Next Article in Journal
Carbon Storage Change Analysis and Emission Reduction Suggestions under Land Use Transition: A Case Study of Henan Province, China
Next Article in Special Issue
Air Pollution, Neonatal Immune Responses, and Potential Joint Effects of Maternal Depression
Previous Article in Journal
Reversal of the Upward Trend of Obesity in Boys, but Not in Girls, in Spain
Previous Article in Special Issue
Children’s Environmental Health: A Systems Approach for Anticipating Impacts from Chemicals
Article

Environmental Exposures in Singapore Schools: An Ecological Study

1
UC Berkeley Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
2
School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, Singapore 119077, Singapore
3
UC Berkeley School of Public Health, Berkeley, CA 94704, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Nicolle S. Tulve
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1843; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041843
Received: 15 January 2021 / Revised: 6 February 2021 / Accepted: 9 February 2021 / Published: 14 February 2021
Global climate change is a clear and present danger to our environment, but the impacts of climate change on human health are less known. People in Asian countries are more susceptible to the negative impacts of climate change and the subsequent environmental exposures because of the high population density, rapid urbanization, and natural geography of the region. The objective of this multidisciplinary collaborative ecological study was to explore the impact of environmental exposures such as temperature (°C), noise (db), humidity (%rh), air conditioning exposure time (hours), and distance traveled to school (km) on the comfort and academic success of school children in Singapore. Analysis of a large dataset from the Singapore National Science Experiment revealed a positive correlation between the distance traveled to school and favorable environmental conditions (moderate temperatures, low noise, low humidity, and higher amount of air conditioning time) and student academic performance. The analysis revealed that the distance traveled between home and school for public school students falls within a larger range than that for independent (private) school students. On average, students traveled farther distances to attend schools of higher academic caliber thereby increasing their exposure to environmental pollution. Student exposure to pollution can be minimized if all schools adhere to higher standards of environmental comfort and standardized academic caliber. If students can attend the school closest to their homes, they can minimize their daily pollution exposure due to traffic/commute, thereby mitigating the resultant negative health consequences. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental; thermal comfort; children’s health; pollution; academic performance; school; population health; ecological study environmental; thermal comfort; children’s health; pollution; academic performance; school; population health; ecological study
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Periyakoil, D.; Das, H.P.; Miller, C.; Spanos, C.J.; Prata, N. Environmental Exposures in Singapore Schools: An Ecological Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 1843. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041843

AMA Style

Periyakoil D, Das HP, Miller C, Spanos CJ, Prata N. Environmental Exposures in Singapore Schools: An Ecological Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(4):1843. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041843

Chicago/Turabian Style

Periyakoil, Divya, Hari P. Das, Clayton Miller, Costas J. Spanos, and Ndola Prata. 2021. "Environmental Exposures in Singapore Schools: An Ecological Study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 4: 1843. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041843

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop