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Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 December 2022) | Viewed by 68166

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
School of Health Sciences, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44240, USA
Interests: exercise; leisure and sport; health sciences; salt intake; blood pressure regulation; exercise physiology; environmental physiology; cardiac rehabilitation; clinical exercise physiology; environmental physiology with a special interest in cold exposure hypoxia and heat and how the individual responds to these physiological stressors; enhancing the cognitive and functional fitness of the older adult through exercise programs; enhancing human performance and cognitive function; physical activity; obesity
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Guest Editor
POSTECH Sports AIX Graduate Program, Korea Sport Industry Development Institute (KSIDI), POSTECH, Pohang-si 37673, Korea
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The interaction between exercise and cognitive function is a rapidly growing research area that is becoming more important for the health and performance of those who participate in many recreational or occupational activities. Advanced knowledge and a better understanding of the interaction between exercise and cognitive function will promote our abilities to react and prevent work-related injury, illness, and death.

This Special Issue seeks original research articles and systemic review articles that inspire the continuing effort to evaluate exercise and cognitive function interfaces, including the impact of diet and environmental conditions related to public health at all stages of the life cycle. Epidemiological and mechanistic studies will be considered. High-quality narrative and systematic reviews will be also considered.

Prof. Dr. Ellen Glickman
Dr. Yongsuk Seo
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Exercise (physically demanding activities) and cognitive function
  • Strategies that prevent cognitive dysfunction and mood state disturbance
  • Environmental stress (heat, cold, hypoxia, and air pollution)
  • Aging

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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8 pages, 622 KiB  
Article
Added Inspiratory Resistance Does Not Impair Cognitive Function and Mood State
by Yongsuk Seo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(3), 2743; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032743 - 3 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1208
Abstract
This study evaluated cognitive function and mood state with inspiratory resistance before and after maximal exercise in hypoxia. Nine healthy men (age = 25 ± 2 years) performed the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics—4th Edition (ANAM4) of the Stroop color–word test (SCWT) and total [...] Read more.
This study evaluated cognitive function and mood state with inspiratory resistance before and after maximal exercise in hypoxia. Nine healthy men (age = 25 ± 2 years) performed the Automated Neuropsychological Assessment Metrics—4th Edition (ANAM4) of the Stroop color–word test (SCWT) and total mood disturbance (TMD) before and after an incremental cycling exercise until volitional fatigue with four different inspiratory resistances (0, 1.5, 4.5, 7.5 cm H2O·L−1·s−1). There was no significant difference in the interference score of SCWT and TMD at normobaric, hypoxic conditions at four different inspiratory resistances. However, the interference score of SCWT was improved following maximal cycling exercise, whereas TMD was not improved. Inspiratory resistance did not have a deleterious effect on cognitive function and mood state in normobaric hypoxia after maximal cycling exercise. However, following maximal cycling exercise, cognitive function was improved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
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14 pages, 3441 KiB  
Article
Acute Effects of Fitlight Training on Cognitive-Motor Processes in Young Basketball Players
by Fioretta Silvestri, Matteo Campanella, Maurizio Bertollo, Maicon Rodrigues Albuquerque, Valerio Bonavolontà, Fabrizio Perroni, Carlo Baldari, Laura Guidetti and Davide Curzi
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(1), 817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20010817 - 1 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3381
Abstract
