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Special Issue "Soil Pollution and Remediation"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Science and Engineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 April 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Jorge Paz-Ferreiro

Chemical and Environmental Engineering, School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne VIC 3001, Australia
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Interests: biochar; land contamination; waste management; phytoremediation; heavy metals; soil remediation; greenhouse gas emissions; cadmium
Guest Editor
Dr. Gabriel Gascó Guerrero

Departamento de Producción Agraria, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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Guest Editor
Dr. Ana Maria Mendez

Departamento de Ingeniería Geológica y Minera. Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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Guest Editor
Dr. Suzie M. Reichman

School of Engineering, RMIT University, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: soil chemistry, plant nutrition, rhizosphere chemistry, metal and metalloid bioavailability in soil, ecotoxicology and environmental impact assessment

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health welcomes submissions for a Special Issue of the journal. This Special Issue will focus on soil pollution and remediation.

Industrialized economies and developing countries are affected by soil pollution originated from mining, industrial activities, an improper disposal of waste and mechanized agriculture. Soil pollution could lead to an impact on crop productivity and human health. Investigating the sources, fate and occurrence of soil pollution and the risks posed to human health has been an important area of research.

There are multiple challenges associated with the remediation of polluted soil and new and innovative techniques have been used for this, including the use of soil amendments, thermal desorption, soil washing, electrokinetic remediation and bioremediation.
This Special Issue welcomes articles on these and other themes relating to soil pollution and remediation.

Dr. Jorge Paz-Ferreiro
Dr. Gabriel Gascó Guerrero
Dr. Ana Maria Mendez
Dr. Suzie Reichman
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Soil pollution
  • Soil remediation
  • Heavy metals
  • Organic pollutants
  • Risk assessment

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Soil Pollution and Remediation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081657
Received: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 5 August 2018
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(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Remediation)

