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Sustainable Transportation and Health

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2017) | Viewed by 114734

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Communication Studies & Transportation Center, Harrington School of Communication and Media, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA

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Guest Editor
Cancer Prevention Research Center, University of Rhode Island, 130 Flagg Rd, Kingston, RI 02881, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are organizing a Special Issue on Sustainable Transportation and Health in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH). This venue is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes articles and communications online in the interdisciplinary area of environmental health sciences and public health. For detailed information on the journal, we refer you to https://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijerph.

Sustainable transportation includes mobility modes other than Single Occupancy Vehicle transportation. It is pivotal for transportation planning, but it also has become a key factor in public health: transportation mode choice affects environmental quality by reducing the reliance on automobile transportation and thus impacting air quality, neighborhood design, and life in the community. Importantly, sustainable transportation simultaneously promotes physical activity, so important in light of the public health crises resulting from wide-spread inertia. Increased physical activity could improve high rates of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, some cancers, and mental health concerns.

Promoting transportation alternatives is an important objective for transportation planners, public health experts and policy makers. Public health refers to preventing disease, prolonging life, and promoting physical, mental, and social well-being. Sustainable Transportation may affect public health, through individual transportation choices (e.g., using active modes instead of a car), activity patterns (e.g., promoting social participation), neighborhood walkability, and environmental exposure (e.g., outdoor green spaces). Policies that promote sustainable transportation may also impact population choices. Research on these topics can offer important evidence to guide transportation planners, policy developers, community officials, and public health experts.

This Special Issue is open to any subject area related to sustainable, alternative transportation modes and their impact on public health. The listed keywords suggest just a few of the many possibilities.

Prof. Dr. Norbert Mundorf
Prof. Dr. Colleen A. Redding
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sustainable/Alternative Transportation
  • Public Health
  • Physical Activity
  • Walking
  • Bicycling/Biking
  • Transit
  • Multimodal Transportation
  • Walkable Neighborhoods
  • Quality of Life
  • Transit-oriented Development
  • Transportation Equity
  • Single Occupancy Vehicle driving
  • Traffic Congestion

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Editorial

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4 pages, 234 KiB  
Editorial
Sustainable Transportation and Health
by Norbert Mundorf, Colleen A. Redding and Songtao Bao
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 542; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030542 - 18 Mar 2018
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4693
Abstract
We are experiencing a shift in thinking about Transportation and Mobility, which makes this Special Issue on Sustainable Transportation and Health in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health especially timely.[...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)

