Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Location and Study Population
2.2. Pictures of Bicycle Infrastructure Types
- “Invadable by car” cycle tracks. Cycle tracks demarcated with low markers including low plastic curbs easily driven over by vehicles.
- Shared use paths. Park setting multi-use paths shared by different types of users (SHUP).
- Painted bike lanes that are between the sidewalk curb and moving cars or between parallel-parked cars and moving cars. Bicycle lanes are a portion of the roadway designated for preferential use by bicyclists. They are one-way facilities that typically carry bicycle traffic in the same direction as adjacent motor vehicle traffic .
- Bus and Bike Lanes. Sections of streets that buses and bicyclists share. Mexico has discussed allowing people on bicycles to ride on the bus rapid transit lanes.
- Roads with no bicycle provision. Roads with high traffic, downtown streets, and neighborhood streets on which there is no paint or provision for bicyclists.
2.3. Survey Questionnaire and Qualitative Comments
- lower car/bike crashes
- lower crime
- increase economic development
- What aspect of the picture makes you think that it would lower or increase car/bike crashes?
- What element of the picture makes you think that it would lower or increase crime?
- What things in the picture give you the perception that it would increase/deter economic development?
2.4. Statistical and Content Analysis
3.1. Quantitative Analysis (Phase One, Survey)
3.1.1. Comparison of Means for Crash, Crime and Economic Development
3.1.2. Overall Ranking of Means
3.2. Qualitative Analysis (Phase Two, Group Discussions)
3.2.1. Not Invadable Cycle Tracks
3.2.2. Invadable Cycle Tracks
3.2.3. Shared Use Paths
3.2.4. Painted Bike Lanes
3.2.5. Shared Bus and Bike Lane
3.2.6. Road with No Bicycle Provision
Conflicts of Interest
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|Age||Sex||Under Median||Above Median|
|56 and older||Male||1||1|
|Comparisons of Means between Cycle Tracks and other Types of Infrastructure||Intragroup Comparisons of Means between Gender|
|A. Low Crashes||B. Low Crime||C. High Economic Development||A. Low Crashes||B. Low Crime||C. High Economic Development|
|Cycle tracks||Mean ± SD||4.56 ± 1.00||4.14 ± 0.819||4.33 ± 0.77||4.35 ± 1.008||4.79 ± 0.97||4.16 ± 0.655||4.12 ± 0.978||4.1 ± 0.77||4.56 ± 0.717|
|Invadable cycle tracks||Mean ± SD||3.78 ± 1.1||3.31 ± 0.89||3.06 ± 1.02||3.86 ± 1.047||3.69 ± 1.187||3.28 ± 1.014||3.34 ± 0.785||3.28 ± 0.938||2.84 ± 1.08|
|Shared use paths||Mean ± SD||4.470 ± 1.16||2.960 ±1.26||2.43 ± 1.45||4.4 ± 1.19||4.54 ± 1.17||2.88 ± 1.34||3.04 ± 1.203||2.02 ± 1.248||2.85 ± 1.566|
|Bike lanes||Mean ± SD||1.750 ± 1.06||2.93 ± 1.07||3.74 ± 1.11||1.86 ± 0.912||1.65 ± 1.217||2.83 ± 0.912||3.04 ± 1.244||3.81 ± 0.968||3.65 ± 1.26|
|Bus and bike lane||Mean ± SD||1.68 ± 0.99||3.0 ± 0.93||3.38 ± 1.04||1.86 ± 0.875||1.5 ± 1.09||3.0 ± 0.771||3.02 ± 0.164||3.31 ± 0.852||3.45 ± 1.23|
|Roads with no bicycle provision||Mean ± SD||1.05 ± 0.73||2.42 ± 0.78||2.71 ± 1.06||1.4 ± 0.704||0.69 ± 0.577||2.4 ± 0.745||2.36 ± 0.834||2.91 ± 1.03||2.5 ± 1.08|
|Type of Infrastructure||Compared To|
|Mean ± SD||Mean ± SD||p|
|Cycle tracks||4.3473 ± 0.622||Invadable cycle track||3.39 ± 0.749||0.000|
|Shared use paths||3.29 ± 0.94||0.000|
|Bike lanes||2.81 ± 0.767||0.000|
|Bike and bus lanes||2.69 ± 0.653||0.000|
|Road w/no bike prov||2.06 ± 0.589||0.000|
|Invadable Cycle tracks||3.39 ± 0.749||Shared use paths||3.29 ± 0.94||0.503|
|Bike Lanes||2.81 ± 0.767||0.000|
|Bus and bike lane||2.69 ± 0.653||0.000|
|Road w/no bike prov||2.06 ± 0.589||0.000|
|Shared use paths||3.29 ± 0.94||Bike Lanes||2.81 ± 0.767||0.003|
|Bus and bike lane||2.69 ± 0.653||0.001|
|Road w.no bike prob||2.06 ± 0.589||0.000|
|Bike Lanes||2.81 ± 0.767||Bus and bike lane||2.69 ± 0.653||0.323|
|Road w/no bike prov||2.06 ± 0.589||0.000|
|Bus with bike lanes||2.69 ± 0.653||Road w/no bike prov||2.06 ± 0.589||0.000|
|Cycle track||“The most important thing is that everyone knows where they should be.” (male, 52 A)|
“There is a right place for each one.” (female, 49)
“If there was that kind of bike infrastructure (so safe), I would use my bicycle for some utilitarian purposes”. (female, 41 A)
|Physical separation that makes evident the place for each user of the road, regardless of level of education .|
Bicycle facilities physically separated from cars and bicycle exclusive paths [62,63].
