Special Issue "Children's Exposures to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors Found in Their Everyday Environment"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Children's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 August 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Nicolle S. Tulve

Guest Editor
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Exposure Research Laboratory, 109 T.W. Alexander Drive, Mail Code: E205-04, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709, USA

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Children are exposed to a wide variety of chemical and non-chemical stressors at each lifestage throughout their lifecourse, potentially impacting their lifelong health and well-being. However, we currently do not fully understand how chemical and non-chemical stressors from the built, natural, and social environments interact to influence health and well-being across the human lifecourse. There is growing recognition that environmental and social factors interact in complex ways to determine human health and well-being, and that optimizing environments for healthy and sustainable living requires an understanding of this complexity.

For this Special Issue, we invite submissions that examine the interrelationships between chemical and non-chemical stressors on children's health and well-being with an emphasis on understanding how non-chemical stressors act as modifiers of chemical exposures. Papers addressing policy implications, community health with a focus on child-specific environments, and translation of in vivo/in vitro systems to human health may also be considered.

Prof. Dr. Nicolle S. Tulve
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • children
  • social determinants of health
  • non-chemical stressors
  • chemical stressors
  • lifestage
  • exposure
  • health
  • well-being
  • total environment

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Open AccessReview
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Investigating the Relationship between Exposures to Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors during Prenatal Development and Childhood Externalizing Behaviors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2361; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072361 (registering DOI) - 31 Mar 2020
Abstract
Childhood behavioral outcomes have been linked to low quality intrauterine environments caused by prenatal exposures to both chemical and non-chemical stressors. The effect(s) from the many stressors a child can be prenatally exposed to may be influenced by complex interactive relationships that are [...] Read more.
Childhood behavioral outcomes have been linked to low quality intrauterine environments caused by prenatal exposures to both chemical and non-chemical stressors. The effect(s) from the many stressors a child can be prenatally exposed to may be influenced by complex interactive relationships that are just beginning to be understood. Chemical stressors influence behavioral outcomes by affecting the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) enzyme, which is involved in serotonin metabolism and the neuroendocrine response to stress. Non-chemical stressors, particularly those associated with violence, have been shown to influence and exacerbate the externalizing behavioral outcomes associated with low MAOA activity and slowed serotonin metabolism. The adverse developmental effects associated with high stress and maternal drug use during pregnancy are well documented. However, research examining the combined effects of other non-chemical and chemical stressors on development and childhood outcomes as a result of gestational exposures is scarce but is an expanding field. In this systematic review, we examined the extant literature to explore the interrelationships between exposures to chemical and non-chemical stressors (specifically stressful/traumatic experiences), MAOA characteristics, and childhood externalizing behaviors. We observed that exposures to chemical stressors (recreational drugs and environmental chemicals) are significantly related to externalizing behavioral outcomes in children. We also observed that existing literature examining the interactions between MAOA characteristics, exposures to chemical stressors, and traumatic experiences and their effects on behavioral outcomes is sparse. We propose that maternal stress and cortisol fluctuations during pregnancy may be an avenue to link these concepts. We recommend that future studies investigating childhood behaviors include chemical and non-chemical stressors as well as children’s inherent genetic characteristics to gain a holistic understanding of the relationship between prenatal exposures and childhood behavioral outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
The Dose Makes the Poison: A Case Report of Acquired Methemoglobinemia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(6), 1845; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17061845 - 12 Mar 2020
Abstract
Background: Methemoglobinemia (MET) should be suspected in cases where cyanosis is not associated with signs and symptoms of lung and/or heart disease, or in a cyanotic child exhibiting discrepancies in the partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood, the blood oxygen saturation, [...] Read more.
Background: Methemoglobinemia (MET) should be suspected in cases where cyanosis is not associated with signs and symptoms of lung and/or heart disease, or in a cyanotic child exhibiting discrepancies in the partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood, the blood oxygen saturation, and the clinical assessment. Case presentation: A 10-month-old girl was taken to the Pediatric Emergency Department for the acute, sudden development of significant peroral cyanosis associated with gray pigmentation of the skin. The problem was evidenced approximately one hour after she ingested a homemade puree of mixed vegetables, mainly composed of potatoes and chards that had been prepared three days before and had been kept in the refrigerator since then. Physical examination revealed that the child was very pale, conscious, and without respiratory distress. Oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in the arterial blood (SpO2) was 94%. Respiratory, cardiovascular, and abdominal evaluations did not reveal any signs of disease. A venous blood sample showed chocolate-colored blood with a pH of 7.404, a partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) of 40.6 mmHg, a partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) of 21.3 mmHg, a bicarbonate level of 24 mmol/L, and an oxygen saturation (SO2%) of 47.7%. CO-oximetry carried out simultaneously identified a methemoglobin level of 22%. MET was suspected, and oxygen via nasal cannula at a rate of 4 L/min was given with only a slight increase in oxygen saturation (96%). Slow intravenous injection of methylene blue 1 mg/kg over a period of 5 min was initiated. The peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) gradually improved to 100% over the next 20 min. Forty minutes later, venous blood gas analysis showed a methemoglobin level of 0.9% with a complete resolution of cyanosis; supplemental oxygen via nasal cannula was therefore discontinued. During the next 36 h, the patient remained hemodynamically stable with good oxygenation on room air. Conclusions: This case report shows that recognition of acquired MET in a child with sudden cyanosis onset requires a high index of suspicion. In daily activities, there is a need to pay particular attention when homemade vegetable soups for child alimentation are prepared. The consumption of vegetable soups must occur immediately after preparation. Storage in a refrigerator must last no more than 24 h and if longer storage is needed, vegetable soups should be frozen. Full article
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