Research

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14 pages, 609 KiB  
Article
Intention for Car Use Reduction: Applying a Stage-Based Model
by Lars E. Olsson, Jana Huck and Margareta Friman
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020216 - 26 Jan 2018
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 5755
Abstract
This study investigates which variables drive intention to reduce car use by modelling a stage of change construct with mechanisms in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Norm Activation Model (NAM). Web questionnaires (n = 794) were collected via 11 workplaces. [...] Read more.
This study investigates which variables drive intention to reduce car use by modelling a stage of change construct with mechanisms in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Norm Activation Model (NAM). Web questionnaires (n = 794) were collected via 11 workplaces. The socio-demographics, work commute, stage of change, attitudes to sustainable travel modes, social norms, perceived behavioral control, and personal norm were assessed. An initial descriptive analysis revealed that 19% of the employees saw no reason to reduce their car use; 35% would like to reduce their car use but felt it was impossible; 12% were thinking about reducing their car use but were unsure of how or when to do this; 12% had an aim to reduce current car use, and knew which journeys to replace and which modes to use; and 23% try to use modes other than a car for most journeys, and will maintain or reduce their already low car use in the coming months. A series of Ordered Logit Models showed that socio-demographic variables did not explain the stage of change. Instead, personal norms, instrumental and affective attitudes, and perceived behavioral control toward sustainable travel modes were all significant and explained 43% of the variance in stage of change. Furthermore, it was found that the significant relationships were not linear in nature. The analysis also showed an indirect effect of social norms on the stage of change through personal norms. Implications are discussed regarding the design of interventions aimed at influencing a sustainable work commute. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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11 pages, 277 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Transportation Attitudes and Health Behavior Change: Evaluation of a Brief Stage-Targeted Video Intervention
by Norbert Mundorf, Colleen A. Redding and Andrea L. Paiva
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010150 - 18 Jan 2018
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5782
Abstract
Promoting physical activity and sustainable transportation is essential in the face of rising health care costs, obesity rates, and other public health threats resulting from lack of physical activity. Targeted communications can encourage distinct population segments to adopt active and sustainable transportation modes. [...] Read more.
Promoting physical activity and sustainable transportation is essential in the face of rising health care costs, obesity rates, and other public health threats resulting from lack of physical activity. Targeted communications can encourage distinct population segments to adopt active and sustainable transportation modes. Our work is designed to promote the health, social, and environmental benefits of sustainable/active transportation (ST) using the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM), which has been successfully applied to a range of health, and more recently, sustainability behaviors. Earlier, measurement development confirmed both the structure of ST pros and cons and efficacy measures as well as the relationship between these constructs and ST stages of change, replicating results found for many other behaviors. The present paper discusses a brief pre-post video pilot intervention study designed for precontemplators and contemplators (N = 604) that was well received, effective in moving respondents towards increased readiness for ST behavior change, and improving some ST attitudes, significantly reducing the cons of ST. This research program shows that a brief stage-targeted behavior change video can increase readiness and reduce the cons for healthy transportation choices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
2706 KiB  
Article
Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico
by Inés Alveano-Aguerrebere, Francisco Javier Ayvar-Campos, Maryam Farvid and Anne Lusk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010001 - 22 Dec 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 7460
Abstract
México is a developing nation and, in the city of Morelia, the concept of the bicyclist as a road user appeared only recently in the Municipal Traffic Regulations. Perhaps the right bicycle infrastructure could address safety, crime, and economic development. To identify the [...] Read more.
México is a developing nation and, in the city of Morelia, the concept of the bicyclist as a road user appeared only recently in the Municipal Traffic Regulations. Perhaps the right bicycle infrastructure could address safety, crime, and economic development. To identify the best infrastructure, six groups in Morelia ranked and commented on pictures of bicycle environments that exist in bicycle-friendly nations. Perceptions about bike paths, but only those with impossible-to-be-driven-over solid barriers, were associated with safety from crashes, lowering crime, and contributing to economic development. Shared use paths were associated with lowering the probability of car/bike crashes but lacked the potential to deter crime and foster the local economy. Joint bus and bike lanes were associated with lower safety because of the unwillingness by Mexican bus drivers to be courteous to bicyclists. Gender differences about crash risk biking in the road with the cars (6 best/0 worst scenario) were statistically significant (1.4 for male versus 0.69 for female; p < 0.001). For crashes, crime, and economic development, perceptions about bicycle infrastructure were different in this developing nation perhaps because policy, institutional context, and policing (ticketing for unlawful parking) are not the same as in a developed nation. Countries such as Mexico should consider building cycle tracks with solid barriers to address safety, crime, and economic development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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741 KiB  
Article
Integrating Norm Activation Model and Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Sustainable Transport Behavior: Evidence from China
by Yuwei Liu, Hong Sheng, Norbert Mundorf, Colleen Redding and Yinjiao Ye
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121593 - 18 Dec 2017
Cited by 127 | Viewed by 11491
Abstract
With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on [...] Read more.
With increasing urbanization in China, many cities are facing serious environmental problems due to continuous and substantial increase in automobile transportation. It is becoming imperative to examine effective ways to reduce individual automobile use to facilitate sustainable transportation behavior. Empirical, theory-based research on sustainable transportation in China is limited. In this research, we propose an integrated model based on the norm activation model and the theory of planned behavior by combining normative and rational factors to predict individuals’ intention to reduce car use. Data from a survey of 600 car drivers in China’s three metropolitan areas was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. Results showed that three variables, perceived norm of car-transport reduction, attitude towards reduction, and perceived behavior control over car-transport reduction, significantly affected the intention to reduce car-transport. Personal norms mediated the relationship between awareness of consequences of car-transport, ascription of responsibility of car-transport, perceived subjective norm for car-transport reduction, and intention to reduce car-transport. The results of this research not only contribute to theory development in the area of sustainable transportation behavior, but also provide a theoretical frame of reference for relevant policy-makers in urban transport management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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292 KiB  
Article
Exploring Perception of Vibrations from Rail: An Interview Study
by Laura Maclachlan, Kerstin Persson Waye and Eja Pedersen
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1303; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111303 - 26 Oct 2017
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3915
Abstract
