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Special Issue "Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction"

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Albert P. C. Chan

The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: construction safety and health; project management and project success; project finance and public private partnerships (PPP); construction procurement and relational contracting; construction industry development
Guest Editor
Dr. Wen Yi

Postdoctoral Fellow The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
E-Mail
Interests: construction safety and health; safety climate and culture; construction labor productivty

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Construction is a large, complex, and dynamic sector that generates employment for millions of people worldwide. However, this sector has the most fatalities and a high incidence of non-fatal occupational injuries and illnesses requiring days away from work. Statistics from the International Labour Organization reveal that at least 60,000 fatal accidents occur each year in construction sites around the world. In most industrialized countries, employees engaged in the construction industry account for 6% to 10% of the total workforce, yet approximately 25% to 40% of work-related deaths occur in this sector. Aside from the dangers of being the front-liners on a jobsite, workers in the construction industry are also beset with potential health hazards throughout the building process. It was reported that as many as 30% of construction workers suffer from back pains and/or other musculoskeletal disorders. These staggering statistics call for a steadfast and concerted effort to develop, assess, and implement new approaches in enhancing construction safety and health in the construction industry. Governments, industry community practitioners, union groups and academia should pay greater attention to interface and integration issues in construction safety and health. This Special Issue will engage technological, cultural, and organizational perspectives in managing safety and health risk/hazard in construction and is open to any subject area relevant to construction safety and health. The listed keywords suggest just a few of the many possibilities.

Prof. Dr. Albert P.C. Chan
Dr. Wen Yi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Accident modeling and analysis
  • Design for safety
  • Information integration in safety
  • Safety climate and culture
  • Safety behavior
  • Safety management systems
  • Ergonomics
  • Stress and psychosocial risks
  • Occupational hygiene
  • Health and safety for migrant workers
  • Health profiling for construction workers

Published Papers (16 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Modeling the Relationship between Safety Climate and Safety Performance in a Developing Construction Industry: A Cross-Cultural Validation Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(4), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14040351
Received: 17 November 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2017 / Accepted: 25 March 2017 / Published: 28 March 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1371 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study attempts to validate a safety performance (SP) measurement model in the cross-cultural setting of a developing country. In addition, it highlights the variations in investigating the relationship between safety climate (SC) factors and SP indicators. The data were collected from forty [...] Read more.
This study attempts to validate a safety performance (SP) measurement model in the cross-cultural setting of a developing country. In addition, it highlights the variations in investigating the relationship between safety climate (SC) factors and SP indicators. The data were collected from forty under-construction multi-storey building projects in Pakistan. Based on the results of exploratory factor analysis, a SP measurement model was hypothesized. It was tested and validated by conducting confirmatory factor analysis on calibration and validation sub-samples respectively. The study confirmed the significant positive impact of SC on safety compliance and safety participation, and negative impact on number of self-reported accidents/injuries. However, number of near-misses could not be retained in the final SP model because it attained a lower standardized path coefficient value. Moreover, instead of safety participation, safety compliance established a stronger impact on SP. The study uncovered safety enforcement and promotion as a novel SC factor, whereas safety rules and work practices was identified as the most neglected factor. The study contributed to the body of knowledge by unveiling the deviations in existing dimensions of SC and SP. The refined model is expected to concisely measure the SP in the Pakistani construction industry, however, caution must be exercised while generalizing the study results to other developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
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Open AccessArticle
Avoiding the Health Hazard of People from Construction Vehicles: A Strategy for Controlling the Vibration of a Wheel Loader
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(3), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030275
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 15 January 2017 / Accepted: 20 February 2017 / Published: 8 March 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4149 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The vibration control of a construction vehicle must be carried out in order to meet the aims of sustainable environmental development and to avoid the potential human health hazards. In this paper, based on market feedback, the driver seat vibration of a type [...] Read more.
