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Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Exercise and Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (8 April 2023) | Viewed by 62283

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exercise testing is the cornerstone of developing effective individualized exercise programs for athletes, non-athletes and patients, and consequently, it has many applications in both sports and the clinical setting and public health. Exercise tests—such as the 20 m shuttle run test—have been developed over the last few decades and used widely all over the world. Using these ‘old’ tests provides an advantage of a very large database allowing comparisons by sex, age, and sport. On the other hand, the advancement of scientific knowledge and technology has facilitated the recent development of ‘new’ tests, which have improved validity and reliability compared to the ‘old’ tests. Unfortunately, we still lack large databases to evaluate those new tests’ results. Therefore, the aim of the present Special Issue is to attract studies providing cutting-edge information on the following topics: large normative data on 'new' exercise tests; comparison of ‘new’ and ‘old’ exercise tests; comparison of low-cost field tests with expensive laboratory tests; comparison of submaximal with maximal exercise tests; and ability of an exercise test to discriminate athletes by performance level and non-athletes or patients by health status. All studies should address aspects such as validity, reliability, and responsiveness. All studies should focus on the practical applications of their findings for sport and health practitioners.

Dr. Pantelis T. Nikolaidis
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • age
  • anaerobic capacity
  • ergometer
  • maximal oxygen uptake
  • physical fitness assessment
  • sex

Published Papers (16 papers)

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14 pages, 2356 KiB  
Article
Using Daily Stretching to Counteract Performance Decreases as a Result of Reduced Physical Activity—A Controlled Trial
by Konstantin Warneke, Andreas Konrad, Michael Keiner, Astrid Zech, Masatoshi Nakamura, Martin Hillebrecht and David G. Behm
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(23), 15571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192315571 - 23 Nov 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1869
Abstract
There are many reasons for reduced physical activity leading to reduced maximal strength and sport-specific performance, such as jumping performance. These include pandemic lockdowns, serious injury, or prolonged sitting in daily work life. Consequently, such circumstances can contribute to increased morbidity and reduced [...] Read more.
There are many reasons for reduced physical activity leading to reduced maximal strength and sport-specific performance, such as jumping performance. These include pandemic lockdowns, serious injury, or prolonged sitting in daily work life. Consequently, such circumstances can contribute to increased morbidity and reduced physical performance. Therefore, a demand for space-saving and home-based training routines to counteract decreases in physical performance is suggested in the literature. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of using daily static stretching using a stretching board to counteract inactivity-related decreases in performance. Thirty-five (35) participants were either allocated to an intervention group (IG), performing a daily ten-minute stretch training combined with reduced physical activity or a reduced physical activity-only group (rPA). The effects on maximal voluntary contraction, range of motion using the knee-to-wall test, countermovement jump height (CMJheight), squat jump height (SJheight), drop jump height (DJheight), contact time (DJct) and the reactive strength index (DJRSI) were evaluated using a pre-test-post-test design. The rPA group reported reduced physical activity because of lockdown. Results showed significant decreases in flexibility and jump performance (d = −0.11–−0.36, p = 0.004–0.046) within the six weeks intervention period with the rPA group. In contrast, the IG showed significant increases in MVC90 (d = 0.3, p < 0.001) and ROM (d = 0.44, p < 0.001) with significant improvements in SJheight (d = 0.14, p = 0.002), while no change was measured for CMJheight and DJ performance. Hence, 10 min of daily stretching seems to be sufficient to counteract inactivity-related performance decreases in young and healthy participants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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10 pages, 1937 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Kinematics and Electromyographic Activity in the Last Repetition during Different Repetition Maximums in the Bench Press Exercise
by Stian Larsen, Markus Haugen and Roland van den Tillaar
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(21), 14238; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192114238 - 31 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1736
Abstract
The barbell bench press is often performed at different repetition maximums (RM). However, little is known about the last repetition of these repetition maximums in terms of movement kinematics and electromyographic activity in the bench press. This study compared kinematics and electromyographic activity [...] Read more.