Rail transport is an environmentally responsible approach and traffic is expected to increase in the coming decades. Little is known about the implications for quality of life of populations living close to railways. This study explores the way in which vibrations from rail [...] Read more.
Rail transport is an environmentally responsible approach and traffic is expected to increase in the coming decades. Little is known about the implications for quality of life of populations living close to railways. This study explores the way in which vibrations from rail are perceived and described by these populations. The study took place in the Västra Götaland and Värmland regions of Sweden. A qualitative study approach was undertaken using semi-structured interviews within a framework of predetermined questions in participants’ homes. A 26.3% response rate was achieved and 17 participants were interviewed. The experience of vibrations was described in tangible terms through different senses. Important emerging themes included habituation to and acceptance of vibrations, worry about property damage, worry about family members and general safety. Participants did not reflect on health effects, however, chronic exposure to vibrations through multimodal senses in individual living environments may reduce the possibility for restoration in the home. Lack of empowerment to reduce exposure to vibrations was important. This may alter individual coping strategies, as taking actions to avoid the stressor is not possible. The adoption of other strategies, such as avoidance, may negatively affect an individual’s ability to cope with the stressor and their health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
2821 KiB  
Article
Distance, Duration, and Velocity in Cycle Commuting: Analyses of Relations and Determinants of Velocity
by Peter Schantz
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1166; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101166 - 2 Oct 2017
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 7330
Abstract
Background: The distance, duration, and velocity of cycling for transport purposes are used in health economic assessments, epidemiological studies, traffic modelling, and planning. It is therefore of value to determine relevant levels for them, and analyze how they relate, as well as [...] Read more.
Background: The distance, duration, and velocity of cycling for transport purposes are used in health economic assessments, epidemiological studies, traffic modelling, and planning. It is therefore of value to determine relevant levels for them, and analyze how they relate, as well as to what extent other relevant variables may affect cycling velocities. 1661 cycle commuters (34% males) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden have been studied for that purpose. Methods: The participants were recruited with advertisements. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal cycling route. Route distances were measured by a criterion method. Age, sex, weight, height, and cycling durations to work were self-reported. The commuting routes were positioned in relation to inner urban and/or suburban–rural areas. Linear multiple regression analyses were used. Results: Cycling speeds were positively related to commuting distances or durations, being male, of younger age, having higher body weight but lower body mass index (BMI), and using the last digits 1–4 or 6–9 in duration reports (as compared to 0 and 5), as well as cycling in suburban (versus inner urban) areas. Conclusions: The study provides new knowledge about how distance and duration, as well as other factors, relate to the velocity of commuter cycling. It thereby enables the use of more appropriate input values in, for instance, health economic assessments and epidemiological health studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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1044 KiB  
Article
Active Transportation on a Complete Street: Perceived and Audited Walkability Correlates
by Wyatt A. Jensen, Barbara B. Brown, Ken R. Smith, Simon C. Brewer, Jonathan W. Amburgey and Brett McIff
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091014 - 5 Sep 2017
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 6527
Abstract
Few studies of walkability include both perceived and audited walkability measures. We examined perceived walkability (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale—Abbreviated, NEWS-A) and audited walkability (Irvine–Minnesota Inventory, IMI) measures for residents living within 2 km of a “complete street”—one renovated with light rail, bike lanes, [...] Read more.
Few studies of walkability include both perceived and audited walkability measures. We examined perceived walkability (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale—Abbreviated, NEWS-A) and audited walkability (Irvine–Minnesota Inventory, IMI) measures for residents living within 2 km of a “complete street”—one renovated with light rail, bike lanes, and sidewalks. For perceived walkability, we found some differences but substantial similarity between our final scales and those in a prior published confirmatory factor analysis. Perceived walkability, in interaction with distance, was related to complete street active transportation. Residents were likely to have active transportation on the street when they lived nearby and perceived good aesthetics, crime safety, and traffic safety. Audited walkability, analyzed with decision trees, showed three general clusters of walkability areas, with 12 specific subtypes. A subset of walkability items (n = 11), including sidewalks, zebra-striped crosswalks, decorative sidewalks, pedestrian signals, and blank walls combined to cluster street segments. The 12 subtypes yielded 81% correct classification of residents’ active transportation. Both perceived and audited walkability were important predictors of active transportation. For audited walkability, we recommend more exploration of decision tree approaches, given their predictive utility and ease of translation into walkability interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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1393 KiB  
Article
Cycle Tracks and Parking Environments in China: Learning from College Students at Peking University
by Changzheng Yuan, Yangbo Sun, Jun Lv and Anne C. Lusk
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(8), 930; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14080930 - 18 Aug 2017
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6208
Abstract
China has a historic system of wide cycle tracks, many of which are now encroached by cars, buses and bus stops. Even with these conditions, college students still bicycle. On campuses, students park their bikes on facilities ranging from kick-stand-plazas to caged sheds [...] Read more.
China has a historic system of wide cycle tracks, many of which are now encroached by cars, buses and bus stops. Even with these conditions, college students still bicycle. On campuses, students park their bikes on facilities ranging from kick-stand-plazas to caged sheds with racks, pumps and an attendant. In other countries, including Canada, some of the newer cycle tracks need to be wider to accommodate an increasing number of bicyclists. Other countries will also need to improve their bike parking, which includes garage-basement cages and two-tiered racks. China could provide lessons about cycle tracks and bike parking. This study applied the Maslow Transportation Level of Service (LOS) theory, i.e., for cycle tracks and bike parking, only after the basic needs of safety and security are met for both vehicle occupants and bicyclists can the higher needs of convenience and comfort be met. With random clustering, a self-administered questionnaire was collected from 410 students in six dormitory buildings at Peking University in Beijing and an environmental scan of bicycle parking conducted in school/office and living areas. Cycle tracks (1 = very safe/5 = very unsafe) shared with moving cars were most unsafe (mean = 4.6), followed by sharing with parked cars (4.1) or bus stop users (4.1) (p < 0.001). Close to half thought campus bike parking lacked order. The most suggested parking facilities were sheds, security (guard or camera), bicycle racks and bicycle parking services (pumps, etc.). If parking were improved, three quarters indicated they would bicycle more. While caged sheds were preferred, in living areas with 1597 parked bikes, caged sheds were only 74.4% occupied. For the future of China’s wide cycle tracks, perhaps a fence-separated bus lane beside a cycle track might be considered or, with China’s recent increase in bike riding, shared bikes and E-bikes, perhaps cars/buses could be banned from the wide cycle tracks. In other countries, a widened cycle track entrance should deter cars. Everywhere, bike parking sheds could be built and redesigned with painted lines to offer more space and order, similar to car parking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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3482 KiB  
