Special Issue "Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Mental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Javier Ortuño Sierra
Website
Guest Editor
Developmental and Educational Sciences, University of La Rioja, Spain
Interests: adolescence; mental health; well-being; development; psychometrics; epigenetics; neurocognitive

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Well-being and mental health in adolescence is a crucial aspect today. Adolescence is considered a crucial developmental stage with different transformations that affect at physical, psychological, and sociological levels. It is well known that mental disorders and psychological difficulties in adulthood start in a considerable percentage during adolescence. The impact of these difficulties affects not only the person but also the family, the school, and the whole community and environment surrounding the adolescent. Bearing in mind the high prevalence and the long-term negative consequences associated with mental health difficulties during adolescence, more attention and resources from public health systems are now being devoted to the evaluation, detection, and intervention of psychological difficulties and related phenomena. Moreover, and with the aim of further understanding those individuals at risk for psychological difficulties, the study of protective and risk factors, for instance, neurocognitive performance, is recommended. Further, identifying specific neurocognitive factors in high-risk youth may optimize the prognostic accuracy and the prediction strategies of clinical outcomes. Nonetheless, little is still known about well-being in adolescence and its relationships with psychological difficulties as well as neurocognitive aspects. In addition, the comprehension of these relevant factors in a crucial stage as adolescence is may help with implementing strategies for prevention before the transition to mental health issues and chronic disorders.

This Special Issue seeks research papers on various aspects of mental health development in adolescence. We especially encourage the submission of interdisciplinary work and multicountry collaborative research. We also encourage the submission of health systems and health policy-related manuscripts that focus on issues related to mental health in adolescence in the environment and the neurocognitive aspect related to it. We welcome original research papers using different study designs as well as systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Dr. Javier Ortuño Sierra
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Mental health
  • Adolescence
  • Youth
  • Neurocognitive performance
  • Well-Being
  • Protective factors
  • Emotional and behavioral difficulties

Published Papers (20 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Attitudes towards Violence in Adolescents and Youth Intimate Partner Relationships: Validation of the Spanish Version of the EAV
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 566; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020566 - 12 Jan 2021
Abstract
The main purpose of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Scale Towards Violence (Escala de Actitudes hacia la Violencia, EAV) in adolescents. The EAV is a questionnaire devoted to assess attitudes towards violence. Additionally, the [...] Read more.
The main purpose of the present study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Attitudes Scale Towards Violence (Escala de Actitudes hacia la Violencia, EAV) in adolescents. The EAV is a questionnaire devoted to assess attitudes towards violence. Additionally, the relationship between EAV and violence manifestations and depressive symptoms was analyzed. The final sample comprised a total of 1248 students in a cross-sectional survey. The EAV, the Modified Conflict Tactics Scale (M-CTS), and the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) were used. The analysis of the internal structure of the EAV yielded a two-factor structure as the most adequate. The EAV scores showed measurement invariance across gender and age. The McDonald’s Omega was 0.862 and 0.872 for the two hypothesized factors. Furthermore, self-reported attitudes towards violence were associated with violence manifestations both as a victim and as a perpetrator and depressive symptoms. These results support that the EAV is a brief and easy tool to assess self-reported violence attitudes in intimate partner relationships in adolescents from the general population. The assessment of these attitudes, and its associations with violence and depressive manifestations, may help us to enhance the possibility of an early identification of adolescents potentially at risk for suffering violence as a victim or as a perpetrator. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
A Psychometric Evaluation of the Guilt and Shame Experience Scale (GSES) on a Representative Adolescent Sample: A Low Differentiation between Guilt and Shame
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8901; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238901 - 30 Nov 2020
Abstract
The Guilt and Shame Experience Scale (GSES) is a new, brief self-report instrument for assessing experiences of guilt and shame. It includes two distinct scales: feelings of shame and feelings of guilt. The present report focuses on results from a final validation study [...] Read more.
