Next Article in Journal
City Size and Permanent Settlement Intention: Evidence from Rural-Urban Migrants in China
Previous Article in Journal
Radon Hazard in Central Italy: Comparison among Areas with Different Geogenic Radon Potential
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Two-Minute Walk Test in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis: Correlations of Cadence with Free-Living Walking Do Not Support Ecological Validity
Article

Physical Fitness Differences, Amenable to Hypoxia-Driven and Sarcopenia Pathophysiology, between Sleep Apnea and COVID-19

Laboratory of Cardio-Pulmonary Testing and Pulmonary Rehabilitation, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Thessaly, Biopolis, 4100 Larissa, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pantelis T. Nikolaidis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(2), 669; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020669
Received: 20 November 2021 / Revised: 31 December 2021 / Accepted: 5 January 2022 / Published: 7 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Testing: The Past, Present and Future)
Handgrip strength is an indirect indicator of physical fitness that is used in medical rehabilitation for its potential prognostic value. An increasing number of studies indicate that COVID-19 survivors experience impaired physical fitness for months following hospitalization. The aim of our study was to assess physical fitness indicator differences with another prevalent and hypoxia-driven disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome (OSAS). Our findings showed differences between post-COVID-19 and OSAS groups in cardiovascular responses, with post-COVID-19 patients exhibiting higher values for heart rate and in mean arterial blood pressure. Oxygen saturation (SpO2) was lower in post-COVID-19 patients during a six-minute walking test (6MWT), whereas the ΔSpO2 (the difference between the baseline to end of the 6MWT) was higher compared to OSAS patients. In patients of both groups, statistically significant correlations were detected between handgrip strength and distance during the 6MWT, anthropometric characteristics, and body composition parameters. In our study, COVID-19 survivors demonstrated a long-term reduction in muscle strength compared to OSAS patients. Lower handgrip strength has been independently associated with a prior COVID-19 hospitalization. The differences in muscle strength and oxygenation could be attributed to the abrupt onset of the disorder, which does not allow compensatory mechanisms to act effectively. Targeted rehabilitation focusing on such residual impairments may thus be indispensable within the setting of post-COVID-19 syndrome. View Full-Text
Keywords: handgrip; fitness; muscle mass; fatigue; body composition handgrip; fitness; muscle mass; fatigue; body composition
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Stavrou, V.T.; Vavougios, G.D.; Boutlas, S.; Tourlakopoulos, K.N.; Papayianni, E.; Astara, K.; Stavrou, I.T.; Daniil, Z.; Gourgoulianis, K.I. Physical Fitness Differences, Amenable to Hypoxia-Driven and Sarcopenia Pathophysiology, between Sleep Apnea and COVID-19. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 669. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020669

AMA Style

Stavrou VT, Vavougios GD, Boutlas S, Tourlakopoulos KN, Papayianni E, Astara K, Stavrou IT, Daniil Z, Gourgoulianis KI. Physical Fitness Differences, Amenable to Hypoxia-Driven and Sarcopenia Pathophysiology, between Sleep Apnea and COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022; 19(2):669. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020669

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stavrou, Vasileios T., George D. Vavougios, Stylianos Boutlas, Konstantinos N. Tourlakopoulos, Eirini Papayianni, Kyriaki Astara, Ilias T. Stavrou, Zoe Daniil, and Konstantinos I. Gourgoulianis. 2022. "Physical Fitness Differences, Amenable to Hypoxia-Driven and Sarcopenia Pathophysiology, between Sleep Apnea and COVID-19" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 19, no. 2: 669. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19020669

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop