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Socio-Ecological Intervention to Promote Active Commuting to Work: Protocol and Baseline Findings of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Finland

UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research, P.O. Box 30, 33501 Tampere, Finland
Department of Transport and Streets, City of Tampere, P.O. Box 487, 33101 Tampere, Finland
School of Architecture, Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 600, 33101 Tampere, Finland
WSP Finland Ltd., Kelloportinkatu 1 D, 33100 Tampere, Finland
Ecofellows Ltd., Valssipadonraitti 3, 33100 Tampere, Finland
Centre for Exercise Nutrition and Health Sciences, School for Policy Studies, Faculty of Social Sciences and Law, University of Bristol, 8 Priory Road, Bristol BS8 1TZ, UK
Institute of Sport Science, University of Graz, Mozartgasse 14, 8010 Graz, Austria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Norbert Mundorf and Colleen A. Redding
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1257;
Received: 29 September 2017 / Revised: 10 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Transportation and Health)
PDF [1698 KB, uploaded 23 October 2017]


Active commuting to work (ACW) is beneficial to traffic, environment and population health. More evidence is needed on effective ways to promote ACW. This paper describes the protocol and baseline findings of a cluster-randomized controlled study, which aims to promote ACW with multilevel strategies in two large workplace areas in Tampere, Finland. In Phase 1, the impacts of environmental strategies (trail improvements) were evaluated in 11 workplaces within Area 1. In Phase 2, five more workplaces were recruited from Area 2 to evaluate the impacts of social and behavioral strategies customized for each workplace. For this purpose, the workplaces in both areas were randomly assigned into experimental group (EXP, n = 6 + 2), which promoted ACW with social and behavioral strategies or into comparison group (COM, n = 5 + 3), which participated in the data collection only. The primary indicator in both phases is the change in employees’ ACW. Secondary indicators are e.g., changes in employees’ self-rated health, wellbeing at work, restrictions to and motivation for ACW, adverse effects due to ACW and the use and quality of the main walking and cycling trails. Also process, efficiency and environmental evaluation is included. The study is the first one in Finland to combine interdisciplinary collaboration between practitioners and researchers working in the fields of transportation, urban design, physical activity and sustainable development to promote ACW. The findings benefit all stakeholders interested in promoting ACW in urban context. View Full-Text
Keywords: walking; cycling; workplace; health promotion; environment; multilevel; intervention; protocol walking; cycling; workplace; health promotion; environment; multilevel; intervention; protocol

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Aittasalo, M.; Tiilikainen, J.; Tokola, K.; Seimelä, T.; Sarjala, S.-M.; Metsäpuro, P.; Hynynen, A.; Suni, J.; Sievänen, H.; Vähä-Ypyä, H.; Vaismaa, K.; Vakkala, O.; Foster, C.; Titze, S.; Vasankari, T. Socio-Ecological Intervention to Promote Active Commuting to Work: Protocol and Baseline Findings of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial in Finland. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14, 1257.

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