The barbell bench press is often performed at different repetition maximums (RM). However, little is known about the last repetition of these repetition maximums in terms of movement kinematics and electromyographic activity in the bench press. This study compared kinematics and electromyographic activity during the last repetition of 1-RM, 3-RM, 6-RM, and 10-RM on the barbell bench press. Twelve healthy recreationally bench press-trained males (body mass: 84.3 ± 7.8 kg, age: 23.5 ± 2.6 years, height: 183.8 ± 4.2 cm) performed the bench press with a self-chosen grip width with four different repetition maximums. The participants bench pressed 96.5 ± 14.1, 88.5 ± 13.0, 81.5 ± 12.3, and 72.8 ± 10.5 kg with the 1-RM, 3-RM, 6-RM, and 10-RM. No differences were found between the bench press conditions in kinematic or electromyographic activity, except for the 10-RM, where a higher barbell velocity was observed at peak barbell deacceleration and first minimum barbell velocity (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the 1-RM and 3-RM. Overall, triceps medialis activity increased, whereas biceps brachii activity decreased from the pre-sticking to post-sticking region for all bench conditions (p ≤ 0.05). Since slower barbell velocity was observed in the sticking region for the 1-RM and 3-RM conditions compared to the 10-RM condition, we suggest training with these repetition maximums to learn how to grind through the sticking region due to the principle of specificity when the goal is to enhance maximal strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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14 pages, 4472 KiB  
Article
Using Long-Duration Static Stretch Training to Counteract Strength and Flexibility Deficits in Moderately Trained Participants
by Konstantin Warneke, Lars H. Lohmann, Michael Keiner, Carl-M. Wagner, Tobias Schmidt, Klaus Wirth, Astrid Zech, Stephan Schiemann and David Behm
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(20), 13254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph192013254 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1877
Abstract
Many sports injuries result in surgery and prolonged periods of immobilization, which may lead to significant atrophy accompanied by loss of maximal strength and range of motion and, therefore, a weak-leg/strong-leg ratio (as an imbalance index ∆ ) lower than 1. Consequently, there [...] Read more.
Many sports injuries result in surgery and prolonged periods of immobilization, which may lead to significant atrophy accompanied by loss of maximal strength and range of motion and, therefore, a weak-leg/strong-leg ratio (as an imbalance index ∆ ) lower than 1. Consequently, there are common rehabilitation programs that aim to enhance maximal strength, muscle thickness and flexibility; however, the literature demonstrates existing strength imbalances after weeks of rehabilitation. Since no study has previously been conducted to investigate the effects of long-duration static stretch training to treat muscular imbalances, the present research aims to determine the possibility of counteracting imbalances in maximal strength and range of motion. Thirty-nine athletic participants with significant calf muscle imbalances in maximal strength and range of motion were divided into an intervention group (one-hour daily plantar flexors static stretching of the weaker leg for six weeks) and a control group to evaluate the effects on maximal strength and range of motion with extended and bent knee joint. Results show significant increases in maximal strength (d = 0.84–1.61, p < 0.001–0.005) and range of motion (d = 0.92–1.49, p < 0.001–0.002) following six weeks of static stretching. Group * time effects (p < 0.001–0.004, η² = 0.22–0.55) revealed ∆ changes in the intervention group from 0.87 to 1.03 for maximal strength and from 0.92 to 1.11 in range of motion. The results provide evidence for the use of six weeks of daily, one hour stretching to counteract muscular imbalances. Related research in clinical settings after surgery is suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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11 pages, 2410 KiB  
Article
Influence of One Hour versus Two Hours of Daily Static Stretching for Six Weeks Using a Calf-Muscle-Stretching Orthosis on Maximal Strength
by Konstantin Warneke, Michael Keiner, Martin Hillebrecht and Stephan Schiemann
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11621; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811621 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3052
Abstract
Rebuilding strength capacity is of crucial importance in rehabilitation since significant atrophy due to immobilization after injury and/or surgery can be assumed. To increase maximal strength (MSt), strength training is commonly used. The literature regarding animal studies show that long-lasting static stretching (LStr) [...] Read more.
Rebuilding strength capacity is of crucial importance in rehabilitation since significant atrophy due to immobilization after injury and/or surgery can be assumed. To increase maximal strength (MSt), strength training is commonly used. The literature regarding animal studies show that long-lasting static stretching (LStr) interventions can also produce significant improvements in MSt with a dose–response relationship, with stretching times ranging from 30 min to 24 h per day; however, there is limited evidence in human studies. Consequently, the aim of this study is to investigate the dose–response relationship of long-lasting static stretching on MSt. A total of 70 active participants (f = 30, m = 39; age: 27.4 ± 4.4 years; height: 175.8 ± 2.1 cm; and weight: 79.5 ± 5.9 kg) were divided into three groups: IG1 and IG2 both performed unilateral stretching continuously for one (IG1) or two hours (IG2), respectively, per day for six weeks, while the CG served as the non-intervened control. MSt was determined in the plantar flexors in the intervened as well as in the non-intervened control leg to investigate the contralateral force transfer. Two-way ANOVA showed significant interaction effects for MSt in the intervened leg (ƞ2 = 0.325, p < 0.001) and in the contralateral control leg (ƞ2 = 0.123, p = 0.009), dependent upon stretching time. From this, it can be hypothesized that stretching duration had an influence on MSt increases, but both durations were sufficient to induce significant enhancements in MSt. Thus, possible applications in rehabilitation can be assumed, e.g., if no strength training can be performed, atrophy could instead be reduced by performing long-lasting static stretch training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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10 pages, 737 KiB  
Article
Validation of StepTest4all for Assessing Cardiovascular Capacity in Young Adults
by José A. Bragada, Raul F. Bartolomeu, Pedro M. Rodrigues, Pedro M. Magalhães, João P. Bragada and Jorge E. Morais
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(18), 11274; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph191811274 - 8 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
Background: Cardiovascular capacity, expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), is a strong predictor of health and fitness and is considered a key measure of physiological function in the healthy adult population. The purpose of this study was to validate a specific [...] Read more.
