Special Issue "Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future"

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Pantelis T. Nikolaidis
Website
Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Exercise testing is the cornerstone of developing effective individualized exercise programs for athletes, non-athletes and patients, and consequently, it has many applications in both sports and the clinical setting and public health. Exercise tests—such as the 20 m shuttle run test—have been developed over the last few decades and used widely all over the world. Using these ‘old’ tests provides an advantage of a very large database allowing comparisons by sex, age, and sport. On the other hand, the advancement of scientific knowledge and technology has facilitated the recent development of ‘new’ tests, which have improved validity and reliability compared to the ‘old’ tests. Unfortunately, we still lack large databases to evaluate those new tests’ results. Therefore, the aim of the present Special Issue is to attract studies providing cutting-edge information on the following topics: large normative data on 'new' exercise tests; comparison of ‘new’ and ‘old’ exercise tests; comparison of low-cost field tests with expensive laboratory tests; comparison of submaximal with maximal exercise tests; and ability of an exercise test to discriminate athletes by performance level and non-athletes or patients by health status. All studies should address aspects such as validity, reliability, and responsiveness. All studies should focus on the practical applications of their findings for sport and health practitioners.

Dr. Pantelis T. Nikolaidis
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • age
  • anaerobic capacity
  • ergometer
  • maximal oxygen uptake
  • physical fitness assessment
  • sex

Published Papers (7 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle
Validity and Reliability of the New Basic Functional Assessment Protocol (BFA)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4845; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134845 - 05 Jul 2020
Abstract
The global evaluation of motion patterns can examine the synchrony of neuromuscular control, range of motion, strength, resistance, balance and coordination needed to complete the movement. Visual assessments are commonly used to detect risk factors. However, it is essential to define standardized field-based [...] Read more.
The global evaluation of motion patterns can examine the synchrony of neuromuscular control, range of motion, strength, resistance, balance and coordination needed to complete the movement. Visual assessments are commonly used to detect risk factors. However, it is essential to define standardized field-based tests that can evaluate with accuracy. The aims of the study were to design a protocol to evaluate fundamental motor patterns (FMP), and to analyze the validity and reliability of an instrument created to provide information about the quality of movement in FMP. Five tasks were selected: Overhead Squat (OHS); Hurdle Step (HS); Forward Step Down (FSD); Shoulder Mobility (SM); Active Stretching Leg Raise (ASLR). A list of variables was created for the evaluation of each task. Ten qualified judges assessed the validity of the instrument, while six external observers performed inter-intra reliability. The results show that the instrument is valid according to the experts’ opinion; however, the reliability shows values below those established. Thus, the instrument was considered unreliable, so it is recommended to repeat the reliability process by performing more training sessions for the external observers. The present study creates the basic functional assessment (BFA), a new protocol which comprises five tasks and an instrument to evaluate FMP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of the 5-m Shuttle Run Test on Markers of Muscle Damage, Inflammation, and Fatigue in Healthy Male Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124375 - 18 Jun 2020
Abstract
Physical exercise is often associated with increases in muscle damage markers and inflammation. However, biomarkers of muscle damage and inflammation responses to the 5-m shuttle run test (5mSRT) have not yet been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects [...] Read more.