The vibration control of a construction vehicle must be carried out in order to meet the aims of sustainable environmental development and to avoid the potential human health hazards. In this paper, based on market feedback, the driver seat vibration of a type of wheel loader in the left and right direction, is found to be significant over a certain speed range. In order to find abnormal vibration components, the order tracking technique (OTT) and transmission path analysis (TPA) were used to analyze the vibration sources of the wheel loader. Through this analysis, it can be seen that the abnormal vibration comes from the interaction between the tire tread and the road, and this is because the vibration was amplified by the cab mount, which was eventually transmitted to the cab seat. Finally, the seat vibration amplitudes were decreased by up to 50.8%, after implementing the vibration reduction strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
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Open AccessArticle
Migration and Health in the Construction Industry: Culturally Centering Voices of Bangladeshi Workers in Singapore
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(2), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14020132
Received: 3 November 2016 / Revised: 6 January 2017 / Accepted: 24 January 2017 / Published: 29 January 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Construction workers globally face disproportionate threats to health and wellbeing, constituted by the nature of the work they perform. The workplace fatalities and lost-time injuries experienced by construction workers are significantly greater than in other forms of work. This paper draws on the [...] Read more.
Construction workers globally face disproportionate threats to health and wellbeing, constituted by the nature of the work they perform. The workplace fatalities and lost-time injuries experienced by construction workers are significantly greater than in other forms of work. This paper draws on the culture-centered approach (CCA) to dialogically articulate meanings of workplace risks and injuries, voiced by Bangladeshi migrant construction workers in Singapore. The narratives voiced by the participants suggest an ecological approach to workplace injuries in the construction industries, attending to food insecurity, lack of sleep, transportation, etc. as contextual features of work that shape the risks experienced at work. Moreover, participant voices point to the barriers in communication, lack of understanding, and experiences of incivility as features of work that constitute the ways in which they experience injury risks. The overarching discourses of productivity and efficiency constitute a broader climate of threats to worker safety and health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Heat Waves on Occurrence and Severity of Construction Accidents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14010070
Received: 18 October 2016 / Revised: 20 December 2016 / Accepted: 28 December 2016 / Published: 11 January 2017
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (295 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers’ health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and [...] Read more.
The impact of heat stress on human health has been extensively studied. Similarly, researchers have investigated the impact of heat stress on workers’ health and safety. However, very little work has been done on the impact of heat stress on occupational accidents and their severity, particularly in South Australian construction. Construction workers are at high risk of injury due to heat stress as they often work outdoors, undertake hard manual work, and are often project based and sub-contracted. Little is known on how heat waves could impact on construction accidents and their severity. In order to provide more evidence for the currently limited number of empirical investigations on the impact of heat stress on accidents, this study analysed 29,438 compensation claims reported during 2002–2013 within the construction industry of South Australia. Claims reported during 29 heat waves in Adelaide were compared with control periods to elicit differences in the number of accidents reported and their severity. The results revealed that worker characteristics, type of work, work environment, and agency of accident mainly govern the severity. It is recommended that the implementation of adequate preventative measures in small-sized companies and civil engineering sites, targeting mainly old age workers could be a priority for Work, Health and Safety (WHS) policies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Transformational Leadership on Safety Climate and Individual Safety Behavior on Construction Sites
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14010045
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 12 December 2016 / Accepted: 27 December 2016 / Published: 5 January 2017
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (3339 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Unsafe acts contribute dominantly to construction accidents, and increasing safety behavior is essential to reduce accidents. Previous research conceptualized safety behavior as an interaction between proximal individual differences (safety knowledge and safety motivation) and distal contextual factors (leadership and safety climate). However, relatively [...] Read more.
Unsafe acts contribute dominantly to construction accidents, and increasing safety behavior is essential to reduce accidents. Previous research conceptualized safety behavior as an interaction between proximal individual differences (safety knowledge and safety motivation) and distal contextual factors (leadership and safety climate). However, relatively little empirical research has examined this conceptualization in the construction sector. Given the cultural background of the sample, this study makes a slight modification to the conceptualization and views transformational leadership as an antecedent of safety climate. Accordingly, this study establishes a multiple mediator model showing the mechanisms through which transformational leadership translates into safety behavior. The multiple mediator model is estimated by the structural equation modeling (SEM) technique, using individual questionnaire responses from a random sample of construction personnel based in Hong Kong. As hypothesized, transformational leadership has a significant impact on safety climate which is mediated by safety-specific leader–member exchange (LMX), and safety climate in turn impacts safety behavior through safety knowledge. The results suggest that future safety climate interventions should be more effective if supervisors exhibit transformational leadership, encourage construction personnel to voice safety concerns without fear of retaliation, and repeatedly remind them about safety on the job. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
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Open AccessArticle
Health Profile of Construction Workers in Hong Kong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121232
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 25 November 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 13 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, “Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers” was launched in 2014 to detect [...] Read more.