Article
Increasing the Use of Urban Greenways in Developing Countries: A Case Study on Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China
by Yiyong Chen, Weiying Gu, Tao Liu, Lei Yuan and Mali Zeng
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060554 - 23 May 2017
Cited by 32 | Viewed by 6234
Abstract
Given the benefits of urban greenways on the health and well-being of urban populations, the increased use of urban greenways has garnered increasing attention. Studies on urban greenways, however, have been mostly conducted in Western countries, whereas there is limited knowledge on greenway [...] Read more.
Given the benefits of urban greenways on the health and well-being of urban populations, the increased use of urban greenways has garnered increasing attention. Studies on urban greenways, however, have been mostly conducted in Western countries, whereas there is limited knowledge on greenway use in urban areas in developing countries. To address this shortcoming, the present study selected Wutong Greenway in Shenzhen, China, as a case study and focused on the use pattern and factors that influence the frequency and duration of urban greenway use in developing countries. An intercept survey of greenway users was conducted, and 1257 valid questionnaires were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between potential predictors and greenway use. Results showed that visitors with a varied sociodemographic background use Wutong Greenway with high intensity. Various factors affect the use of urban greenways, including individual and environmental factors and greenway use patterns. Unlike previous studies, we found that accommodation type, length of stay at present residence and mode of transportation to the greenway are important factors that affect greenway use. In contrast with studies conducted in Western countries, less-educated and low-income respondents visit the Wutong greenway even more frequently than others. Thus, the greenway is an important public asset that promotes social equity and that all residents can freely use. To better serve citizens, we suggest that the greenway network should be extended to other areas and that its environmental quality should be improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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938 KiB  
Article
Nocturnal Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Children’s Sleep Duration and Sleep Problems
by Kjell Vegard Weyde, Norun Hjertager Krog, Bente Oftedal, Jorunn Evandt, Per Magnus, Simon Øverland, Charlotte Clark, Stephen Stansfeld and Gunn Marit Aasvang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14050491 - 6 May 2017
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 7650
Abstract
Almost half of the European Union (EU)’s population is exposed to road traffic noise above levels that constitute a health risk. Associations between road traffic noise and impaired sleep in adults have consistently been reported. Less is known about effects of noise on [...] Read more.
Almost half of the European Union (EU)’s population is exposed to road traffic noise above levels that constitute a health risk. Associations between road traffic noise and impaired sleep in adults have consistently been reported. Less is known about effects of noise on children’s sleep. The aim of this study was to examine the association between nocturnal road traffic noise exposure and children’s parental-reported sleep duration and sleep problems. The present cross-sectional study used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Parental report of children’s sleep duration and sleep problems at age 7 was linked to modelled levels of residential night-time road traffic noise. The study population included 2665 children from Oslo, Norway. No association was found between road traffic noise and sleep duration in the total study population (odds ratio (OR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.94, 1.17]), but a statistically significant association was observed in girls (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: [1.04, 1.41]). For sleep problems, the associations were similar (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: [0.85, 2.16]) in girls. The ORs are presented for an increase of 10 dB. The findings suggest there is an association between road traffic noise and sleep for girls, underlining the importance of protecting children against excessive noise levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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1818 KiB  
Article
Individuals’ Acceptance to Free-Floating Electric Carsharing Mode: A Web-Based Survey in China
by Yun Wang, Xuedong Yan, Yu Zhou, Qingwan Xue and Li Sun
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(5), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14050476 - 2 May 2017
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 5850
Abstract
Carsharing is growing rapidly in popularity worldwide. When the vehicles involved are Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV), carsharing has been proven to remarkably contribute to easing energy and environment crises. In this study, individuals’ acceptance to carsharing in China was measured from three aspects: [...] Read more.
Carsharing is growing rapidly in popularity worldwide. When the vehicles involved are Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV), carsharing has been proven to remarkably contribute to easing energy and environment crises. In this study, individuals’ acceptance to carsharing in China was measured from three aspects: carsharing mode choice behavior, highest acceptable price to use carsharing, and willingness to forgo car purchases. The data were collected by a web-based survey. The hierarchical tree-based regression (HTBR) method was applied to explore the effects of potential influencing factors on individuals’ acceptance, and some interesting findings were obtained: participants who know about carsharing were more likely to use carsharing, pay higher prices and forgo car purchases; the most competitive trip purpose and trip distance for choosing carsharing were, respectively, business activities and 11–20 km; most participants (47.1%) were willing to pay 1–2 Yuan per minute to use carsharing, and males or participants with higher income-level could accept higher price; and when car purchase restrain policy (CPRP) was carried out in a city or the urban public transport service level (UPTSL) was high, participants were more willing to forgo car purchases. Based on the above findings, corresponding policies were proposed to provide guidance for successful establishment of carsharing in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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2537 KiB  
Article
Pedestrians in Traffic Environments: Ultrafine Particle Respiratory Doses
by Maurizio Manigrasso, Claudio Natale, Matteo Vitali, Carmela Protano and Pasquale Avino
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030288 - 9 Mar 2017
Cited by 42 | Viewed by 5184
Abstract
Particulate matter has recently received more attention than other pollutants. PM10 and PM2.5 have been primarily monitored, whereas scientists are focusing their studies on finer granulometric sizes due both to their high number concentration and their high penetration efficiency into the respiratory system. [...] Read more.
Particulate matter has recently received more attention than other pollutants. PM10 and PM2.5 have been primarily monitored, whereas scientists are focusing their studies on finer granulometric sizes due both to their high number concentration and their high penetration efficiency into the respiratory system. The purpose of this study is to investigate the population exposure to UltraFine Particles (UFP, submicrons in general) in outdoor environments. The particle number doses deposited into the respiratory system have been compared between healthy individuals and persons affected by Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Measurements were performed by means of Dust Track and Nanoscan analyzers. Forty minute walking trails through areas with different traffic densities in downtown Rome have been considered. Furthermore, particle respiratory doses have been estimated for persons waiting at a bus stop, near a traffic light, or along a high-traffic road, as currently occurs in a big city. Large differences have been observed between workdays and weekdays: on workdays, UFP number concentrations are much higher due to the strong contribution of vehicular exhausts. COPD-affected individuals receive greater doses than healthy individuals due to their higher respiratory rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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Review