Physical exercise is often associated with increases in muscle damage markers and inflammation. However, biomarkers of muscle damage and inflammation responses to the 5-m shuttle run test (5mSRT) have not yet been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of the 5mSRT on muscle damage markers, inflammation, and perception of fatigue and recovery in healthy male athletes. Fifteen male amateur team sports players (age: 20 ± 3 yrs, height: 173 ± 7 cm, body-mass: 67 ± 7 kg) participated in this study. Blood biomarkers were collected at rest, 5 min after, and 72 h after the 5mSRT to measure muscle damage (i.e., creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT)) and inflammation (i.e., C-reactive protein (CRP)). Best distance (BD), total distance (TD), fatigue index (FI), and percentage decrement (PD) during the 5mSRT were assessed. Perceived recovery (PRS) and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) were recorded before, 5 min after, and 72 h after the 5mSRT; perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded before, during, and 72 h after the 5mSRT. Muscle damage biomarkers post 5mSRT showed a significant increase compared to pre 5mSRT (p < 0.001) levels ((i.e., CK (190.6 ± 109.1 IU/L vs. 234.6 ± 113.7 IU/L), LDH (163.6 ± 35.1 IU/L vs. 209.9 ± 50.8 IU/L), ASAT (18.0 ± 4.4 IU/L vs. 21.7 ± 6.2 IU/L), and ALAT (10.2 ± 3.4 IU/L vs. 12.7 ± 3.8 IU/L)) and 72 h post 5mSRT (p < 0.001) levels ((CK (125.3 ± 80.5 IU/L vs. 234.6 ± 113.7 IU/L), LDH (143.9 ± 36.6 IU/L vs. 209.9 ± 50.8 IU/L), ASAT (15.0 ± 4.7 IU/L vs. 21.7 ± 6.2 IU/L), and ALAT (8.6 ± 2.4 IU/L vs. 12.7 ± 3.8 IU/L)). CRP was also significantly higher post 5mSRT compared to pre 5mSRT (2.1 ± 2.5 mg/L vs. 2.8 ± 3.3 mg/L, p < 0.001) and 72 h post 5mSRT (1.4 ± 2.3 mg/L vs. 2.8 ± 3.3 mg/L, p < 0.001). Significant correlations were reported between (i) physical performance parameters (i.e., PD, FI, TD, and BD), and (ii) markers of muscle damage (i.e., CK, LDH, ASAT, and ALAT) and inflammation (i.e., CRP). Similarly, DOMS and RPE scores were significantly higher post 5mSRT compared to pre 5mSRT (2.4 ± 1.0UA vs. 6.7 ± 1.1UA and 2.1 ± 0.6 UA vs. 8.1 ± 0.6 UA, respectively p < 0.001) and 72 h post 5mSRT (1.9 ± 0.7 UA vs. 6.7 ± 1.1 UA and 1.5 ± 0.6 UA vs. 8.1 ± 0.6 UA, respectively p < 0.001). PRS scores were significantly lower post 5mSRT as compared to pre 5mSRT (6 ± 1 UA vs. 3 ± 1 UA, p < 0.001) and 72 h post 5mSRT (7 ± 1 UA vs. 3 ± 1 UA, p < 0.001). Significant correlations existed between (i) performance parameters (PD, FI, TD, and BD) and (ii) RPE, PRS, and DOMS. The 5mSRT increased biomarkers of muscle damage and inflammation, as well as the DOMS and RPE and reduced the PRS. Seventy-two hours was sufficient for fatigue recovery induced by the 5mSRT. PD is better than FI for the calculation of performance decrements during the 5mSRT to represent fatigue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Validity, Reliability, and Usefulness of My Jump 2 App for Measuring Vertical Jump in Primary School Children
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3708; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103708 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
There is a persistent need in sport science for developing a measuring tool that is affordable, portable, and easy to use. We aimed to examine the concurrent validity and test–retest reliability of the My Jump 2 app compared to a validated OptoJump instrument [...] Read more.