Construction is a manual, heavy, and complex sector concerning the most fatal accidents and high incidence of occupational illnesses and injuries resulting in days away from work. In Hong Kong, “Pilot Medical Examination Scheme for Construction Workers” was launched in 2014 to detect the health problems of their construction workforce. All registered workers under the Construction Workers Registration Board are eligible to join the scheme. The purpose of this paper is to assess the physical condition, physiological status, and musculoskeletal disorders of 942 construction workers in Hong Kong. This study adopted a two-phase design, which includes a basic medical examination to measure the workers’ physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, resting heart rate, glucose, cholesterol, uric acid, liver function test, and renal function test; as well as a face-to-face interview following the medical examination to collect their demographic information and pain experience. Individual characteristics, including gender, age, obesity, alcohol drinking habit, and sleeping habit influenced the health condition of construction workers. Among the participants, 36.1% and 6.5% of them were overweight and obese, respectively. In addition, 43.0%, 38.4%, 16.2%, and 13.9% of the participants exceeded the thresholds of cholesterol, blood pressure, urea nitrogen, and uric urea, correspondingly. Moreover, 41.0% of the participants suffered musculoskeletal pain, where the most frequent painful parts occur in the lower back, shoulder, knees, leg, and neck. Through these findings, a series of important issues that need to be addressed is pointed out in terms of maintaining the physical well-being and reducing musculoskeletal disorders of construction workers. The finding may have implications for formulating proper intervention strategies for the sustainable development of Hong Kong’s construction industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
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Open AccessArticle
Hazard Management Dealt by Safety Professionals in Colleges: The Impact of Individual Factors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13121201
Received: 30 August 2016 / Revised: 24 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 3 December 2016
PDF Full-text (319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Identifying, evaluating, and controlling workplace hazards are important functions of safety professionals (SPs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the content and frequency of hazard management dealt by safety professionals in colleges. The authors also explored the effects of organizational factors/individual [...] Read more.
Identifying, evaluating, and controlling workplace hazards are important functions of safety professionals (SPs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the content and frequency of hazard management dealt by safety professionals in colleges. The authors also explored the effects of organizational factors/individual factors on SPs’ perception of frequency of hazard management. The researchers conducted survey research to achieve the objective of this study. The researchers mailed questionnaires to 200 SPs in colleges after simple random sampling, then received a total of 144 valid responses (response rate = 72%). Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the hazard management scale (HMS) extracted five factors, including physical hazards, biological hazards, social and psychological hazards, ergonomic hazards, and chemical hazards. Moreover, the top 10 hazards that the survey results identified that safety professionals were most likely to deal with (in order of most to least frequent) were: organic solvents, illumination, other chemicals, machinery and equipment, fire and explosion, electricity, noise, specific chemicals, human error, and lifting/carrying. Finally, the results of one-way multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated there were four individual factors that impacted the perceived frequency of hazard management which were of statistical and practical significance: job tenure in the college of employment, type of certification, gender, and overall job tenure. SPs within colleges and industries can now discuss plans revolving around these five areas instead of having to deal with all of the separate hazards. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
Open AccessArticle
The Safety Attitudes of Senior Managers in the Chinese Coal Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111147
Received: 11 August 2016 / Revised: 19 October 2016 / Accepted: 8 November 2016 / Published: 17 November 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: Senior managers’ attitudes towards safety are very important regarding the safety practices in an organization. The study is to describe the current situation of senior managers′ attitudes towards safety in the Chinese coal industry. Method: We evaluated the changing trends as [...] Read more.