Robust bicycling infrastructure to increase the preference of cycling [64,65].
|“Where everyone would want to stay.” (female, 25)|
“A paradise.” (female, 60)
“I think the curb or the planter is the best. They cause more respect than the bumpers which can be crushed or jumped with the car.” (male, 39)
“(the place)…is not 100% safe, but there is a curb that separates them (people on bicycles) from the cars.” (female, 27)
“…(plants) bring the feeling of a real division.” (male, 54)
|A place to enjoy, rather than to go by . |
Trees and or plants are not an amenity, they’re a necessity .
|“Seems like they give importance and respect to the bicycle path.” (female, 47)||Build cycle tracks that provide a sense of equity for all users; cycling infrastructure that is not only safe, but also convenient and attractive .|
|Invadable cycle track||“I prefer thousand times the curbside.” (female, 54)|
“There is a risk with the parked cars because of the door openings.” (male, 29)
|Leave a buffer between the cycle track and the parked cars. Use barriers that impede the temporary invasion from the automobiles .|
|“Cars don’t respect the cycle track.” (male, 44)|
“Drivers would invade it during the parking maneuvers.” (male, 40)
“There’s no road culture at all. They don’t respect the signals and park everywhere.” (male, 63)
“The lack of consciousness from the automotive drivers, makes them constantly invade diverse sections of the cycle track.” (female, 34)
“That could be possible in another country, with a better culture.” (male, 31)
“It is really important to have physical delimitations, barriers.” (female, 34)
“In México, people ought to have a barrier, because if not, drivers would invade, with all sorts of excuses.” (female, 54)
|Physical separation can be a great substitute if law enforcement is absent and/or if people tend to disobey traffic signals.|
|“There should be bigger protections with more visibility and lower ability to be destroyed.” (male, 40)|
“…protection dividing parked cars and cycle track.” (female, 28)
|Metal fences can be aesthetic, durable, and easy removable when needed (for instance, to widen the cycle track).|
|Shared use path||“Bicycle can cause an accident with pedestrians” (male, 61)|
“(when sharing the space with cyclists) …especially kids and pets are vulnerable.” (female, 28)
“Made for a Sunday.” (female, 36)
“For recreational purposes.” (male, 33)
|Provide separate paths for pedestrians and cyclists . |
Expect them to be used on weekends.
|Painted bike lane||“I think it is poorly designed because the cyclist is placed after the parked cars, beside the vehicle flow.” (female, 56)|
“Cars could use the cycle lane to pass on the right.” (male, 39)
|Protected cycle tracks.|
|“The separation does not work with paint.” (female, 37)|
“The car driver invades the lane meant to be for the cyclist.” (female, 56)
“The illusion of safety could invite new users, exposing them to imminent dangers.” (male, 40)
|Physical clear separation is needed in order to provide a safe ride. Let the infrastructure forgive possible mistakes of users of the road.|
|Bus and bike lane||“With Mexican idiosyncrasy, you cannot expect bus drivers to share the road.” (female, 49)||Separate bus lane from bike lane: protected cycle tracks.|
|Road with no bicycle provision||“The cyclist is fully exposed to an accident.” (female, 37)|
“(The person on a bicycle) … is playing with his/her life.” (female, 60)
“It is hard that a child or a woman takes the risk ridding through that avenue, unless it is strictly necessary.” (female, 41 B)
“It is fundamental to have a separated infrastructure.” (male, 35 A)
|Focus built environment on safety for all users (pedestrian, cyclists, transit riders, etc), rather than speed of vehicles .|
|Cycle track||“It’s secure because it is very busy; lots of people passing by.” (female, 41 A)||The fear of crime can be reduced in places where there are people (pedestrians, cyclists) passing by and activity taking place [69,70].|
“Eyes on the street” and “natural surveillance” and fixing broken windows [33,35,46].