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle
Which Compounds Contribute Most to Elevated Soil Pollution and the Corresponding Health Risks in Floodplains in the Headwater Areas of the Central European Watershed?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1146; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061146
Received: 13 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 29 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The main topic of this study is a human health risk assessment of a defined exposure scenario in the floodplain soils of the headwater areas of the central European watershed, with the aim of exploring both multivariate and regional data structures. Flood-prone areas [...] Read more.
The main topic of this study is a human health risk assessment of a defined exposure scenario in the floodplain soils of the headwater areas of the central European watershed, with the aim of exploring both multivariate and regional data structures. Flood-prone areas are recognized worldwide to be susceptible to contamination and its redistribution. Contributions of various classes of toxic compounds (organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) to human health risks were assessed in a screening risk assessment. However, due to the relative nature of our data and a high PAH dominancy over the data ensemble, reliance solely on the standard statistical processing of raw data might lead to incomplete insight into the structure of the multivariate data. Explanatory analysis of the data structure using the compositional approach was found to be beneficial to elucidating human health risk profiles and provided robust evidence that a contrast between agricultural and airborne industrial pollution controlled the whole human toxicological variation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in floodplain soils. These results were effectively quantified with the subcomposition of benzo(a)pyrene, DDT, and alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane (aHCH), allowing for an interpretation of structural differences in regional pollution patterns, which conferred different extents and compositions of human health risks in floodplain soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Roadside Soil in Urban Area and the Related Impacting Factors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(6), 1064; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15061064
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 21 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 24 May 2018
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1293 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heavy metal contamination in roadside soil due to traffic emission has been recognized for a long time. However, seldom has been reported regarding identification of critical factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in urban roadside soils due to the frequent disturbances such [...] Read more.
Heavy metal contamination in roadside soil due to traffic emission has been recognized for a long time. However, seldom has been reported regarding identification of critical factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in urban roadside soils due to the frequent disturbances such as the repair of damaged roads and green belt maintanance. Heavy metals in the roadside soils of 45 roads in Xihu district, Hangzhou city were investigated. Results suggested the accumulation of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Zn in roadside soil was affected by human activity. However, only two sites had Pb and Zn excessing the standards for residential areas, respectively, according to Chinese Environmental Quality Standards for soils. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were significantly and positively correlated to soil pH and organic matter. An insignificant correlation between the age of the roads or vegetation cover types and the concentration of heavy metals was found although they were reported closely relating to the accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soils of highways. The highest Pb, Cd, and Cr taking place in sites with heavy traffic and significant differences in the concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn among the different categories of roads suggested the contribution of traffic intensity. However, it was difficult to establish a quantitative relationship between traffic intensity and the concentrations of heavy metals in the roadside soil. It could be concluded that impaction of traffic emission on the accumulation of heavy metals in roadside soils in urban area was slight and soil properties such as pH and organic matters were critical factors influencing the retention of heavy metals in soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Dechlorination of Hexachlorobenzene in Contaminated Soils Using a Nanometallic Al/CaO Dispersion Mixture: Optimization through Response Surface Methodology
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050872
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3072 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) contamination of soils remains a significant environmental challenge all over the world. Reductive stabilization is a developing technology that can decompose the HCB with a dechlorination process. A nanometallic Al/CaO (n-Al/CaO) dispersion mixture was developed utilizing ball-milling technology in this study. [...] Read more.