The Guilt and Shame Experience Scale (GSES) is a new, brief self-report instrument for assessing experiences of guilt and shame. It includes two distinct scales: feelings of shame and feelings of guilt. The present report focuses on results from a final validation study using a nationally representative sample of 7899 adolescents (M age = 14.5 ± 1.1 years, 50.7% boys) who participated in the 2014 Health Behavior in School-aged Children study. For factor analysis, the dataset was divided into two groups. One group (n = 3950) was used for the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and the second (n = 3949) for the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). The EFA results in a one-factor model of the GSES scale, while the CFA suggests a two-factor solution mirroring two scales, feelings of shame and feelings of guilt. Both models have a good fit to the data, and the scale also showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.89). A nonparametric comparison of different sociodemographic groups showed a higher disposition for experiencing guilt and shame among girls, students of the ninth grade, and religious respondents. A comparison of the results to previously published results obtained from adults indicates that adolescence is a developmental period involving low differentiation between moral emotions like guilt and shame compared with adulthood. Moreover, positive association with religious attendance shows a need of addressing these issues in a pastoral care setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
Open AccessArticle
Clinical Characteristics of Suicidal Youths and Adults: A One-Year Retrospective Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8733; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238733 - 24 Nov 2020
Abstract
Suicide is a major mental health problem, particularly during youth, when it is the second leading cause of death. Since young people at risk of suicide are often cared for by the adult health system, we sought to identify the specificities and similarities [...] Read more.
Suicide is a major mental health problem, particularly during youth, when it is the second leading cause of death. Since young people at risk of suicide are often cared for by the adult health system, we sought to identify the specificities and similarities between suicidal youths and adults in order to further inform the potential need for adaptations in taking care of suicidal youths. For this study, we used the following data: mental disorders, treatments, previous hospitalization, and reasons for current hospitalization, that were collected from November 2016 to October 2017 among people hospitalized for a suicidal crisis in a specialized psychiatric unit. First, we compared the data from the youth group with those from the adult group, and then we tried to determine if there were any associations between variables. Analyses showed that youths were more similar to adults than expected. In particular, we found comparable rates of personality disorders (especially borderline) and relapse, and similar profiles of reasons for hospitalization in suicidal crisis. Remarkably, among youth, neuroleptics appeared to be associated with fewer hospitalizations for behavioral than ideational reasons, but with more relapses. Results of this study suggest that young people could benefit from brief psychotherapeutic interventions implemented for adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Towards a Functional Approach to the Assessment of Daily Life Physical Activity in Children: Are the PAQ-C and Fitbit Flex-2 Technically Adequate?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228503 - 17 Nov 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Considering the need for functional physical activity (PA) measures in PA settings, this study sought to determine the technical adequacy of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and the Fitbit Flex-2, two instruments with promising features for wide use, using the [...] Read more.
Considering the need for functional physical activity (PA) measures in PA settings, this study sought to determine the technical adequacy of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and the Fitbit Flex-2, two instruments with promising features for wide use, using the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer as the criterion reference. A total of 218 Greek children (94 boys, 124 girls; mean age = 10.99 ± 1.52 years) volunteered to join in. Participants wore the PA trackers for seven days and completed the PAQ-C. Moreover, a sub-group (n = 60) recompleted the PAQ-C after a week. Results revealed acceptable internal consistency and excellent test–retest reliability for the PAQ-C. Regarding concurrent validity, weak to moderate correlations with PA parameters recorded by the GT3X+ were revealed for the total PAQ-C and were excellent for the Flex-2, while a Bland–Altman plot indicated good agreement. Finally, in alignment with relevant literature, significant gender, but no age, differences were found in participants’ PA records in all the tools applied. The above results support the use of the PAQ-C and the Fitbit Flex-2 in children. Considering that they shed light into different parameters of children’s habitual PA, their combined utilisation, providing comprehensive information, is strongly recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of a Family-Based Mental Health Program for Runaway Adolescents Using an Intervention Mapping Protocol
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7794; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217794 - 24 Oct 2020
Abstract
The mental health and related quality of life of runaway adolescents are global public health issues. As few intervention studies have considered the family contexts of runaway adolescents, we aimed to develop an intervention tailored specifically to the needs of this population using [...] Read more.