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4013 KiB  
Review
Supporting Active Mobility and Green Jobs through the Promotion of Cycling
by Rodrigo Scotini, Ian Skinner, Francesca Racioppi, Virginia Fusé, Jonas De Oliveira Bertucci and Rie Tsutsumi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121603 - 19 Dec 2017
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 6334
Abstract
This article is a summary of the main findings of the study “Riding towards the green economy: cycling and green jobs”, which was developed in the context of the Transport, Health and Environment pan-European Programme (THE PEP). It builds on previous work under [...] Read more.
This article is a summary of the main findings of the study “Riding towards the green economy: cycling and green jobs”, which was developed in the context of the Transport, Health and Environment pan-European Programme (THE PEP). It builds on previous work under THE PEP, which demonstrated the job creation potential of cycling and of green and healthy transport more generally. The report summarized in this article collected data on jobs associated with cycling directly from city authorities and analysed these to re-assess previous estimates of the job creation potential of cycling. It concluded that the number of cycling-related jobs in the pan-European Region could increase by 435,000 in selected major cities if they increased their cycling share to that of the Danish capital Copenhagen. The implications and potential role of municipal and sub-national authorities in facilitating cycling while supporting economic development are then discussed. These findings indicate that investment in policies that promote cycling could deliver not only important benefits for health, the environment and the quality of urban life, but could also contribute to a sizable creation of job opportunities. Authorities need to be proactive in promoting cycling in order to deliver these benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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642 KiB  
Review
Transtheoretical Model of Change during Travel Behavior Interventions: An Integrative Review
by Margareta Friman, Jana Huck and Lars E. Olsson
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(6), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14060581 - 30 May 2017
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 17277
Abstract
This study aims to identify the relevant empirical work, to synthesize its findings, and to thus attain a general understanding of the application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) in transport behavior research. An integrative literature review was used to determine whether or not [...] Read more.
This study aims to identify the relevant empirical work, to synthesize its findings, and to thus attain a general understanding of the application of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) in transport behavior research. An integrative literature review was used to determine whether or not the implemented interventions impact the stages and processes of travel behavior change. Data was collected from different databases. English language articles published between 2002 and 2017 were included. After sequentially narrowing the search and removing duplicates, 53 relevant papers remained, 13 of which fulfilled the stated criteria of constituting a transport intervention study using the TTM as a reference frame. The final 13 studies were classified and categorized according to stages and processes in the TTM. Findings showed that none of the interventions met the method requirements for a proper evaluation of design and outcome measurement. Reporting did not follow a standardized structure desirable when enabling comparative analyses. Allowing for these shortcomings, it is inferred that positive travel behavior changes have been obtained during some interventions. Importantly, although it was stated that the empirical studies were based on the TTM, the included interventions were implemented irrespective of the individual’s stage of change. For future research, it will be necessary to conduct evaluations of higher quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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Other