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) contamination of soils remains a significant environmental challenge all over the world. Reductive stabilization is a developing technology that can decompose the HCB with a dechlorination process. A nanometallic Al/CaO (n-Al/CaO) dispersion mixture was developed utilizing ball-milling technology in this study. The dechlorination efficiency of HCB in contaminated soils by the n-Al/CaO grinding treatment was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of three variables (soil moisture content, n-Al/CaO dosage and grinding time) and the interactions between these variables under the Box-Behnken Design (BBD). A high regression coefficient value (R2 = 0.9807) and low p value (<0.0001) of the quadratic model indicated that the model was accurate in predicting the experimental results. The optimal soil moisture content, n-Al/CaO dosage, and grinding time were found to be 7% (m/m), 17.7% (m/m), and 24 h, respectively, in the experimental ranges and levels. Under optimal conditions, the dechlorination efficiency was 80%. The intermediate product analysis indicated that dechlorination was the process by stepwise loss of chloride atoms. The main pathway observed within 24 h was HCB → pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) → 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) and 1,2,4,5-TeCB. The results indicated that the moderate soil moisture content was crucial for the hydrodechlorination of HCB. A probable mechanism was proposed wherein water acted like a hydrogen donor and promoted the hydrodechlorination process. The potential application of n-Al/CaO is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective option for decontamination of HCB-contaminated soils. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Heavy Metal Pollution Delineation Based on Uncertainty in a Coastal Industrial City in the Yangtze River Delta, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040710
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 31 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 April 2018 / Published: 10 April 2018
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (63750 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Assessing heavy metal pollution and delineating pollution are the bases for evaluating pollution and determining a cost-effective remediation plan. Most existing studies are based on the spatial distribution of pollutants but ignore related uncertainty. In this study, eight heavy-metal concentrations (Cr, Pb, Cd, [...] Read more.
Assessing heavy metal pollution and delineating pollution are the bases for evaluating pollution and determining a cost-effective remediation plan. Most existing studies are based on the spatial distribution of pollutants but ignore related uncertainty. In this study, eight heavy-metal concentrations (Cr, Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were collected at 1040 sampling sites in a coastal industrial city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. The single pollution index (PI) and Nemerow integrated pollution index (NIPI) were calculated for every surface sample (0–20 cm) to assess the degree of heavy metal pollution. Ordinary kriging (OK) was used to map the spatial distribution of heavy metals content and NIPI. Then, we delineated composite heavy metal contamination based on the uncertainty produced by indicator kriging (IK). The results showed that mean values of all PIs and NIPIs were at safe levels. Heavy metals were most accumulated in the central portion of the study area. Based on IK, the spatial probability of composite heavy metal pollution was computed. The probability of composite contamination in the central core urban area was highest. A probability of 0.6 was found as the optimum probability threshold to delineate polluted areas from unpolluted areas for integrative heavy metal contamination. Results of pollution delineation based on uncertainty showed the proportion of false negative error areas was 6.34%, while the proportion of false positive error areas was 0.86%. The accuracy of the classification was 92.80%. This indicated the method we developed is a valuable tool for delineating heavy metal pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Toxicity Thresholds Based on EDTA Extractable Nickel and Barley Root Elongation in Chinese Soils
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040669
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 30 March 2018 / Published: 4 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3851 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The uncertainty in the risk assessment of trace metal elements in soils when total metal contents are used can be decreased by assessing their availability and/or extractability when the soils have a high background value or different sources of trace metal elements. In [...] Read more.
The uncertainty in the risk assessment of trace metal elements in soils when total metal contents are used can be decreased by assessing their availability and/or extractability when the soils have a high background value or different sources of trace metal elements. In this study, the added water-soluble nickel (Ni) toxicity to barley root elongation was studied in 17 representative Chinese soil samples with and without artificial rainwater leaching. The extractability of added Ni in soils was estimated by three sequential extractions with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The results showed that the effective concentration of EDTA extractable Ni (EC50), which caused 50% inhibition of barley root elongation, ranged from 46 to 1019 mg/kg in unleached soils and 24 to 1563 mg/kg in leached soils. Regression models for EDTA extractable Ni and total Ni added to soils against soil properties indicated that EDTA extractable Ni was significantly correlated with the total Ni added to soils and that pH was the most important control factor. Regression models for toxicity thresholds based on EDTA extractable Ni against soil properties showed that soil citrate dithionate extractable Fe was more important than soil pH in predicting Ni toxicity. These results can be used to accurately assess the risk of contaminated soils with high background values and/or different Ni sources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Fractionation, Bioaccessibility, and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Soil of an Urban Recreational Area Amended with Composted Sewage Sludge
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 613; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040613
Received: 9 February 2018 / Revised: 20 March 2018 / Accepted: 21 March 2018 / Published: 28 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1035 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A composted sewage sludge (CSS) was added to the soil of an urban garden at 5%, 10%, and 25% (w/w soil) and stabilised for 180 days. Samples were then collected and analysed for total heavy metal concentrations, chemical fractions, and [...] Read more.