The mental health and related quality of life of runaway adolescents are global public health issues. As few intervention studies have considered the family contexts of runaway adolescents, we aimed to develop an intervention tailored specifically to the needs of this population using an Intervention Mapping protocol. First, a literature review and interviews with runaway adolescents and youth shelter workers were conducted to create a logic model of the problem. Second, the behavioral and environmental outcomes were set to adapt to stressful situations and enable families to become more resourceful in dealing with family adversity, based on the results of needs assessment. Performance objectives and changeable determinants were also created by reviewing the pertinent theories and studies. Third, theory- and evidence-based methods to influence changes in the determinants were identified. Fourth, we designed an eight-session family-based mental health program incorporating individual and family approaches for runaway adolescents. Fifth, we determined that mental health nurses at community mental health centers linked to youth shelters would serve as the program implementers. Finally, we planned a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of our program on improving runaway adolescents’ mental health status and perceived family functioning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
Open AccessArticle
Family and School Context: Effects on the Mental Health of Brazilian Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6042; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176042 - 20 Aug 2020
Abstract
Mental health during adolescence can affect an individual’s long-term quality of life. However, the effects of family and school contexts on students’ mental health have been little explored. This study aims to analyze the relationships between family and school life and feelings of [...] Read more.
Mental health during adolescence can affect an individual’s long-term quality of life. However, the effects of family and school contexts on students’ mental health have been little explored. This study aims to analyze the relationships between family and school life and feelings of loneliness and trouble sleeping owing to worries in adolescents. The data from this cross-sectional study were obtained from Brazil’s National School Health Survey (PeNSE), which obtained its data through questionnaires. This study’s sample consisted of 102,072 ninth-grade students aged between 11 and 19 years, 52,782 (51.7%) of whom were female, enrolled in public and private schools throughout Brazil. The methodology consisted of an analysis using the Poisson regression model. Regarding the family context, mental health issues were associated with hunger, distant relationships with parents, and family violence. Regarding the school context, feelings of loneliness and trouble sleeping were associated with poor peer relationships, insecurity at school, and schools in more violent areas. This study contributes to the elaboration of public policies aimed at bringing awareness to family members and school bodies that indicators of mental health in adolescents are influenced by the quality of bonds established within these environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
Open AccessArticle
Mental Health Problems and Associated Factors in Chinese High School Students in Henan Province: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165944 - 16 Aug 2020
Abstract
Approximately one in five adolescents experience mental health problems globally. However, studies on mental health problems in Chinese high school students are few. Therefore, this study examined the status and associated factors of mental health problems in high school students in China. A [...] Read more.
Approximately one in five adolescents experience mental health problems globally. However, studies on mental health problems in Chinese high school students are few. Therefore, this study examined the status and associated factors of mental health problems in high school students in China. A stratified two-stage cluster sampling procedure was adopted, leading to a final sample of 15,055 participants from 46 high schools in all 17 provincial cities of Henan province, China. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect the data. A mental health problems variable was assessed using the Mental Health Inventory of Middle School Students. The positive rate of mental health problems among high school students was 41.8%, with a male predominance (43.3% versus 40.2% in females; p < 0.01). The most frequent mental health problem was academic stress (58.9%). Higher grades, physical disease, chronic constipation, alcohol consumption, engagement in sexual behavior, residence on campus, and living in nonurban areas and with single-parent families were significantly associated with higher odds of having mental health problems (p < 0.05). We suggest that the prevention of mental health problems in high school students be strengthened, especially in students with physical illnesses, unhealthy behaviors, and single-parent families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Emotion Regulation and Emotion Knowledge in Preschoolers: A Longitudinal Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(16), 5726; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17165726 - 07 Aug 2020
Abstract
Numerous studies have shown the important role of both emotion regulation (ER) and emotion knowledge (EK) in child development. Despite the number of studies carried out on both variables, there is practically no research on the developmental relationship between these two constructs. We [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have shown the important role of both emotion regulation (ER) and emotion knowledge (EK) in child development. Despite the number of studies carried out on both variables, there is practically no research on the developmental relationship between these two constructs. We present a longitudinal study to explore the relationship between EK and ER in preschoolers in which we measured these variables over 3 academic years in a cohort of 108 preschool children using the Test of Emotion Comprehension (TEC) and the Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC). The ERC is divided into 2 subscales: Emotional Regulation (ER) and Lability/Negativity (L/N). Two cross-lagged models were constructed in order to examine the predictive power of ER and L/N on EK across the three time points. The results suggest that ER is an ability that precedes and predicts EK during preschool years. We also discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Sociocultural Influences, Drive for Thinness, Drive for Muscularity, and Body Dissatisfaction among Korean Undergraduates
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145260 - 21 Jul 2020
Abstract
For many years, body dissatisfaction was considered a western phenomenon, and was studied mostly in Caucasian women. Recent studies, however, suggest that these issues are also present in men and in other ethnic groups. This research investigated the differential effects of various sociocultural [...] Read more.
