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Open AccessArticle

Dechlorination of Hexachlorobenzene in Contaminated Soils Using a Nanometallic Al/CaO Dispersion Mixture: Optimization through Response Surface Methodology

Key Laboratory for Solid Waste Management and Environment Safety (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education of China, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050872
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soil Pollution and Remediation)
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) contamination of soils remains a significant environmental challenge all over the world. Reductive stabilization is a developing technology that can decompose the HCB with a dechlorination process. A nanometallic Al/CaO (n-Al/CaO) dispersion mixture was developed utilizing ball-milling technology in this study. The dechlorination efficiency of HCB in contaminated soils by the n-Al/CaO grinding treatment was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of three variables (soil moisture content, n-Al/CaO dosage and grinding time) and the interactions between these variables under the Box-Behnken Design (BBD). A high regression coefficient value (R2 = 0.9807) and low p value (<0.0001) of the quadratic model indicated that the model was accurate in predicting the experimental results. The optimal soil moisture content, n-Al/CaO dosage, and grinding time were found to be 7% (m/m), 17.7% (m/m), and 24 h, respectively, in the experimental ranges and levels. Under optimal conditions, the dechlorination efficiency was 80%. The intermediate product analysis indicated that dechlorination was the process by stepwise loss of chloride atoms. The main pathway observed within 24 h was HCB → pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) → 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB) and 1,2,4,5-TeCB. The results indicated that the moderate soil moisture content was crucial for the hydrodechlorination of HCB. A probable mechanism was proposed wherein water acted like a hydrogen donor and promoted the hydrodechlorination process. The potential application of n-Al/CaO is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective option for decontamination of HCB-contaminated soils. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanometallic Al/CaO; ball milling; dechlorination; response surface methodology nanometallic Al/CaO; ball milling; dechlorination; response surface methodology
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Jiang, Y.; Shang, Y.; Yu, S.; Liu, J. Dechlorination of Hexachlorobenzene in Contaminated Soils Using a Nanometallic Al/CaO Dispersion Mixture: Optimization through Response Surface Methodology. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 872.

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