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Open AccessReview

Nutrition-Related Adverse Outcomes in Endurance Sports Competitions: A Review of Incidence and Practical Recommendations

1
Departamento de Enfermería, Grupo de Investigación en Alimentación y Nutrición (ALINUT), Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
2
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
3
Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences Department, Sciences Faculty, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
4
Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud de la Universidad Isabel I, 09003 Burgos, Spain
5
Facultad del Deporte, Universidad Pablo Olavide de Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
6
Departamento de Motricidad Humana y Rendimiento Deportivo, Universidad de Sevilla, 41004 Sevilla, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4082; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114082
Received: 22 April 2020 / Revised: 26 May 2020 / Accepted: 4 June 2020 / Published: 8 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Community Nutrition and Physical Exercise)
During the last few years, the numbers of competitors in endurance and ultra-endurance sports modalities have increased significantly. This type of competition is an extreme challenge for athletes. Therefore, they have an increased the risk of developing medical and nutritional problems. The aim of the work is to estimate the incidence of nutrition-related adverse outcomes in endurance and ultra-endurance sports, considering the variables that influence them. A critical review was carried out based on the PubMed database, by means of a search strategy based on keywords separated by Boolean connectors. For all the results obtained in a period from 2008 to 2019, a series of inclusion/exclusion criteria was applied to select only the studies that fitted the objective of the present study. Results and discussion: Of the 871 publications identified, 33 met the inclusion criteria. The adverse outcomes found included exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH), heat stroke by exertion (EHS), gastrointestinal (GI) problems, dehydration, and hypothermia; the provision of misinformation to athletes about nutrient intake and hydration during competition was identified as the main cause. Conclusions: The main adverse outcomes in endurance and ultra-endurance sports modalities are EAH, GI inconveniences, and EHS. These problems can affect the performance and health status of the athlete during and post-competition. Several nutritional guidelines have been suggested that can prevent these adverse outcomes, and it is essential to individualize and adjust the nutritional intake and hydration status according to the characteristics of each competition. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat stroke; hyponatremia; dehydration; hypothermia; gastrointestinal diseases; sport; athletic performance heat stroke; hyponatremia; dehydration; hypothermia; gastrointestinal diseases; sport; athletic performance
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Martínez-Sanz, J.M.; Fernández Nuñez, A.; Sospedra, I.; Martínez-Rodríguez, A.; Domínguez, R.; González-Jurado, J.A.; Sánchez-Oliver, A.J. Nutrition-Related Adverse Outcomes in Endurance Sports Competitions: A Review of Incidence and Practical Recommendations. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 4082.

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