There is a persistent need in sport science for developing a measuring tool that is affordable, portable, and easy to use. We aimed to examine the concurrent validity and test–retest reliability of the My Jump 2 app compared to a validated OptoJump instrument for measuring jump performance during the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and CMJ free arms (CMJAM) in primary school children. A total of 48 participants (11–14 years age), volunteered to participate in this research. The jumps were recorded with a validated OptoJump photoelectric cell system and a concurrent device (iPhone X through My Jump 2 app) at the same time. The participants repeated the testing procedure after two weeks to assess the reliability of the measurements (ICC). Systematic bias between sessions and tools was evaluated using the paired samples t-test and Bland and Altman analysis. High test–retest reliability (ICC > 0.89) was observed for all measures’ in-between conditions. Very large correlations in the total sample were observed between the My Jump 2 app and OptoJump for SJ (r = 0.97, p = 0.001), CMJ (r = 0.97, p = 0.001), and CMJAM (r = 0.99, p = 0.001). Bland and Altman’s plot depicting limits of agreement for the total sample between the OptoJump and My Jump 2 show that the majority of data points are within the 95% CIs. The results of this study suggest that My Jump 2 is a valid, reliable, and useful tool for measuring jump performance in primary school children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Weekly Load Variations of Distance-Based Variables in Professional Soccer Players: A Full-Season Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093300 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of this study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the variations of acute load, training monotony, and training strain among early (pre-season), mid (first half of season), and end season (second half of season) periods; (2) to compare these training indicators for [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the variations of acute load, training monotony, and training strain among early (pre-season), mid (first half of season), and end season (second half of season) periods; (2) to compare these training indicators for playing positions in different moments of the season. Nineteen professional players (age: 26.5 ± 4.3 years; experience as professional: 7.5 ± 4.3 years) from a European First League team participated in this study. The players were monitored daily over a 45-week period for the total distance (TD), distance covered (DC) at 14 km/h−1 or above (DC > 14 km/h), high-speed running above 19.8 km/h−1 (HSR) distance, and number of sprints above 25.2 km/h−1. The acute load (sum of load during a week), training monotony (mean of training load during the seven days of the week divided by the standard deviation of the training load of the seven days), and training strain (sum of the training load for all training sessions and matches during a week multiplied by training monotony) workload indices were calculated weekly for each measure and per player. Results revealed that training monotony and training strain for HSR were meaningfully greater in pre-season than in the first half of the in-season (p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.883 and p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.712, respectively) and greater than the second half of the in-season (p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.718 and p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.717). The training monotony for the sprints was meaningfully greater in pre-season than in the first half of in-season (p < 0.001; d = 0.953) and greater than the second half of in-season (p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.916). Comparisons between playing positions revealed that small-to-moderate effect sizes differences mainly for the number of sprints in acute load, training monotony, and training strain. In conclusion, the study revealed that greater acute load, training monotony, and training strain occurred in the pre-season and progressively decreased across the season. Moreover, external defenders and wingers were subjected to meaningfully greater acute load and training strain for HSR and number of sprints during the season compared to the remaining positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Classification System of the Sagittal Integral Morphotype in Children from the ISQUIOS Programme (Spain)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2467; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072467 - 04 Apr 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The sagittal spinal morphology presents 4 physiological curvatures that increase endurance to axial compression forces and allow adequate postural balance. These curves must remain within normal ranges to achieve a static and dynamic balance, a correct functioning of the muscles and an adequate [...] Read more.
The sagittal spinal morphology presents 4 physiological curvatures that increase endurance to axial compression forces and allow adequate postural balance. These curves must remain within normal ranges to achieve a static and dynamic balance, a correct functioning of the muscles and an adequate distribution of the loads, and thus minimize the injury risk. The purpose of this study was to categorize the sagittal spinal alignment according to the different morphotypes obtained for each curve in standing, slump sitting, and trunk forward bending positions in schoolchildren. It was a cross-sectional study. Sagittal spinal curvatures were assessed in 731 students from 16 elementary schools. In the sagittal standing position assessment, 70.45% and 89.06% of schoolchildren presented a “normal” morphotype for both dorsal and lumbar curves, respectively. After the application of the “Sagittal Integral Morphotype” protocol according to the morphotypes obtained in the three positions assessment (standing, slump sitting, and trunk forward bending), it was observed how the frequency of normal morphotypes for the dorsal and lumbar curve decreased considerably (only 32% and 6.6% of children obtained a “normal sagittal integral morphotype” for the thoracic and lumbar curvatures, respectively). These results show how it is necessary to include the slump sitting and trunk forward bending assessment as part of the protocol to define the “integral” sagittal alignment of the spine and establish a correct diagnosis. The use of the diagnostic classification presented in this study will allow early detection of misalignment not identified with the assessment of standing position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
Open AccessArticle
Agility Testing in Youth Football (Soccer)Players; Evaluating Reliability, Validity, and Correlates of Newly Developed Testing Protocols
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 294; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010294 - 01 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Reactive agility (RAG) and change of direction speed (CODS) are important determinants of success in football (soccer), but there is an evident lack of information on reliable and valid football-specific testing procedures which will be applicable in defining sport-specific RAG and CODS in [...] Read more.