Introduction: Senior managers’ attitudes towards safety are very important regarding the safety practices in an organization. The study is to describe the current situation of senior managers′ attitudes towards safety in the Chinese coal industry. Method: We evaluated the changing trends as well as the reasons for these changes in the Chinese coal industry in 2009 and in 2014 with 168 senior manager samples from large Chinese state-owned coal enterprises. Evaluations of 15 safety concepts were performed by means of a questionnaire. Results and Conclusions: Results indicate that, in 2014, three concepts were at a very high level (mean > 4.5), and six were at a relatively high level (4.5 > mean > 4.0). Analyses of changing trends revealed that nine concepts improved significantly, while four greatly declined in 2014 compared to those in 2009. The data reported here suggest that the reasons for the significant improvement with respect to the nine concepts include the improvement in social and legal environments, the improvement of the culture of social safety, workers′ safety demands being met, and scientific and technical advances in the coal industry. The decline of the four concepts seemed to be caused by a poor awareness of managers in the coal industry that safety creates economic benefits, insufficient information on safety, inadequate attention to the development of a safety culture and safety management methods, and safety organizations and workers′ unions not playing their role effectively. Practical Applications: We therefore recommend strengthening the evidence that safety creates economic benefits, providing incentives for employees to encourage their participation in safety management, and paying more attention to the prevention of accidents in coal mines via safety organizations and unions. These results can provide guidelines for workers, industrialists, and government regarding occupational safety in the whole coal industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
Open AccessArticle
Multilevel Safety Climate and Safety Performance in the Construction Industry: Development and Validation of a Top-Down Mechanism
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111100
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The character of construction projects exposes front-line workers to dangers and accidents. Safety climate has been confirmed to be a predictor of safety performance in the construction industry. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between multilevel safety climate [...] Read more.
The character of construction projects exposes front-line workers to dangers and accidents. Safety climate has been confirmed to be a predictor of safety performance in the construction industry. This study aims to explore the underlying mechanisms of the relationship between multilevel safety climate and safety performance. An integrated model was developed to study how particular safety climate factors of one level affect those of other levels, and then affect safety performance from the top down. A questionnaire survey was administered on six construction sites in Vietnam. A total of 1030 valid questionnaires were collected from this survey. Approximately half of the data were used to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and the remaining data were submitted to structural equation modeling (SEM). Top management commitment (TMC) and supervisors’ expectation (SE) were identified as factors to represent organizational safety climate (OSC) and supervisor safety climate (SSC), respectively, and coworkers’ caring and communication (CCC) and coworkers’ role models (CRM) were identified as factors to denote coworker safety climate (CSC). SEM results show that OSC factor is positively related to SSC factor and CSC factors significantly. SSC factor could partially mediate the relationship between OSC factor and CSC factors, as well as the relationship between OSC factor and safety performance. CSC factors partially mediate the relationship between OSC factor and safety performance, and the relationship between SSC factor and safety performance. The findings imply that a positive safety culture should be established both at the organizational level and the group level. Efforts from all top management, supervisors, and coworkers should be provided to improve safety performance in the construction industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
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Open AccessArticle
System Dynamics Model and Simulation of Employee Work-Family Conflict in the Construction Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13111059
Received: 21 September 2016 / Revised: 26 October 2016 / Accepted: 26 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (2537 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The construction industry is a demanding work environment where employees’ work-family conflict is particularly prominent. This conflict has a significant impact on job and family satisfaction and performance of employees. In order to analyze the dynamic evolution of construction industry employee’s work-family conflict [...] Read more.
The construction industry is a demanding work environment where employees’ work-family conflict is particularly prominent. This conflict has a significant impact on job and family satisfaction and performance of employees. In order to analyze the dynamic evolution of construction industry employee’s work-family conflict between work and family domains, this paper constructs a bi-directional dynamic model framework of work-family conflict by referring to the relevant literature. Consequently, a system dynamics model of employee’s work-family conflict in the construction industry is established, and a simulation is conducted. The simulation results indicate that construction industry employees experience work interference with family conflict (WIFC) levels which are significantly greater than the family interference with work conflict (FIWC) levels. This study also revealed that improving work flexibility and organizational support can have a positive impact on the satisfaction and performance of construction industry employees from a work and family perspective. Furthermore, improving family support can only significantly improve employee job satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
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Open AccessArticle
Exploring Typical and Atypical Safety Climate Perceptions of Practitioners in the Repair, Maintenance, Minor Alteration and Addition (RMAA) Sector in Hong Kong
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 935; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13100935
Received: 23 July 2016 / Revised: 15 September 2016 / Accepted: 15 September 2016 / Published: 22 September 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (552 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The safety of repair, maintenance, minor alteration and addition (RMAA) work is an under-explored area. This study explored the typical and atypical safety climate perceptions of practitioners in the RMAA sector in Hong Kong, based on a self-administered questionnaire survey of 662 local [...] Read more.