Cognitive-motor training could be used to improve open-skill sport performances, increasing cognitive demands to stimulate executive function (EF) development. Nevertheless, a distributed training proposal for the improvement of EFs is increasingly difficult to combine with seasonal sport commitments. This study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Cognitive-motor training could be used to improve open-skill sport performances, increasing cognitive demands to stimulate executive function (EF) development. Nevertheless, a distributed training proposal for the improvement of EFs is increasingly difficult to combine with seasonal sport commitments. This study aimed to investigate whether a massed basketball training program enriched with Fitlight training can improve EFs and motor performance. Forty-nine players (age = 15.0 ± 1.5 yrs) were assigned to the control and Fitlight-trained (FITL) groups, which performed 3 weeks of massed basketball practice, including 25 min per day of shooting sessions or Fitlight training, respectively. All athletes were tested in cognitive tasks (Flanker/Reverse Flanker; Digit Span) and fitness tests (Agility T-test; Yo-Yo IR1). During the intervention, exercise/session perceived effort (eRPE/sRPE) and enjoyment were collected. RM-ANOVA showed significant EFs scores increased in both groups over time, without differences between the groups. Moreover, an increased sRPE and eRPE appeared in the FITL group (p = 0.0001; p = 0.01), with no group differences in activity enjoyment and fitness tests. Three weeks of massed basketball training improved EFs and motor performance in young players. The additional Fitlight training increased the perceived cognitive effort without decreasing enjoyment, even if it seems unable to induce additional improvements in EFs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
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16 pages, 2039 KiB  
Article
Short and Long-Term Trainability in Older Adults: Training and Detraining Following Two Years of Multicomponent Cognitive—Physical Exercise Training
by Cristina Blasco-Lafarga, Ana Cordellat, Anabel Forte, Ainoa Roldán and Pablo Monteagudo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165984 - 18 Aug 2020
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 3972
Abstract
Despite the benefits of multicomponent physical–cognitive training programs (MCCogTPs), lower training intensities in the concurrent approach, and bigger heterogeneity with aging, suggest the need for long-term analyses, with special attention to training and detraining in older adults. The present study aims [...] Read more.
Despite the benefits of multicomponent physical–cognitive training programs (MCCogTPs), lower training intensities in the concurrent approach, and bigger heterogeneity with aging, suggest the need for long-term analyses, with special attention to training and detraining in older adults. The present study aims to examine these training/detraining effects in a two year MCCogTP, looking for specific dynamics in the trainability of their physical and cognitive capacities. The intervention was divided into four periods: T1, T2 (8 months of training each), and D1, D2 (3.5 months of detraining plus 0.5 of testing each). Twenty-five healthy seniors (70.82 ± 5.18 years) comprised the final sample and were assessed for cardiovascular fitness (6-minutes walking test), lower-limbs strength (30-seconds chair-stand test) and agility (8-feet timed up-and-go test). Inhibition (Stroop test) was considered for executive function. Physical and cognitive status improved significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the two years, with larger enhancements for physical function (mainly strength and agility). Strength and cardiovascular fitness were more sensitive to detraining, whilst agility proved to have larger training retentions. Inhibition followed an initial similar trend, but it was the only variable to improve along D2 (d = 0.52), and changes were not significant within periods. Notwithstanding aging, and the exercise cessation in D2, physical and cognitive status remained enhanced two years later compared to baseline, except for lower-limb strength. According to these results, basic physical capacities are very sensitive to training/detraining, deserving continuous attention (especially strength). Both reducing detraining periods and complementary resistance training should be considered. Additionally, physical enhancements following MCcogTPs may help cognition maintenance during detraining. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
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13 pages, 694 KiB  
Article
Predicting Visual-Motor Performance in a Reactive Agility Task from Selected Demographic, Training, Anthropometric, and Functional Variables in Adolescents
by Marek Popowczak, Jarosław Domaradzki, Andrzej Rokita, Michał Zwierko and Teresa Zwierko
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5322; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155322 - 24 Jul 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2810
Abstract
Reactive agility (RA) directly refers to athletes’ visuomotor processing of the specific conditions for team sports. The aim of the study was to identify the factors among age, gender, sport discipline, time participation in a sports activity, reaction time, and visual field which [...] Read more.