1698 KiB  
Protocol
Socio-Ecological Intervention to Promote Active Commuting to Work: Protocol and Baseline Findings of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Finland
by Minna Aittasalo, Johanna Tiilikainen, Kari Tokola, Timo Seimelä, Satu-Maaria Sarjala, Pasi Metsäpuro, Ari Hynynen, Jaana Suni, Harri Sievänen, Henri Vähä-Ypyä, Kalle Vaismaa, Olli Vakkala, Charlie Foster, Sylvia Titze and Tommi Vasankari
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101257 - 20 Oct 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5780
Abstract
Active commuting to work (ACW) is beneficial to traffic, environment and population health. More evidence is needed on effective ways to promote ACW. This paper describes the protocol and baseline findings of a cluster-randomized controlled study, which aims to promote ACW with multilevel [...] Read more.
Active commuting to work (ACW) is beneficial to traffic, environment and population health. More evidence is needed on effective ways to promote ACW. This paper describes the protocol and baseline findings of a cluster-randomized controlled study, which aims to promote ACW with multilevel strategies in two large workplace areas in Tampere, Finland. In Phase 1, the impacts of environmental strategies (trail improvements) were evaluated in 11 workplaces within Area 1. In Phase 2, five more workplaces were recruited from Area 2 to evaluate the impacts of social and behavioral strategies customized for each workplace. For this purpose, the workplaces in both areas were randomly assigned into experimental group (EXP, n = 6 + 2), which promoted ACW with social and behavioral strategies or into comparison group (COM, n = 5 + 3), which participated in the data collection only. The primary indicator in both phases is the change in employees’ ACW. Secondary indicators are e.g., changes in employees’ self-rated health, wellbeing at work, restrictions to and motivation for ACW, adverse effects due to ACW and the use and quality of the main walking and cycling trails. Also process, efficiency and environmental evaluation is included. The study is the first one in Finland to combine interdisciplinary collaboration between practitioners and researchers working in the fields of transportation, urban design, physical activity and sustainable development to promote ACW. The findings benefit all stakeholders interested in promoting ACW in urban context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
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