The safety of repair, maintenance, minor alteration and addition (RMAA) work is an under-explored area. This study explored the typical and atypical safety climate perceptions of practitioners in the RMAA sector in Hong Kong, based on a self-administered questionnaire survey of 662 local practitioners in the industry. Profile analysis, via multidimensional scaling of the respondents’ scores of three safety climate scales, identified one typical perception: high in management commitment to occupational health and safety (OHS) and employee involvement, low in applicability for safety rules and regulations, and low in responsibility for OHS. The respondents were clustered into typical and atypical perception groups according to their safety climate scores’ match to the typical perception. A comparison of demographics between the two groups with logistic regression found that work level and direct employer significantly affect their classification. A multivariate analysis of variance of safety performance measures between the two groups indicated that the typical group had a significantly higher level of safety compliance than the atypical group, with no significant difference in safety participation or injury. The significance of this study lies in revealing the typical safety climate perception profile pattern of RMAA works and offering a new perspective of safety climate research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
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Open AccessArticle
Analysis of the Influence of Construction Insulation Systems on Public Safety in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(9), 861; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13090861
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 13 July 2016 / Accepted: 22 July 2016 / Published: 30 August 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6659 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the Government of China’s proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007), the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot [...] Read more.
With the Government of China’s proposed Energy Efficiency Regulations (GB40411-2007), the implementation of external insulation systems will be mandatory in China. The frequent external insulation system fires cause huge numbers of casualties and extensive property damage and have rapidly become a new hot issue in construction evacuation safety in China. This study attempts to reconstruct an actual fire scene and propose a quantitative risk assessment method for upward insulation system fires using thermal analysis tests and large eddy simulations (using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) software). Firstly, the pyrolysis and combustion characteristics of Extruded polystyrene board (XPS panel), such as ignition temperature, combustion heat, limiting oxygen index, thermogravimetric analysis and thermal radiation analysis were studied experimentally. Based on these experimental data, large eddy simulation was then applied to reconstruct insulation system fires. The results show that upward insulation system fires could be accurately reconstructed by using thermal analysis test and large eddy simulation. The spread of insulation material system fires in the vertical direction is faster than that in the horizontal direction. Moreover, we also find that there is a possibility of flashover in enclosures caused by insulation system fires as the smoke temperature exceeds 600 °C. The simulation methods and experimental results obtained in this paper could provide valuable references for fire evacuation, hazard assessment and fire resistant construction design studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
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Open AccessArticle
Simulation-Based Prediction of Equivalent Continuous Noises during Construction Processes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(8), 818; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13080818
Received: 6 July 2016 / Revised: 7 August 2016 / Accepted: 8 August 2016 / Published: 12 August 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1206 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Quantitative prediction of construction noise is crucial to evaluate construction plans to help make decisions to address noise levels. Considering limitations of existing methods for measuring or predicting the construction noise and particularly the equivalent continuous noise level over a period of time, [...] Read more.
Quantitative prediction of construction noise is crucial to evaluate construction plans to help make decisions to address noise levels. Considering limitations of existing methods for measuring or predicting the construction noise and particularly the equivalent continuous noise level over a period of time, this paper presents a discrete-event simulation method for predicting the construction noise in terms of equivalent continuous level. The noise-calculating models regarding synchronization, propagation and equivalent continuous level are presented. The simulation framework for modeling the noise-affected factors and calculating the equivalent continuous noise by incorporating the noise-calculating models into simulation strategy is proposed. An application study is presented to demonstrate and justify the proposed simulation method in predicting the equivalent continuous noise during construction. The study contributes to provision of a simulation methodology to quantitatively predict the equivalent continuous noise of construction by considering the relevant uncertainties, dynamics and interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of Stop-Skipping Scheduling Plans in Rail Transit under Time-Dependent Demand
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 707; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070707
Received: 9 May 2016 / Revised: 22 June 2016 / Accepted: 7 July 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1264 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Stop-skipping is a key method for alleviating congestion in rail transit, where schedules are sometimes difficult to implement. Several mechanisms have been proposed and analyzed in the literature, but very few performance comparisons are available. This study formulated train choice behavior estimation into [...] Read more.
