terms including WLCs and key covariates were also incorporated. WLC was significantly associated with increased frequency of MSD in both men (OR: 1.49) and women (OR: 1.50). There were significant interaction effects between WLC and some key covariates (job stress for men and job stress, work hours, physical demand, and frequent overtime work for women). We suggest that having the flexibility to coordinate work and family life is important to prevent MSD among employees. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Job Stress and Presenteeism among Chinese Healthcare Workers: The Mediating Effects of Affective Commitment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 978; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14090978
Received: 20 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 25 August 2017 / Published: 29 August 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (664 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. Methods: To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample [...] Read more.
Background: Presenteeism affects the performance of healthcare workers. This study examined associations between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism among healthcare workers. Methods: To investigate the relationship between job stress, affective commitment, and presenteeism, structural equation modeling was used to analyze a sample of 1392 healthcare workers from 11 Class A tertiary hospitals in eastern, central, and western China. The mediating effect of affective commitment on the association between job stress and presenteeism was examined with the Sobel test. Results: Job stress was high and the level of presenteeism was moderate among healthcare workers. Challenge stress and hindrance stress were strongly correlated (β = 0.62; p < 0.05). Affective commitment was significantly and directly inversely correlated with presenteeism (β = −0.27; p < 0.001). Challenge stress was significantly positively correlated with affective commitment (β = 0.15; p < 0.001) but not with presenteeism. Hindrance stress was significantly inversely correlated with affective commitment (β = −0.40; p < 0.001) but was significantly positively correlated with presenteeism (β = 0.26; p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study provides important empirical data on presenteeism among healthcare workers. Presenteeism can be addressed by increasing affective commitment and challenge stress and by limiting hindrance stress among healthcare workers in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Lifetime Unemployment Experience and Job Insecurity on Two-Year Risk of Physician-Diagnosed Incident Depression in the German Working Population
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080904
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 6 August 2017 / Accepted: 8 August 2017 / Published: 11 August 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Unemployment and job insecurity have been reported to be associated with a higher risk of depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the separate and combined effects of lifetime unemployment experience and job insecurity on the incidence of depression in an [...] Read more.
Unemployment and job insecurity have been reported to be associated with a higher risk of depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the separate and combined effects of lifetime unemployment experience and job insecurity on the incidence of depression in an unselected working population in Germany. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) study were used, as was a final sample of those currently employed, with complete data at baseline (2009) and follow-up (2011) restricted to those free of depression in 2009 (n = 7073). Poisson regression analysis was applied to test the prospective associations between unemployment, job insecurity, and a two-year incident of depression. Results showed that the experience of unemployment and perceived job insecurity were significantly associated with a higher risk of depression during the two-year follow-up (risk ratios 1.64; 95% confidence intervals (1.16, 2.31) and risk ratios 1.48; 95% confidence intervals (1.13, 1.92), respectively). Notably, the strongest risk was observed among participants with insecure jobs and past long-term unemployment (risk ratios 2.15; 95% confidence intervals (1.32; 3.52)). In conclusion, even during employment, the experience of lifetime unemployment led to a higher risk of depression. The combination of previous unemployment experience and anticipated job insecurity increased the risk of developing depression. Results support health promotion with special emphasis on unemployment and precarious working conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
Occupational Class Differences in Trajectories of Working Conditions in Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(7), 790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14070790
Received: 19 May 2017 / Revised: 5 July 2017 / Accepted: 7 July 2017 / Published: 14 July 2017
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Abstract
The aim was to examine occupational class differences in trajectories of working conditions in ageing female municipal employees. Longitudinal survey data were collected among 40 to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The 2000–2002 baseline survey (N = 8960, response [...] Read more.
The aim was to examine occupational class differences in trajectories of working conditions in ageing female municipal employees. Longitudinal survey data were collected among 40 to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The 2000–2002 baseline survey (N = 8960, response rate 67%) was followed up in 2007 and 2012. Only those female participants who remained employed through all three phases were included (n = 2540). The effects of age, occupational class, and time period on physical and psychosocial working conditions were estimated using a mixed linear growth model. Physical workload decreased with age, except for manual workers, for whom there was no change. Manual workers also had less control over their work than managers and professionals, semi-professionals, or routine non-manual employees. Job control declined similarly in all occupational classes. Although occupational class differences in the levels of job demands were found, with the managers and professionals reporting the most increased demands, job demands were fairly stable and there was virtually no age or period associated linear change in them. Age trajectories in physical workload differ by occupational class, and the differences in psychosocial working conditions between occupational classes do not converge with age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
Open AccessArticle
The Magnitude of Occupational Class Differences in Sickness Absence: 15-Year Trends among Young and Middle-Aged Municipal Employees
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060625
Received: 14 May 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 7 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract
Background: Our aim was to examine the magnitude of relative occupational class differences in sickness absence (SA) days over a 15-year period among female and male municipal employees in two age-groups. Methods: 18–34 and 35–59-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki [...] Read more.
Background: Our aim was to examine the magnitude of relative occupational class differences in sickness absence (SA) days over a 15-year period among female and male municipal employees in two age-groups. Methods: 18–34 and 35–59-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki from 2002 to 2016 were included in our data (n = ~37,500 per year). Occupational class was classified into four groups. The magnitude of relative occupational class differences in SA was studied using the relative index of inequality (RII). Results: The relative occupational class differences were larger among older than younger employees; the largest differences were among 35–59-year-old men. Among women in both age-groups the relative class differences remained stable during 2002–2016. Among younger and older men, the differences were larger during the beginning of study period than in the end. Among women in both age-groups the RII values were between 2.19 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.98, 2.42) and 3.60 (95% CI 3.28, 3.95). The corresponding differences varied from 3.74 (95% CI 3.13, 4.48) to 1.68 (95% CI 1.44, 1.97) among younger and from 6.43 (95% CI 5.85, 7.06) to 3.31 (95% CI 2.98, 3.68) among older men. Conclusions: Relative occupational class differences were persistent among employees irrespective of age group and gender. Preventive measures should be started at young age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Work Stress and Altered Biomarkers: A Synthesis of Findings Based on the Effort–Reward Imbalance Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1373; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111373
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 26 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 November 2017 / Published: 10 November 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (333 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
While epidemiological studies provide statistical evidence on associations of exposures such as stressful work with elevated risks of stress-related disorders (e.g., coronary heart disease or depression), additional information on biological pathways and biomarkers underlying these associations is required. In this contribution, we summarize [...] Read more.
While epidemiological studies provide statistical evidence on associations of exposures such as stressful work with elevated risks of stress-related disorders (e.g., coronary heart disease or depression), additional information on biological pathways and biomarkers underlying these associations is required. In this contribution, we summarize the current state of the art on research findings linking stressful work, in terms of an established theoretical model—effort-reward imbalance—with a broad range of biomarkers. Based on structured electronic literature search and recent available systematic reviews, our synthesis of findings indicates that associations of work stress with heart rate variability, altered blood lipids, and risk of metabolic syndrome are rather consistent and robust. Significant relationships with blood pressure, heart rate, altered immune function and inflammation, cortisol release, and haemostatic biomarkers were also observed, but due to conflicting findings additional data will be needed to reach a firm conclusion. This narrative review of empirical evidence supports the argument that the biomarkers under study can act as mediators of epidemiologically established associations of work stress, as measured by effort–reward imbalance, with incident stress-related disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Work Stress and the Development of Chronic Diseases)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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