Background: Cardiovascular capacity, expressed as maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), is a strong predictor of health and fitness and is considered a key measure of physiological function in the healthy adult population. The purpose of this study was to validate a specific step test (StepTest4all) as an adequate procedure to estimate cardiovascular capacity in young adults. Methods: The sample was composed of 56 participants, including 19 women (aged 21.05 ± 2.39 years, body mass = 57.50 ± 6.64 kg, height = 1.62 ± 0.05 m, body mass index = 22.00 ± 2.92 kg/m2) and 37 men (aged 22.05 ± 3.14 years, body mass = 72.50 ± 7.73 kg, height = 1.76 ± 0.07 m, body mass index = 23.34 ± 2.17 kg/m2). Participants were included in one of the following groups: (i) the group used to predict the VO2max, and (ii) the group used to validate the prediction model. All participants performed the StepTest4all protocol. The step height and the intensity of the effort was determined individually. Heart rate and oxygen uptake were measured continuously during rest, effort, and recovery phases. The validation process included the following three stages: (i) mean data comparison, (ii) simple linear regression, and (iii) Bland–Altman analysis. Results: The linear regression retained, as significant predictors of the VO2max, sex (p < 0.001) and heart rate recovery for one minute (p = 0.003). The prediction equation revealed a high relationship between measurements (R2 = 63.0%, SEE = 5.58). The validation procedure revealed non-significant differences (p > 0.05) between the measured and estimated maximal oxygen uptake, high relationship (R2 = 63.3%), and high agreement with Bland–Altman plots. Thus, VO2max can be estimated with the formula: VO2max = 22 + 0.3 · (HRR1min) + 12 · (sex), where HRR1min is the magnitude of the HR decrease (bpm) in one minute immediately after the step was stopped, and sex: men = 1, women = 0. Conclusions: The StepTest4all is an adequate procedure to estimate cardiovascular capacity, expressed as VO2max, in young adults. In addition, it is possible to determine the qualitative level of cardiovascular capacity from the heart rate recovery for one minute, more specifically, poor: <20, moderate: 20 to 34, good: 35 to 49, and excellent: ≥50. This procedure has the benefit of being simple to apply and can be used by everyone, even at home, without specialist supervision. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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9 pages, 1578 KiB  
Article
Physical Fitness Differences, Amenable to Hypoxia-Driven and Sarcopenia Pathophysiology, between Sleep Apnea and COVID-19
by Vasileios T. Stavrou, George D. Vavougios, Stylianos Boutlas, Konstantinos N. Tourlakopoulos, Eirini Papayianni, Kyriaki Astara, Ilias T. Stavrou, Zoe Daniil and Konstantinos I. Gourgoulianis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020669 - 7 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2654
Abstract
Handgrip strength is an indirect indicator of physical fitness that is used in medical rehabilitation for its potential prognostic value. An increasing number of studies indicate that COVID-19 survivors experience impaired physical fitness for months following hospitalization. The aim of our study was [...] Read more.
Handgrip strength is an indirect indicator of physical fitness that is used in medical rehabilitation for its potential prognostic value. An increasing number of studies indicate that COVID-19 survivors experience impaired physical fitness for months following hospitalization. The aim of our study was to assess physical fitness indicator differences with another prevalent and hypoxia-driven disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Our findings showed differences between post-COVID-19 and OSAS groups in cardiovascular responses, with post-COVID-19 patients exhibiting higher values for heart rate and in mean arterial blood pressure. Oxygen saturation (SpO2) was lower in post-COVID-19 patients during a six-minute walking test (6MWT), whereas the ΔSpO2 (the difference between the baseline to end of the 6MWT) was higher compared to OSAS patients. In patients of both groups, statistically significant correlations were detected between handgrip strength and distance during the 6MWT, anthropometric characteristics, and body composition parameters. In our study, COVID-19 survivors demonstrated a long-term reduction in muscle strength compared to OSAS patients. Lower handgrip strength has been independently associated with a prior COVID-19 hospitalization. The differences in muscle strength and oxygenation could be attributed to the abrupt onset of the disorder, which does not allow compensatory mechanisms to act effectively. Targeted rehabilitation focusing on such residual impairments may thus be indispensable within the setting of post-COVID-19 syndrome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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11 pages, 988 KiB  
Article
The Two-Minute Walk Test in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Correlations of Cadence with Free-Living Walking Do Not Support Ecological Validity
by Viktoria Karle, Verena Hartung, Keti Ivanovska, Mathias Mäurer, Peter Flachenecker, Klaus Pfeifer and Alexander Tallner
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9044; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239044 - 4 Dec 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2511
Abstract
The two-minute walk test (2MWT) is a frequently used walking capacity test in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). However, less is known about its relevance with regards to walking capacity during free-living walking performance. Therefore, the ecological validity of the 2MWT was tested [...] Read more.