A composted sewage sludge (CSS) was added to the soil of an urban garden at 5%, 10%, and 25% (w/w soil) and stabilised for 180 days. Samples were then collected and analysed for total heavy metal concentrations, chemical fractions, and bioaccessibility, together with some physicochemical properties. The results showed that the total chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) concentrations were increased with CSS addition rate. The CSS addition decreased the residual fractions of these four elements. The exchangeable Cr, Cu, and Pb fractions were very small or not detected, while Zn exhibited an increasing trend in its exchangeable fraction with CSS addition rate. The bioaccessibility of these four elements was increased with the CSS addition rate. Moreover, the Cr, Cu, and Zn bioaccessibility correlated positively with the total concentration, while the bioaccessibility of these four elements exhibited a negative correlation with the residual fraction. The fractionation and bioaccessibility of heavy metals may have also been influenced by pH, cation exchange capacity, and organic matter. The risk assessment code reflected the amended soil showed no or low environmental risks for Cr, Cu, and Pb and a medium risk for Zn. The hazardous index values and cancer risk levels indicated that the heavy metals in the soil amended with 25% CSS posed negligible potential noncarcinogenic and carcinogenic risks to children and adults via incidental ingestion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Horizontal and Vertical Distributions of Chromium in a Chromate Production District of South Central China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040571
Received: 24 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To study the horizontal and vertical distribution of chromium (Cr) in the soil of a chromate production site (CPS) and its nearby area (NA-CPS) in south central China, 61 profiles (depth: 14 m) in the CPS and 69 samples (topsoil) were excavated following [...] Read more.
To study the horizontal and vertical distribution of chromium (Cr) in the soil of a chromate production site (CPS) and its nearby area (NA-CPS) in south central China, 61 profiles (depth: 14 m) in the CPS and 69 samples (topsoil) were excavated following a grid-sampling method. The geographic coordinates, elevation, and types of soil layers were recorded, and the total Cr in the soil and the total Cr and Cr(VI) in the leachate of the soil and in the groundwater were determined. Migration of Cr in surface soils may be represented in terms of a multiple linear regression equation (R2adj = 0.632). Distance, elevation, and pH are the primary factors that influence the horizontal distribution of Cr content in the surface soils, while the Cr concentration in different soil profiles mostly obeys the positive or negative binomial distributions. For a positive distribution, the Cr concentration decreases with increasing depth in the 0.0–8.0 m soil layer, under the fixing effect of soil. However, it shows an upward trend with a depth in the 8–14 m soil layer under the influence of Cr-polluted phreatic water. Under a negative distribution, Cr content is stable in the 0–6 m layer because of the influence of chromite ore processing residue mixed with miscellaneous fills, but it decreases obviously in the 6–14 m layer under the fixing effect of soil. Similar vertical distributions were observed for pH, LCr, LCr6+, and PCr6+. The decreasing amplitude of the Cr concentration for binomial distributions is mainly affected by the Cr concentration, pH, and LRCr of the soil. Moreover, PCr6+ of soil increases with pH, and the type of soil layer is the primary factor influencing LRCr in the soil profiles. Our results of the horizontal and vertical distributions of Cr could be used to guide investigations that are focused on reducing the number of samples in the horizontal and vertical directions at CPSs, and to improve risk assessments of CPSs and nearby areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of Cassia alata L. Coupled with Biochar for Heavy Metal Stabilization in Multi-Metal Mine Tailings
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030494
Received: 20 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2245 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To explore the effect of different biochars on Cassia alata L. growth and heavy metal immobilization in multi-metal mine tailings, a 100-day pot experiment was conducted. Three biochars derived from Hibiscus cannabinus core (HB), sewage sludge (SB) and chicken manure (MB), were added [...] Read more.
To explore the effect of different biochars on Cassia alata L. growth and heavy metal immobilization in multi-metal mine tailings, a 100-day pot experiment was conducted. Three biochars derived from Hibiscus cannabinus core (HB), sewage sludge (SB) and chicken manure (MB), were added to mine tailings at rates of 0.4%, 1% and 3% (w/w). The results showed that the root biomass, shoot biomass, plant height and root length were 1.2–2.8, 1.7–3.2, 1–1.5 and 1.6–3.3 times of those in the control group, respectively. Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd and As contents in the shoot decreased by 63.9–89.5%, 46.9–66.0%, 32.7–62.4%, 40.4–76.4% and 54.9–77.5%, respectively. The biochar significantly increased the pH and decreased the mild acid-soluble Pb and Cu concentrations in the mine tailings. Specifically, SB immobilized Pb and Cu better than MB and HB did, although it did not immobilize As, Zn or Cd. Meanwhile, more attention should be paid to the potential As release as the biochar application rate increases. In conclusion, Cassia alata L. coupled with 3% of SB could be an effective measure for restoring multi-metal mine tailings. This study herein provided a promising ecological restoration technique for future practice of heavy metal stabilization in mine tailings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison Study on the Estimation of the Spatial Distribution of Regional Soil Metal(loid)s Pollution Based on Kriging Interpolation and BP Neural Network
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010034