Reactive agility (RA) directly refers to athletes’ visuomotor processing of the specific conditions for team sports. The aim of the study was to identify the factors among age, gender, sport discipline, time participation in a sports activity, reaction time, and visual field which could have an impact on visual-motor performance in RA tasks in young, competitive team sports players. The study included boys (n = 149) and girls (n = 157) aged 13–15 participating in basketball, volleyball and handball. Anthropometric measurements were carried out, and the Peripheral Perception (PP) test was used to evaluate the visual-motor performance under laboratory conditions. The Five-Time Shuttle Run to Gates test was used to determine the RA. A multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the relationships between the visual-motor performance in an RA task (dependent variable) and the remaining independent variables (continuous and categorical). The findings of the current study indicate that the main predictive factors of visual-motor performance in RA among young athletes are gender (ß = −0.46, p < 0.000) and age (ß = −0.30, p < 0.000). Moreover, peripheral perception positively affected the achievements in the RA task in boys (ß = −0.25, p = 0.020). The sport discipline does not differentiate the visual-motor performance in RA in team sports players in the puberty period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
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13 pages, 1009 KiB  
Article
Acute Effects of a Short Bout of Physical Activity on Cognitive Function in Sport Students
by Martin Niedermeier, Elisabeth M. Weiss, Lisa Steidl-Müller, Martin Burtscher and Martin Kopp
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3678; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103678 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 4793
Abstract
Physical activity is a promising intervention to restore cognitive function after prolonged sedentary periods. However, little is known about the effect of short physical activity bouts on cognition especially among individuals that are used to physical activity. Therefore, the goal of the present [...] Read more.
Physical activity is a promising intervention to restore cognitive function after prolonged sedentary periods. However, little is known about the effect of short physical activity bouts on cognition especially among individuals that are used to physical activity. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to assess the impact of a single ten-minute physical activity bout on the cognitive domain of visual attention compared to sedentary behavior in a population of physically active sport students. Using a randomized controlled design, 51 healthy and physically active sport students [mean age: 22.3 (SD: 2.0) years, 33.3% female] were allocated to one of the following interventions in the break of a two-hour study course: physical activity group (running for ten minutes) and sedentary control group. Visual attention was measured post-intervention using a modified trail making test. Pre-, post-, and 30 min after intervention, perceived attention, and affective states were measured. Between-group comparisons were used to analyze whether visual attention and/or changes in perceived attention or affective states differed between groups. The physical activity group showed significantly higher visual attention post-intervention compared with the sedentary control group, p = 0.003, d = 0.89. Perceived attention, p = 0.006, d = 0.87, and arousal, p < 0.001, d = 1.68, showed a significantly larger pre- and post-intervention increase in the physical activity group compared with the sedentary control group, which was not evident 30 min after intervention. A single ten-minute running intervention in study breaks might help to restore the basal visual attentional domain of cognition after prolonged sedentary periods more effectively compared with common sedentary behavior in breaks between study lessons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
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11 pages, 1571 KiB  
Article
Psychophysiological Responses in Emergency Medical Technician Students during Simulated Work Activities in a Hot Environment
by Hayden D. Gerhart, Amy B. Fiorentini, Kristi L. Storti, Robert Alman, Madeline P. Bayles, Louis Pesci and Yongsuk Seo
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3443; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103443 - 15 May 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2122
Abstract
This study compared physiological responses and cognitive performance during simulated work activities in heat to a thermoneutral condition. First responders perform physically demanding activities in a hot environment which may impose additional burdens on tactical personnel during daily tasks. Ten healthy (8 men [...] Read more.