The two-minute walk test (2MWT) is a frequently used walking capacity test in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS). However, less is known about its relevance with regards to walking capacity during free-living walking performance. Therefore, the ecological validity of the 2MWT was tested by 1. computing free-living minutes with the same intensity (cadence) as during the 2MWT and 2. investigating the relationship between 2MWT cadence and minutes with the same cadence during free-living walking. 20 pwMS aged 44.2 ± 12.2 (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 3.1 ± 1.4) performed a 2MWT and wore an accelerometer for seven days. The number of pwMS reaching 100%, 90%, 80% or 70% of 2MWT cadence for at least one minute a day and minutes/day with at least 100%, 90%, 80% and 70% of 2MWT cadence during free-living walking was calculated. Six participants reached 100% of the 2MWT cadence for at least one minute/day during free-living walking. A total of 80% 2MWT cadence was the first intensity category that was reached by all participants during free-living walking. No significant correlation was found between cadence in the 2MWT and minutes in which this cadence was reached during free-living walking. Ecological validity with regard to walking intensity could not be confirmed in our study sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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10 pages, 987 KiB  
Article
Effect of Instability and Bodyweight Neuromuscular Training on Dynamic Balance Control in Active Young Adults
by Carla Gonçalves, Pedro Bezerra, Filipe Manuel Clemente, Carolina Vila-Chã, Cesar Leão, António Brandão and Jose M. Cancela
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8879; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238879 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3130
Abstract
The aims of this study were to analyse the effects of unstable and stable bodyweight neuromuscular training on dynamic balance control and to analyse the between-group differences after the training period. Seventy-seven physically active young adults (48 males, 29 females, 19.1 ± 1.1 [...] Read more.
The aims of this study were to analyse the effects of unstable and stable bodyweight neuromuscular training on dynamic balance control and to analyse the between-group differences after the training period. Seventy-seven physically active young adults (48 males, 29 females, 19.1 ± 1.1 years, 170.2 ± 9.2 cm, 64.1 ± 10.7 kg) were distributed into an unstable training group (UTG), a stable training group (STG), and a control group (CG). Training was conducted three times a week for nine weeks. Pre-intervention and post-intervention measures included dynamic balance control using a Y Balance Test (YBT), anterior (A), posteromedial (PM), and posterolateral (PL) reach direction. A mixed ANOVA was executed to test the within-subjects factor and the between-subjects factor. Statistically significant differences were found for all YBT measures within groups (p = 0.01) and between groups (p = 0.01). After the intervention, UTG and STG presented meaningfully improved results in all YBT measures (A: 7%, p = 0.01; 4%, p = 0.02, PM: 8%, p = 0.01; 5%, p = 0.01, PL: 8%, p = 0.01; 4%, p = 0.04, respectively). No statistical changes were found for any of the measures in the CG. After the intervention, significant differences were observed between the UTG and CG for the YBTA and PM (p = 0.03; p = 0.01). The results suggest that neuromuscular training using an unstable surface had similar effects on dynamic balance control as training using a stable surface. When compared to CG, UTG showed better performance in YBTA and PM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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13 pages, 1066 KiB  
Article
Metabolic and Cardiorespiratory Responses of Semiprofessional Football Players in Repeated Ajax Shuttle Tests and Curved Sprint Tests, and Their Relationship with Football Match Play
by Tomasz Gabrys, Arkadiusz Stanula, Urszula Szmatlan-Gabrys, Michal Garnys, Luboš Charvát and Subir Gupta
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7745; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217745 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3205
Abstract
In this study, the Ajax Shuttle Test (AST) and the Curved Sprint Test (CST) were conducted on semiprofessional football players to evaluate (1) their test performance, (2) the extent of anaerobic glycolysis by measuring blood lactate, (3) performance decrement and onset of fatigue, [...] Read more.