Social fabric that defends itself .
Places free from crime and from the fear of crime improves the quality of life [34,69,71].
|“I see it is a secure place, because trees are trimmed. It allows one to see far away. There’s lighting.” (male, 52 B)||Tree species should be carefully chosen and trimmed to increase visibility.|
|“Bushes are sometimes used to hide to assault.” (male, 40)|
“Trees give the impression of insecurity during night.” (female, 36)
|Use short bushes.|
|Invadable cycle track||“Security is improved with the cycle track (people going by).” (female, 42)||Make the cycle track attractive. Well-developed local network structures reduce crime by increasing informal control .|
|Shared use paths||“There is little public lighting and it becomes highly risky.” (female, 33)||Provide sufficient public lighting.|
|Painted bike lane||“Plenty of insecurity, because there are a lot of parked cars, and they can become a place for someone to hide and assault.” (male, 33)||Use parking spaces to build a cycle track and/or widen the sidewalk.|
|Bus and bike lane||“It seems like a very lonely place. There is high insecurity.” (female, 41 C)|
|Road with no bicycle provision||“There can be crime because there are no people around.” (female, 36)|
“Delinquency is looking for lone places to perform.” (male, 52 B)
“I am alarmed by the possibility of crime, because it seems a low transited zone.” (female, 54)
|Improve pedestrian and cyclists flow by widening the sidewalks and building safe bike infrastructure . Busy streets lower vulnerability compared with not busy.|
|C. Economic development|
|Cycle track||“Economic development does great, and therefore there is less risk of crime.” (female, 60)||Build places that will attract people (wide sidewalks, trees and plants, benches).|
Bike lanes and on-street parking have been found to increase business [49,73,74].
|“There is economic development because there’s a lot of movement, a lot of people going by.” (female, 33)||Invest in bicycling infrastructure. “It is a cost-effective way to enhance shopping districts and communities, generate tourism and support business”  (p. 2)|
|“There’s a lot of potential for economic development, because of the wide sidewalks.” (female, 42)|
“Because of the wide sidewalk, and places for people on bicycles, economic activity would do well.” (female, 27)
“There is a beautiful sidewalk that allows one as a pedestrian to want to walk on that place.” (male, 39)
|Widen sidewalks .|
|“It is a public open space. One can sit down. It could increase retail revenues. One craves for something.” (male, 35 B)||A place to enjoy, rather than to go by.|
|“Economic development is favored. Easy access.” (female, 41 C)|
“It is a very inclusive area, of every users of the street.” (female, 36)
“Spaces are well managed, distributed among all users of the road.” (male, 42)
|Build infrastructure that provides a sense of equity for all users [75,76].|
|“I love cafe tables outside. The foreigner likes to sit under the sun, be in the outdoors and feel the city.” (female, 54)||Allow cafes and restaurants to have tables outside.|
|Invadable cycle track||“Ground floor for retail is an economic trigger.” (female, 53)|
|Shared use path||“There is no possibility of economic development because it is a way for people to exercise.” (male, 35 B)||Even though retail is not fostered by this type of infrastructure, it is of value itself .|
|Painted bike lane||“It is a lonely place. Retails wouldn’t do well.” (female, 60)||Promote mixed land use.|
|Bus with bike lanes||“It would be very positive for downtown development, so that people could walk calmly. It looks better without cars.” (female, 54)||When there is little space, use bus-bike and sharrows together with traffic calming strategies [78,79,80].|
|Road with no bicycle provision||“Low economic development, because there are just cars going by.” (male, 33)|
“Retail can benefit if access to them were diverse.” (female, 41 B)
“Adequate infrastructure would allow profit for retail.” (female, 28)
“Economic development could be improved by better administration of the public space, because it is now neglected.” (male, 33)
“I think that retail would do well because of the location but poor accessibility could affect business. There is no order on the street.” (male, 61)
|Built infrastructure that provides accessibility for all users. Increase in bicycling can be of great economic impact .|
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Alveano-Aguerrebere, I.; Javier Ayvar-Campos, F.; Farvid, M.; Lusk, A. Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010001
Alveano-Aguerrebere I, Javier Ayvar-Campos F, Farvid M, Lusk A. Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(1):1. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010001Chicago/Turabian Style
Alveano-Aguerrebere, Inés, Francisco Javier Ayvar-Campos, Maryam Farvid, and Anne Lusk. 2018. "Bicycle Facilities That Address Safety, Crime, and Economic Development: Perceptions from Morelia, Mexico" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 1: 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010001