This study compared physiological responses and cognitive performance during simulated work activities in heat to a thermoneutral condition. First responders perform physically demanding activities in a hot environment which may impose additional burdens on tactical personnel during daily tasks. Ten healthy (8 men and 2 women) participants performed two consecutive simulated work activities with two repetitions of each activity (10 min walking on treadmill and 15 sandbag lifts) under heat and thermoneutral conditions. A Stroop color word test (SCWT) and total mood disturbance (TMD) were obtained at first and second baseline (B1, B2), after a 30-min resting period (B3), and recovery (R1). At the end of the trial, core temperature (Tc), skin temperature (tsk), and mean body temperature (Tb) were higher in the heat condition compared to neutral condition (all p ≤ 0.05), whereas oxygen uptake, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were not significantly different between conditions. There were no differences in scores of SCWT and TMD between conditions. However, TMD was significantly improved after two successive bouts of exercise compared to B3 (all p ≤ 0.05). This investigation shows that two successive simulated work activities did not induce the detrimental influence on thermoregulatory and cognitive responses. Extended work activities in a hot and humid environment may impose a psychophysiological burden and need to be investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
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14 pages, 2096 KiB  
Article
Cerebral Oxygenation Reserve: The Relationship Between Physical Activity Level and the Cognitive Load During a Stroop Task in Healthy Young Males
by Roman Goenarjo, Laurent Bosquet, Nicolas Berryman, Valentine Metier, Anaick Perrochon, Sarah Anne Fraser and Olivier Dupuy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(4), 1406; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17041406 - 21 Feb 2020
Cited by 25 | Viewed by 4432
Abstract
Introduction: Many studies have reported that regular physical activity is positively associated with cognitive performance and more selectively with executive functions. However, some studies reported that the association of physical activity on executive performance in younger adults was not as clearly established [...] Read more.
Introduction: Many studies have reported that regular physical activity is positively associated with cognitive performance and more selectively with executive functions. However, some studies reported that the association of physical activity on executive performance in younger adults was not as clearly established when compared to studies with older adults. Among the many physiological mechanisms that may influence cognitive functioning, prefrontal (PFC) oxygenation seems to play a major role. The aim of the current study was to assess whether executive function and prefrontal oxygenation are dependent on physical activity levels (active versus inactive) in healthy young males. Methods: Fifty-six healthy young males (22.1 ± 2.4 years) were classified as active (n = 26) or inactive (n = 30) according to the recommendations made by the World Health Organization (WHO) and using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Bilateral PFC oxygenation was assessed using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during a computerized Stroop task (which included naming, inhibition, and switching conditions). Accuracy (% of correct responses) and reaction times (ms) were used as behavioural indicators of cognitive performances. Changes in oxygenated (∆HbO2) and deoxygenated (∆HHb) hemoglobin were measured to capture neural changes. Several two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (Physical activity level x Stroop conditions) were performed to test the null hypothesis of an absence of interaction between physical activity level and executive performance in prefrontal oxygenation. Results: The analysis revealed an interaction between physical activity level and Stroop conditions on reaction time (p = 0.04; ES = 0.7) in which physical activity level had a moderate effect on reaction time in the switching condition (p = 0.02; ES = 0.8) but not in naming and inhibition conditions. At the neural level, a significant interaction between physical activity level and prefrontal oxygenation was found. Physical activity level had a large effect on ΔHbO2 in the switching condition in the right PFC (p = 0.04; ES = 0.8) and left PFC (p = 0.02; ES = 0.96), but not in other conditions. A large physical activity level effect was also found on ΔHHb in the inhibition condition in the right PFC (p < 0.01; ES = 0.9), but not in the left PFC or other conditions. Conclusion: The results of this cross-sectional study indicate that active young males performed better in executive tasks than their inactive counterparts and had a larger change in oxygenation in the PFC during these most complex conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
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8 pages, 760 KiB  
Article
Investigating Effects of Cold Water Hand Immersion on Selective Attention in Normobaric Hypoxia
by Hayden D. Gerhart, Yongsuk Seo, Jung-Hyun Kim, Brittany Followay, Jeremiah Vaughan, Tyler Quinn, John Gunstad and Ellen L. Glickman
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2859; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162859 - 10 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2628