In this study, the Ajax Shuttle Test (AST) and the Curved Sprint Test (CST) were conducted on semiprofessional football players to evaluate (1) their test performance, (2) the extent of anaerobic glycolysis by measuring blood lactate, (3) performance decrement and onset of fatigue, and (4) the correlation between selected physiological variables and test performance. Thirty-two semiprofessional Polish football players participated in this study. Both AST and CST were conducted on an outdoor football ground and were conducted in two sets; each set had six repetitions. In the case of AST, the total duration for 6 repetitions of the exercise in Sets 1 and 2 were 90.63 ± 3.71 and 91.65 ± 4.24 s, respectively, whereas, in the case of CST, the respective values were 46.8 ± 0.56 and 47.2 ± 0.66 s. Peak blood lactate concentration [La] after Sets 1 and 2 of AST were 14.47 ± 3.77 and 15.00 ± 1.85 mmol/L, and in the case of CST, the values were 8.17 ± 1.32 and 9.78 ± 1.35 mmol/L, respectively. Performance decrement in AST was more than in CST, both after Set 1 (4.32 ± 1.43 and 3.31 ± 0.96 in AST and CST, respectively) and Set 2 (7.95 ± 3.24 and 3.71 ± 1.02 in AST and CST, respectively). Only in a few of the repetitions, pulmonary ventilation (VE) and oxygen uptake (VO2) were found to be significantly correlated with the performance of the volunteers in both AST and CST. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was significantly correlated with most of the repetitions of AST, but not with CST. The study concludes that (1) AST shows more dependence on the anaerobic glycolytic system than shorter repetitive sprints (as in CST), (2) there is more performance decrement and fatigue in AST than in CST, and (3) early decrease in performance and fatigue in the semiprofessional football players in AST and CST may be due to the insufficiency of their aerobic energy system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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35 pages, 29013 KiB  
Article
Validity and Reliability of the New Basic Functional Assessment Protocol (BFA)
by Raquel Hernández-García, María Isabel Gil-López, David Martínez-Pozo, María Teresa Martínez-Romero, Alba Aparicio-Sarmiento, Antonio Cejudo, Pilar Sainz de Baranda and Chris Bishop
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4845; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134845 - 5 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4657
Abstract
The global evaluation of motion patterns can examine the synchrony of neuromuscular control, range of motion, strength, resistance, balance and coordination needed to complete the movement. Visual assessments are commonly used to detect risk factors. However, it is essential to define standardized field-based [...] Read more.
The global evaluation of motion patterns can examine the synchrony of neuromuscular control, range of motion, strength, resistance, balance and coordination needed to complete the movement. Visual assessments are commonly used to detect risk factors. However, it is essential to define standardized field-based tests that can evaluate with accuracy. The aims of the study were to design a protocol to evaluate fundamental motor patterns (FMP), and to analyze the validity and reliability of an instrument created to provide information about the quality of movement in FMP. Five tasks were selected: Overhead Squat (OHS); Hurdle Step (HS); Forward Step Down (FSD); Shoulder Mobility (SM); Active Stretching Leg Raise (ASLR). A list of variables was created for the evaluation of each task. Ten qualified judges assessed the validity of the instrument, while six external observers performed inter-intra reliability. The results show that the instrument is valid according to the experts’ opinion; however, the reliability shows values below those established. Thus, the instrument was considered unreliable, so it is recommended to repeat the reliability process by performing more training sessions for the external observers. The present study creates the basic functional assessment (BFA), a new protocol which comprises five tasks and an instrument to evaluate FMP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
16 pages, 1763 KiB  
Article
Effects of the 5-m Shuttle Run Test on Markers of Muscle Damage, Inflammation, and Fatigue in Healthy Male Athletes
by Omar Boukhris, Khaled Trabelsi, Raouf Abdessalem, Hsen Hsouna, Achraf Ammar, Jordan M. Glenn, Nick Bott, Khadijah Irandoust, Morteza Taheri, Mouna Turki, Fatma Ayadi, Nicola L. Bragazzi, Florian A. Engel and Hamdi Chtourou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124375 - 18 Jun 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2793
Abstract
Physical exercise is often associated with increases in muscle damage markers and inflammation. However, biomarkers of muscle damage and inflammation responses to the 5-m shuttle run test (5mSRT) have not yet been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects [...] Read more.