Reactive agility (RAG) and change of direction speed (CODS) are important determinants of success in football (soccer), but there is an evident lack of information on reliable and valid football-specific testing procedures which will be applicable in defining sport-specific RAG and CODS in youth players. This study evaluated reliability and construct validity of newly developed tests of football-specific RAG (FS_RAG) and CODS (FS_CODS), which involved the ball kicking football technique. Additionally, factors associated with FS_RAG and FS_CODS were evaluated. The participants were youth football players (n = 59; age: 13.40 ± 1.25 years) divided according to their age into U13 (11–12 years of age; n = 29), and U15 (13–14 years of age; n = 30) categories. Additionally, performance levels (starters [first-team] vs. non-starters [substitutes]) were observed in each age category. The dependent variables were newly developed FS_RAG and FS_CODS tests. The independent variables were sprinting capacities over 10 and 20 meters (S10M, S20M), countermovement jump (CMJ), the reactive strength index (RSI), and a generic CODS test of 20 yards (20Y). The newly developed FS_CODS and FS_RAG were observed as dependent variables. Results showed appropriate intra-testing and inter-testing reliability of the FS_RAG and FS_CODS, with somewhat better reliability of the FS_CODS (ICC=0.82 and 0.79, respectively). Additionally, better reliability was evidenced in U15 than in U13 (ICC: 0.82–0.85, and 0.78-0.80 for U15 and U13, respectively). Independent samples t-test indicated significant differences between U13 and U15 in S10 (t-test: 3.57, p < 0.001), S20M (t-test: 3.13, p < 0.001), 20Y (t-test: 4.89, p < 0.001), FS_RAG (t-test: 3.96, p < 0.001), and FS_CODS (t-test: 6.42, p < 0.001), with better performance in U15. Starters outperformed non-starters in most capacities among U13, but only in FS_RAG among U15 (t-test: 1.56, p < 0.05). Multiple regression calculations indicated nonsignificant association between independent and dependent variables in U13 (FS_CODS: 19%, FS_RAG: 21% of the explained variance, both p > 0.05), but independent variables explained significant proportion of both dependent variables in U15 (FS_CODS: 35%, FS_RAG: 33% explained variance, both p < 0.05). The study confirmed the applicability of newly developed tests in distinguishing studied age categories of players. Results indicate that superiority in all studied fitness capacities is translated into performance level in U13. Meanwhile, FS_RAG seems to be important determinant of quality in U15. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
A Meta-Analysis of the Reliability of Four Field-Based Trunk Extension Endurance Tests
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093088 - 29 Apr 2020
Abstract
This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the inter- and intra-tester reliability of endurance measures obtained through trunk extension field-based tests and to explore the influence of the moderators on the reliability estimates. The reliability induction rate of trunk extension endurance measures was also calculated. [...] Read more.
This meta-analysis aimed to estimate the inter- and intra-tester reliability of endurance measures obtained through trunk extension field-based tests and to explore the influence of the moderators on the reliability estimates. The reliability induction rate of trunk extension endurance measures was also calculated. A systematic search was conducted using various databases, and subsequently 28 studies were selected that reported intraclass correlation coefficients for trunk extension endurance measures. Separate meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model. When possible, analyses of potential moderator variables were carried out. The inter-tester average reliability of the endurance measure obtained from the Biering-Sorensen test was intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.94. The intra-session reliability estimates of the endurance measures recorded using the Biering-Sorensen test, the prone isometric chest raise test, and the prone double straight-leg test were ICC = 0.88, 0.90, and 0.86, respectively. The inter-session average reliability of the endurance measures from the Biering-Sorensen test, the prone isometric chest raise test, and the dynamic extensor endurance test were ICC = 0.88, 0.95, and 0.99, respectively. However, due to the limited evidence available, the reliability estimates of the measures obtained through the prone isometric chest raise, prone double straight-leg, and dynamic extensor endurance tests should be considered with a degree of caution. Position control instruments, tools, and familiarization session demonstrated a statistical association with the inter-session reliability of the Biering-Sorensen test. The reliability induction rate was 72.8%. Only the trunk extension endurance measure obtained through the Biering-Sorensen test presented sufficient scientific evidence in terms of reliability to justify its use for research and practical purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Back to TopTop