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of cold-water hand immersion on selective attention as measured by the Stroop Color Word Test in nomorbaric normoxia and hypoxia. Ten healthy men rested for 60 min, after which they immersed their non-dominant hand into 5 °C water [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of cold-water hand immersion on selective attention as measured by the Stroop Color Word Test in nomorbaric normoxia and hypoxia. Ten healthy men rested for 60 min, after which they immersed their non-dominant hand into 5 °C water for 15 min. The interference score of the Stroop Color Word Test and thermal sensation were measured at baseline in the final 5 min of resting and in the final 5 min of cold water hand immersion. The interference score was not influenced by hypoxia but was found to be significantly improved compared to resting in both conditions during cold water hand immersion. Selective attention improved during 15 min of cold-water hand immersion, with increased thermal sensations rated as “very cool” of the immersed arm. Cold-water hand immersion may be helpful in improving cognitive function in normoxia and normobaric hypoxia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
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7 pages, 398 KiB  
Article
Sport Locus of Control and Perceived Stress among College Student-Athletes
by Shelley L. Holden, Brooke E. Forester, Henry N. Williford and Erin Reilly
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2823; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162823 - 8 Aug 2019
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 10559
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to analyze athletes’ motivation for sport participation as it related to their locus of control. Research was conducted at two Division I universities in the southeastern United States. Participants were given the Sport Locus of Control and [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to analyze athletes’ motivation for sport participation as it related to their locus of control. Research was conducted at two Division I universities in the southeastern United States. Participants were given the Sport Locus of Control and Perceived Stress among College Athletes surveys. There were 126 participants with a mean age of 19.69 ± 1.32 years. A Pearson correlation (r) was performed to determine a significant relationship between perceived stress and locus of control. Results indicated a significant negative relationship between the two variables (r = −0.393 and p = 0.001) (a moderate relationship). As perceived stress scores increased, locus of control scores decreased. Correlations related to perceived stress were gender (r = 0.323, p = 0.000), and grade point average (GPA) (r = −0.213, p = 0.01). The only other independent variable that was significantly related to locus of control was being on an academic scholarship (r = −0.203, p = 0.025). Athletes who have an external locus of control feel that they have little control over their circumstances. Findings of this study give coaches another factor to consider in retaining and getting the most from their athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
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10 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Non-Motor Symptoms after One Week of High Cadence Cycling in Parkinson’s Disease
by Sara A. Harper, Bryan T. Dowdell, Jin Hyun Kim, Brandon S. Pollock and Angela L. Ridgel
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(12), 2104; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16122104 - 14 Jun 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3763
Abstract
The objective was to investigate if high cadence cycling altered non-motor cognition and depression symptoms in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and whether exercise responses were influenced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism. Individuals with idiopathic PD who were ≥50 years old [...] Read more.
The objective was to investigate if high cadence cycling altered non-motor cognition and depression symptoms in individuals with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and whether exercise responses were influenced by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism. Individuals with idiopathic PD who were ≥50 years old and free of surgical procedures for PD were recruited. Participants were assigned to either a cycling (n = 20) or control (n = 15) group. The cycling group completed three sessions of high cadence cycling on a custom motorized stationary ergometer. The primary outcome was cognition (attention, executive function, and emotion recognition were assessed via WebNeuro® and global cognition via Montreal Cognitive Assessment). Depression symptoms were assessed via Beck Depression Inventory-II. There was a main effect of time for emotional recognition (p = 0.048), but there were no other changes in cognition or depression symptoms. Regardless of intervention or Val66Met polymorphism, high cadence cycling does not alter cognition or depression symptoms after three sessions in one week. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)

Review

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29 pages, 899 KiB  
Review
Physical Activity and Academic Achievement: An Umbrella Review
by Ana Barbosa, Stephen Whiting, Philippa Simmonds, Rodrigo Scotini Moreno, Romeu Mendes and João Breda
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5972; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165972 - 17 Aug 2020
Cited by 73 | Viewed by 17841
Abstract
Background: This umbrella review aimed to summarise the evidence presented in systematic reviews and meta-analyses regarding the effect of physical activity on academic achievement of school-age children and adolescents. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search for relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses were performed in [...] Read more.