Physical exercise is often associated with increases in muscle damage markers and inflammation. However, biomarkers of muscle damage and inflammation responses to the 5-m shuttle run test (5mSRT) have not yet been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of the 5mSRT on muscle damage markers, inflammation, and perception of fatigue and recovery in healthy male athletes. Fifteen male amateur team sports players (age: 20 ± 3 yrs, height: 173 ± 7 cm, body-mass: 67 ± 7 kg) participated in this study. Blood biomarkers were collected at rest, 5 min after, and 72 h after the 5mSRT to measure muscle damage (i.e., creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT)) and inflammation (i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP)). Best distance (BD), total distance (TD), fatigue index (FI), and percentage decrement (PD) during the 5mSRT were assessed. Perceived recovery (PRS) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were recorded before, 5 min after, and 72 h after the 5mSRT; perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded before, during, and 72 h after the 5mSRT. Muscle damage biomarkers post 5mSRT showed a significant increase compared to pre 5mSRT (p < 0.001) levels ((i.e., CK (190.6 ± 109.1 IU/L vs. 234.6 ± 113.7 IU/L), LDH (163.6 ± 35.1 IU/L vs. 209.9 ± 50.8 IU/L), ASAT (18.0 ± 4.4 IU/L vs. 21.7 ± 6.2 IU/L), and ALAT (10.2 ± 3.4 IU/L vs. 12.7 ± 3.8 IU/L)) and 72 h post 5mSRT (p < 0.001) levels ((CK (125.3 ± 80.5 IU/L vs. 234.6 ± 113.7 IU/L), LDH (143.9 ± 36.6 IU/L vs. 209.9 ± 50.8 IU/L), ASAT (15.0 ± 4.7 IU/L vs. 21.7 ± 6.2 IU/L), and ALAT (8.6 ± 2.4 IU/L vs. 12.7 ± 3.8 IU/L)). CRP was also significantly higher post 5mSRT compared to pre 5mSRT (2.1 ± 2.5 mg/L vs. 2.8 ± 3.3 mg/L, p < 0.001) and 72 h post 5mSRT (1.4 ± 2.3 mg/L vs. 2.8 ± 3.3 mg/L, p < 0.001). Significant correlations were reported between (i) physical performance parameters (i.e., PD, FI, TD, and BD), and (ii) markers of muscle damage (i.e., CK, LDH, ASAT, and ALAT) and inflammation (i.e., CRP). Similarly, DOMS and RPE scores were significantly higher post 5mSRT compared to pre 5mSRT (2.4 ± 1.0UA vs. 6.7 ± 1.1UA and 2.1 ± 0.6 UA vs. 8.1 ± 0.6 UA, respectively p < 0.001) and 72 h post 5mSRT (1.9 ± 0.7 UA vs. 6.7 ± 1.1 UA and 1.5 ± 0.6 UA vs. 8.1 ± 0.6 UA, respectively p < 0.001). PRS scores were significantly lower post 5mSRT as compared to pre 5mSRT (6 ± 1 UA vs. 3 ± 1 UA, p < 0.001) and 72 h post 5mSRT (7 ± 1 UA vs. 3 ± 1 UA, p < 0.001). Significant correlations existed between (i) performance parameters (PD, FI, TD, and BD) and (ii) RPE, PRS, and DOMS. The 5mSRT increased biomarkers of muscle damage and inflammation, as well as the DOMS and RPE and reduced the PRS. Seventy-two hours was sufficient for fatigue recovery induced by the 5mSRT. PD is better than FI for the calculation of performance decrements during the 5mSRT to represent fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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12 pages, 1254 KiB  
Article
Validity, Reliability, and Usefulness of My Jump 2 App for Measuring Vertical Jump in Primary School Children
by Špela Bogataj, Maja Pajek, Vedran Hadžić, Slobodan Andrašić, Johnny Padulo and Nebojša Trajković
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103708 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 8004
Abstract
There is a persistent need in sport science for developing a measuring tool that is affordable, portable, and easy to use. We aimed to examine the concurrent validity and test–retest reliability of the My Jump 2 app compared to a validated OptoJump instrument [...] Read more.
