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Open AccessArticle

Short and Long-Term Trainability in Older Adults: Training and Detraining Following Two Years of Multicomponent Cognitive—Physical Exercise Training

1
Physical Education and Sports Department, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
2
Sport Performance & Physical Fitness Research Group (UIRFIDE), University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
3
Statistics and Operational Research Department, University of Valencia, 46100 Burjassot, Valencia, Spain
4
Education and Specific Didactics Department, Jaume I University, 12071 Castellon, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165984
Received: 15 July 2020 / Revised: 11 August 2020 / Accepted: 13 August 2020 / Published: 18 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interaction of Exercise and Cognitive Function)
Despite the benefits of multicomponent physical–cognitive training programs (MCCogTPs), lower training intensities in the concurrent approach, and bigger heterogeneity with aging, suggest the need for long-term analyses, with special attention to training and detraining in older adults. The present study aims to examine these training/detraining effects in a two year MCCogTP, looking for specific dynamics in the trainability of their physical and cognitive capacities. The intervention was divided into four periods: T1, T2 (8 months of training each), and D1, D2 (3.5 months of detraining plus 0.5 of testing each). Twenty-five healthy seniors (70.82 ± 5.18 years) comprised the final sample and were assessed for cardiovascular fitness (6-minutes walking test), lower-limbs strength (30-seconds chair-stand test) and agility (8-feet timed up-and-go test). Inhibition (Stroop test) was considered for executive function. Physical and cognitive status improved significantly (p < 0.05) throughout the two years, with larger enhancements for physical function (mainly strength and agility). Strength and cardiovascular fitness were more sensitive to detraining, whilst agility proved to have larger training retentions. Inhibition followed an initial similar trend, but it was the only variable to improve along D2 (d = 0.52), and changes were not significant within periods. Notwithstanding aging, and the exercise cessation in D2, physical and cognitive status remained enhanced two years later compared to baseline, except for lower-limb strength. According to these results, basic physical capacities are very sensitive to training/detraining, deserving continuous attention (especially strength). Both reducing detraining periods and complementary resistance training should be considered. Additionally, physical enhancements following MCcogTPs may help cognition maintenance during detraining. View Full-Text
Keywords: agility; cardiovascular fitness; dual tasking; executive function; physical exercise; strength agility; cardiovascular fitness; dual tasking; executive function; physical exercise; strength
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MDPI and ACS Style

Blasco-Lafarga, C.; Cordellat, A.; Forte, A.; Roldán, A.; Monteagudo, P. Short and Long-Term Trainability in Older Adults: Training and Detraining Following Two Years of Multicomponent Cognitive—Physical Exercise Training. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5984. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165984

AMA Style

Blasco-Lafarga C, Cordellat A, Forte A, Roldán A, Monteagudo P. Short and Long-Term Trainability in Older Adults: Training and Detraining Following Two Years of Multicomponent Cognitive—Physical Exercise Training. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020; 17(16):5984. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165984

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blasco-Lafarga, Cristina; Cordellat, Ana; Forte, Anabel; Roldán, Ainoa; Monteagudo, Pablo. 2020. "Short and Long-Term Trainability in Older Adults: Training and Detraining Following Two Years of Multicomponent Cognitive—Physical Exercise Training" Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 17, no. 16: 5984. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165984

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