Background: This umbrella review aimed to summarise the evidence presented in systematic reviews and meta-analyses regarding the effect of physical activity on academic achievement of school-age children and adolescents. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search for relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses were performed in Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and Latin American and Caribbean of Health Sciences Information System, and reference lists of the included studies, from inception to May 2020. Studies were included if they were systematic reviews or meta-analyses, included school-age children or adolescents, the intervention included physical activity, and the outcome was the academic achievement. Two independent authors screened the text of potentially eligible studies and assessed the methodological quality of the studies using the AMSTAR 2 tool. Results: Forty-one systematic reviews and meta-analyses that examined the effects of physical activity on children and adolescents’ academic achievement were identified. Overall, the systematic reviews reported small positive or mixed associations between physical activity and academic achievement. From meta-analyses, it was observed that physical activity had null or small-to-medium positive effects on academic achievement. Chronic physical activity showed a medium positive effect on academic achievement, and acute physical activity did not demonstrate benefits. Conclusions: Physical activity seems not to be detrimental to school-age children and adolescents’ academic achievement, and may, in fact, be beneficial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
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22 pages, 400 KiB  
Review
Per-Cooling (Using Cooling Systems during Physical Exercise) Enhances Physical and Cognitive Performances in Hot Environments. A Narrative Review
by Wafa Douzi, Olivier Dupuy, Dimitri Theurot, Juhani Smolander and Benoit Dugué
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 1031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17031031 - 6 Feb 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 5218
Abstract
There are many important sport events that are organized in environments with a very hot ambient temperature (Summer Olympics, FIFA World Cup, Tour de France, etc.) and in hot locations (e.g., Qatar). Additionally, in the context of global warming and heat wave periods, [...] Read more.
There are many important sport events that are organized in environments with a very hot ambient temperature (Summer Olympics, FIFA World Cup, Tour de France, etc.) and in hot locations (e.g., Qatar). Additionally, in the context of global warming and heat wave periods, athletes are often subjected to hot ambient temperatures. It is known that exercising in the heat induces disturbances that may provoke premature fatigue and negatively affects overall performance in both endurance and high intensity exercises. Deterioration in several cognitive functions may also occur, and individuals may be at risk for heat illnesses. To train, perform, work and recover and in a safe and effective way, cooling strategies have been proposed and have been routinely applied before, during and after exercise. However, there is a limited understanding of the influences of per-cooling on performance, and it is the subject of the present review. This work examines the influences of per-cooling of different areas of the body on performance in terms of intense short-term exercises (“anaerobic” exercises), endurance exercises (“aerobic” exercises), and cognitive functioning and provides detailed strategies that can be applied when individuals train and/or perform in high ambient temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

8 pages, 771 KiB  
Case Report
Physiological Demands of Extreme Obstacle Course Racing: A Case Study
by Timothy Baghurst, Steven L. Prewitt and Tyler Tapps
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(16), 2879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16162879 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4282
Abstract
Obstacle course races are a popular source of recreation in the United States, providing additional challenges over traditional endurance events. Despite their popularity, very little is known about the physiological or cognitive demands of obstacle course races compared to traditional road races. The [...] Read more.
Obstacle course races are a popular source of recreation in the United States, providing additional challenges over traditional endurance events. Despite their popularity, very little is known about the physiological or cognitive demands of obstacle course races compared to traditional road races. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological effects of participation in an extreme obstacle course race. The participant was a 38-year-old Caucasian male, who completed an extreme obstacle course race over a 24-h period. Exercise intensity, steps taken, energy expenditure, and heart rate were recorded over the event’s duration using an Actigraph Link GT9X-BT accelerometer and a Polar heart rate monitor. Results reflected the unique nature of obstacle course racing when compared to traditional endurance events, with ups-and-downs recorded in each variable due to the encountering of obstacles. This case study provides a glimpse into the physiological demands of obstacle course racing, and suggests that the cognitive demands placed on competitors may differ to traditional endurance events, due to the challenges of obstacles interspersed throughout the event. With the popularity of obstacle course racing, and to enhance training opportunities, improve performance, and decrease the incidence of injuries, future research should further investigate the physiological and cognitive demands of obstacle course races of various distances and among diverse populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
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