There is a persistent need in sport science for developing a measuring tool that is affordable, portable, and easy to use. We aimed to examine the concurrent validity and test–retest reliability of the My Jump 2 app compared to a validated OptoJump instrument for measuring jump performance during the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and CMJ free arms (CMJAM) in primary school children. A total of 48 participants (11–14 years age), volunteered to participate in this research. The jumps were recorded with a validated OptoJump photoelectric cell system and a concurrent device (iPhone X through My Jump 2 app) at the same time. The participants repeated the testing procedure after two weeks to assess the reliability of the measurements (ICC). Systematic bias between sessions and tools was evaluated using the paired samples t-test and Bland and Altman analysis. High test–retest reliability (ICC > 0.89) was observed for all measures’ in-between conditions. Very large correlations in the total sample were observed between the My Jump 2 app and OptoJump for SJ (r = 0.97, p = 0.001), CMJ (r = 0.97, p = 0.001), and CMJAM (r = 0.99, p = 0.001). Bland and Altman’s plot depicting limits of agreement for the total sample between the OptoJump and My Jump 2 show that the majority of data points are within the 95% CIs. The results of this study suggest that My Jump 2 is a valid, reliable, and useful tool for measuring jump performance in primary school children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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12 pages, 502 KiB  
Article
Weekly Load Variations of Distance-Based Variables in Professional Soccer Players: A Full-Season Study
by Filipe Manuel Clemente, Rui Silva, Daniel Castillo, Asier Los Arcos, Bruno Mendes and José Afonso
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093300 - 9 May 2020
Cited by 59 | Viewed by 5656
Abstract
The aim of this study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the variations of acute load, training monotony, and training strain among early (pre-season), mid (first half of season), and end season (second half of season) periods; (2) to compare these training indicators for [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the variations of acute load, training monotony, and training strain among early (pre-season), mid (first half of season), and end season (second half of season) periods; (2) to compare these training indicators for playing positions in different moments of the season. Nineteen professional players (age: 26.5 ± 4.3 years; experience as professional: 7.5 ± 4.3 years) from a European First League team participated in this study. The players were monitored daily over a 45-week period for the total distance (TD), distance covered (DC) at 14 km/h−1 or above (DC > 14 km/h), high-speed running above 19.8 km/h−1 (HSR) distance, and number of sprints above 25.2 km/h−1. The acute load (sum of load during a week), training monotony (mean of training load during the seven days of the week divided by the standard deviation of the training load of the seven days), and training strain (sum of the training load for all training sessions and matches during a week multiplied by training monotony) workload indices were calculated weekly for each measure and per player. Results revealed that training monotony and training strain for HSR were meaningfully greater in pre-season than in the first half of the in-season (p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.883 and p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.712, respectively) and greater than the second half of the in-season (p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.718 and p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.717). The training monotony for the sprints was meaningfully greater in pre-season than in the first half of in-season (p < 0.001; d = 0.953) and greater than the second half of in-season (p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.916). Comparisons between playing positions revealed that small-to-moderate effect sizes differences mainly for the number of sprints in acute load, training monotony, and training strain. In conclusion, the study revealed that greater acute load, training monotony, and training strain occurred in the pre-season and progressively decreased across the season. Moreover, external defenders and wingers were subjected to meaningfully greater acute load and training strain for HSR and number of sprints during the season compared to the remaining positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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15 pages, 357 KiB  
Article
Classification System of the Sagittal Integral Morphotype in Children from the ISQUIOS Programme (Spain)
by Fernando Santonja-Medina, Mónica Collazo-Diéguez, María Teresa Martínez-Romero, Olga Rodríguez-Ferrán, Alba Aparicio-Sarmiento, Antonio Cejudo, Pilar Andújar and Pilar Sainz de Baranda
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072467 - 4 Apr 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2657
Abstract
The sagittal spinal morphology presents 4 physiological curvatures that increase endurance to axial compression forces and allow adequate postural balance. These curves must remain within normal ranges to achieve a static and dynamic balance, a correct functioning of the muscles and an adequate [...] Read more.
The sagittal spinal morphology presents 4 physiological curvatures that increase endurance to axial compression forces and allow adequate postural balance. These curves must remain within normal ranges to achieve a static and dynamic balance, a correct functioning of the muscles and an adequate distribution of the loads, and thus minimize the injury risk. The purpose of this study was to categorize the sagittal spinal alignment according to the different morphotypes obtained for each curve in standing, slump sitting, and trunk forward bending positions in schoolchildren. It was a cross-sectional study. Sagittal spinal curvatures were assessed in 731 students from 16 elementary schools. In the sagittal standing position assessment, 70.45% and 89.06% of schoolchildren presented a “normal” morphotype for both dorsal and lumbar curves, respectively. After the application of the “Sagittal Integral Morphotype” protocol according to the morphotypes obtained in the three positions assessment (standing, slump sitting, and trunk forward bending), it was observed how the frequency of normal morphotypes for the dorsal and lumbar curve decreased considerably (only 32% and 6.6% of children obtained a “normal sagittal integral morphotype” for the thoracic and lumbar curvatures, respectively). These results show how it is necessary to include the slump sitting and trunk forward bending assessment as part of the protocol to define the “integral” sagittal alignment of the spine and establish a correct diagnosis. The use of the diagnostic classification presented in this study will allow early detection of misalignment not identified with the assessment of standing position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
15 pages, 1180 KiB  
Article
Agility Testing in Youth Football (Soccer)Players; Evaluating Reliability, Validity, and Correlates of Newly Developed Testing Protocols
by Ante Krolo, Barbara Gilic, Nikola Foretic, Haris Pojskic, Raouf Hammami, Miodrag Spasic, Ognjen Uljevic, Sime Versic and Damir Sekulic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010294 - 1 Jan 2020
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 11311
Abstract
Reactive agility (RAG) and change of direction speed (CODS) are important determinants of success in football (soccer), but there is an evident lack of information on reliable and valid football-specific testing procedures which will be applicable in defining sport-specific RAG and CODS in [...] Read more.