Stop-skipping is a key method for alleviating congestion in rail transit, where schedules are sometimes difficult to implement. Several mechanisms have been proposed and analyzed in the literature, but very few performance comparisons are available. This study formulated train choice behavior estimation into the model considering passengers’ perception. If a passenger’s train path can be identified, this information would be useful for improving the stop-skipping schedule service. Multi-performance is a key characteristic of our proposed five stop-skipping schedules, but quantified analysis can be used to illustrate the different effects of well-known deterministic and stochastic forms. Problems in the novel category of forms were justified in the context of a single line rather than transit network. We analyzed four deterministic forms based on the well-known A/B stop-skipping operating strategy. A stochastic form was innovatively modeled as a binary integer programming problem. We present a performance analysis of our proposed model to demonstrate that stop-skipping can feasibly be used to improve the service of passengers and enhance the elasticity of train operations under demand variations along with an explicit parametric discussion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
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Open AccessArticle
Hazard Prevention Regarding Occupational Accidents Involving Blue-Collar Foreign Workers: A Perspective of Taiwanese Manpower Agencies
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 706; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070706
Received: 18 April 2016 / Revised: 3 July 2016 / Accepted: 5 July 2016 / Published: 13 July 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (266 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational [...] Read more.
Since 1989, blue-collar foreign workers have been permitted to work in Taiwanese industries. Most blue-collar foreign workers apply for jobs in Taiwan through blue-collar foreign workers’ agencies. Because blue-collar foreign workers are not familiar with the language and culture in Taiwan, in occupational accident education and hazard prevention, the agencies play an important role in the coordination and translation between employees and blue-collar foreign workers. The purpose of this study is to establish the agencies’ role in the occupational accidents education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. This study uses a qualitative method—grounded theory—to collect, code, and analyze the data in order to understand the agencies’ role in occupational accident education and hazard prevention for blue-collar foreign workers in Taiwan. The results show that the duty of agencies in occupational accident education and hazard prevention includes selecting appropriate blue-collar foreign workers, communicating between employees and blue-collar foreign workers, collecting occupational safety and health information, assisting in the training of occupational safety and health, and helping blue-collar foreign workers adapt to their lives in Taiwan. Finally, this study suggests seven important points and discusses the implementation process necessary to improve governmental policies. The government and employees should pay attention to the education/training of occupational safety and health for blue-collar foreign workers to eliminate unsafe behavior in order to protect the lives of blue-collar foreign workers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)

Review

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Open AccessReview
Falls from Height in the Construction Industry: A Critical Review of the Scientific Literature
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(7), 638; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph13070638
Received: 10 March 2016 / Revised: 13 June 2016 / Accepted: 14 June 2016 / Published: 28 June 2016
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (1015 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Globally, falls from height (FFH) are a substantial public health jeopardy and are among the important leading causes of serious and fatal injuries for construction workers. A comprehensive understanding of the causal factors in FFH incidents is urgently required; however, the literature appears [...] Read more.
Globally, falls from height (FFH) are a substantial public health jeopardy and are among the important leading causes of serious and fatal injuries for construction workers. A comprehensive understanding of the causal factors in FFH incidents is urgently required; however, the literature appears to lack a scientific review of FFH. In this study, 297 articles that contribute to the topic of fall incidents were reviewed. Seventy-five (75) articles met the criteria for relevance and were aggregated in a database to support a critical review. A synthesis of macro-variables approach was adopted rather than a structured meta-analysis. Such a method of analysis provides the flexibility to combine previous studies' findings. The most common factors associated with FFH are risky activities, individual characteristics, site conditions, organizational characteristics, agents (scaffolds/ladders) and weather conditions. The outcomes contributed to identifying the most significant research area for safety enhancement by improving engineering facilities, behaviour investigations and FFH prevention methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effecting a Safe and Healthy Environment in Construction)
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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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