Received: 27 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 22 December 2017 / Published: 26 December 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3276 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Soil pollution by metal(loid)s resulting from rapid economic development is a major concern. Accurately estimating the spatial distribution of soil metal(loid) pollution has great significance in preventing and controlling soil pollution. In this study, 126 topsoil samples were collected in Kunshan City and [...] Read more.
Soil pollution by metal(loid)s resulting from rapid economic development is a major concern. Accurately estimating the spatial distribution of soil metal(loid) pollution has great significance in preventing and controlling soil pollution. In this study, 126 topsoil samples were collected in Kunshan City and the geo-accumulation index was selected as a pollution index. We used Kriging interpolation and BP neural network methods to estimate the spatial distribution of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) pollution in the study area. Additionally, we introduced a cross-validation method to measure the errors of the estimation results by the two interpolation methods and discussed the accuracy of the information contained in the estimation results. The conclusions are as follows: data distribution characteristics, spatial variability, and mean square errors (MSE) of the different methods showed large differences. Estimation results from BP neural network models have a higher accuracy, the MSE of As and Cd are 0.0661 and 0.1743, respectively. However, the interpolation results show significant skewed distribution, and spatial autocorrelation is strong. Using Kriging interpolation, the MSE of As and Cd are 0.0804 and 0.2983, respectively. The estimation results have poorer accuracy. Combining the two methods can improve the accuracy of the Kriging interpolation and more comprehensively represent the spatial distribution characteristics of metal(loid)s in regional soil. The study may provide a scientific basis and technical support for the regulation of soil metal(loid) pollution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Concept of Aided Phytostabilization of Contaminated Soils in Postindustrial Areas
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010024
Received: 3 November 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 21 December 2017 / Published: 23 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (4256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of trace element immobilizing soil amendments, i.e., chalcedonite, dolomite, halloysite, and diatomite on the chemical characteristics of soil contaminated with Cr and the uptake of metals by plants. The study utilized analysis [...] Read more.
The experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of trace element immobilizing soil amendments, i.e., chalcedonite, dolomite, halloysite, and diatomite on the chemical characteristics of soil contaminated with Cr and the uptake of metals by plants. The study utilized analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA). The content of trace elements in plants, pseudo-total and extracted by 0.01 M CaCl2, were determined using the method of spectrophotometry. All of the investigated element contents in the tested parts of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) differed significantly in the case of applying amendments to the soil, as well as Cr contamination. The greatest average above-ground biomass was observed when halloysite and dolomite were amended to the soil. Halloysite caused significant increases of Cr concentrations in the roots. The obtained values of bioconcentration and translocation factors observed for halloysite treatment indicate the effectiveness of using Indian mustard in phytostabilization techniques. The addition of diatomite significantly increased soil pH. Halloysite and chalcedonite were shown to be the most effective and decreased the average Cr, Cu and Zn contents in soil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle
Bioabsorption and Bioaccumulation of Cadmium in the Straw and Grain of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Growing Soils Contaminated with Cadmium in Different Environment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(11), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14111399
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 14 November 2017 / Accepted: 14 November 2017 / Published: 16 November 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (566 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a worldwide increase of heavy metal or potentially toxic element (PTE), contamination in agricultural soils caused mainly by human and industrial action, which leads to food contamination in crops such as in maize. Cadmium (Cd) is a PTE often found in [...] Read more.
There is a worldwide increase of heavy metal or potentially toxic element (PTE), contamination in agricultural soils caused mainly by human and industrial action, which leads to food contamination in crops such as in maize. Cadmium (Cd) is a PTE often found in soils and it is ingested through food. It is necessary to determine the bioabsorption, distribution, and accumulation levels in maize to reduce or prevent food chain contamination. Cadmium absorption and accumulation in three maize cultivars were evaluated in three agricultural environments in Chile by increasing CdCl2 rates (0, 1, and 2 mg·kg−1). Evaluation included Cd accumulation and distribution in different plant tissues, bioaccumulation factor (BAF), bioconcentration factor (BCF), translocation factor (TF), and tolerance index (TI). Cadmium whole-plant uptake was only affected by the CdCl2 rate; the highest uptake was obtained with 2 mg·kg−1 CdCl2 (34.4 g·ha−1) (p < 0.05). Cadmium distribution in the maize plant usually exhibited the highest accumulation in the straw (p < 0.05), independently of the environment, Cd rate, and evaluated cultivar. Given the results for TF (TF > 2) and BAF (BAF > 1), the Los Tilos and Chillán environments were classified as having a high capacity to contaminate the food chain for all evaluated cultivars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Remediation)
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