Reactive agility (RAG) and change of direction speed (CODS) are important determinants of success in football (soccer), but there is an evident lack of information on reliable and valid football-specific testing procedures which will be applicable in defining sport-specific RAG and CODS in youth players. This study evaluated reliability and construct validity of newly developed tests of football-specific RAG (FS_RAG) and CODS (FS_CODS), which involved the ball kicking football technique. Additionally, factors associated with FS_RAG and FS_CODS were evaluated. The participants were youth football players (n = 59; age: 13.40 ± 1.25 years) divided according to their age into U13 (11–12 years of age; n = 29), and U15 (13–14 years of age; n = 30) categories. Additionally, performance levels (starters [first-team] vs. non-starters [substitutes]) were observed in each age category. The dependent variables were newly developed FS_RAG and FS_CODS tests. The independent variables were sprinting capacities over 10 and 20 meters (S10M, S20M), countermovement jump (CMJ), the reactive strength index (RSI), and a generic CODS test of 20 yards (20Y). The newly developed FS_CODS and FS_RAG were observed as dependent variables. Results showed appropriate intra-testing and inter-testing reliability of the FS_RAG and FS_CODS, with somewhat better reliability of the FS_CODS (ICC=0.82 and 0.79, respectively). Additionally, better reliability was evidenced in U15 than in U13 (ICC: 0.82–0.85, and 0.78-0.80 for U15 and U13, respectively). Independent samples t-test indicated significant differences between U13 and U15 in S10 (t-test: 3.57, p < 0.001), S20M (t-test: 3.13, p < 0.001), 20Y (t-test: 4.89, p < 0.001), FS_RAG (t-test: 3.96, p < 0.001), and FS_CODS (t-test: 6.42, p < 0.001), with better performance in U15. Starters outperformed non-starters in most capacities among U13, but only in FS_RAG among U15 (t-test: 1.56, p < 0.05). Multiple regression calculations indicated nonsignificant association between independent and dependent variables in U13 (FS_CODS: 19%, FS_RAG: 21% of the explained variance, both p > 0.05), but independent variables explained significant proportion of both dependent variables in U15 (FS_CODS: 35%, FS_RAG: 33% explained variance, both p < 0.05). The study confirmed the applicability of newly developed tests in distinguishing studied age categories of players. Results indicate that superiority in all studied fitness capacities is translated into performance level in U13. Meanwhile, FS_RAG seems to be important determinant of quality in U15. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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Review

Jump to: Research

21 pages, 2599 KiB  
Review
A Meta-Analysis of the Reliability of Four Field-Based Trunk Extension Endurance Tests
by María Teresa Martínez-Romero, Francisco Ayala, Mark De Ste Croix, Francisco J. Vera-Garcia, Pilar Sainz de Baranda, Fernando Santonja-Medina and Julio Sánchez-Meca
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093088 - 29 Apr 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4306
Abstract
This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the inter- and intra-tester reliability of endurance measures obtained through trunk extension field-based tests and to explore the influence of the moderators on the reliability estimates. The reliability induction rate of trunk extension endurance measures was also calculated. [...] Read more.
This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the inter- and intra-tester reliability of endurance measures obtained through trunk extension field-based tests and to explore the influence of the moderators on the reliability estimates. The reliability induction rate of trunk extension endurance measures was also calculated. A systematic search was conducted using various databases, and subsequently 28 studies were selected that reported intraclass correlation coefficients for trunk extension endurance measures. Separate meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model. When possible, analyses of potential moderator variables were carried out. The inter-tester average reliability of the endurance measure obtained from the Biering-Sorensen test was intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.94. The intra-session reliability estimates of the endurance measures recorded using the Biering-Sorensen test, the prone isometric chest raise test, and the prone double straight-leg test were ICC = 0.88, 0.90, and 0.86, respectively. The inter-session average reliability of the endurance measures from the Biering-Sorensen test, the prone isometric chest raise test, and the dynamic extensor endurance test were ICC = 0.88, 0.95, and 0.99, respectively. However, due to the limited evidence available, the reliability estimates of the measures obtained through the prone isometric chest raise, prone double straight-leg, and dynamic extensor endurance tests should be considered with a degree of caution. Position control instruments, tools, and familiarization session demonstrated a statistical association with the inter-session reliability of the Biering-Sorensen test. The reliability induction rate was 72.8%. Only the trunk extension endurance measure obtained through the Biering-Sorensen test presented sufficient scientific evidence in terms of reliability to justify its use for research and practical purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
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