For many years, body dissatisfaction was considered a western phenomenon, and was studied mostly in Caucasian women. Recent studies, however, suggest that these issues are also present in men and in other ethnic groups. This research investigated the differential effects of various sociocultural pressures transmitted from the media, one’s parents, and one’s peers on the drives for thinness and muscularity, and body dissatisfaction among 1125 Korean college students (56% male) using structural equation modeling. The results indicate that, after controlling for body mass index and exercise, media pressures exerted the largest effects on participants’ body ideals and, in turn, body dissatisfaction across both genders (β = 0.44, and 0.30, p < 0.05, for females and males, respectively). This study’s results also indicate that there are considerable gender differences in this relationship. Specifically, the results show that parental and media pressure had significant indirect relationships with body dissatisfaction via the drive for thinness among females, while peer and media pressures had significant indirect relationships with body dissatisfaction via the drive for muscularity among males. As body dissatisfaction is known to significantly affect an individual’s mental and physical health, future research needs to identify relevant influential factors in this area, as well as the paths they have leading to increased body dissatisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Association Between the Location of Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Depressive Symptoms among South Korean Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145116 - 15 Jul 2020
Abstract
The incidence of depression among adolescents has gradually increased, leading to adult psychological outcomes and suicide. Although the rate of secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) has recently decreased, SHSE remains high in children. We aimed to determine the association between depressive symptoms in adolescents [...] Read more.
The incidence of depression among adolescents has gradually increased, leading to adult psychological outcomes and suicide. Although the rate of secondhand smoke exposure (SHSE) has recently decreased, SHSE remains high in children. We aimed to determine the association between depressive symptoms in adolescents and the locations of SHSE using an extensive population survey. Using data from the 14th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey, we assessed self-reported data of depressive symptoms and SHSE among non-smokers. SHSE locations were classified into four groups: only at school, only at home, at both school and home, and other places. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the associations between SHSE locations and depressive symptoms. The relationship between SHSE and depressive symptoms was the highest in the “SHSE at home and school” group (boys: odds ratio [OR] = 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.44–1.80; girls: OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.54–1.91), followed by the “school” (boys: OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.39–1.67; girls: OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.25–1.48) and “home” groups (boys: OR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.12–1.35; girls: OR = 1.30, 95% CI = 1.20–1.40). These results emphasize the importance of stricter smoking regulations not only in public places, but also in households. Adolescents and their families should be educated on the dangers of smoking and the effects of SHSE on mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Psychological Well-Being and Psychosocial Factors in University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(13), 4778; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134778 - 02 Jul 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Determining what factors influence the psychological well-being of undergraduate university students may provide valuable information to inform the development of intervention programs and targeted learning activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between psychological well-being in university students and [...] Read more.
Determining what factors influence the psychological well-being of undergraduate university students may provide valuable information to inform the development of intervention programs and targeted learning activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between psychological well-being in university students and their self-reported learning styles and methodologies, social skills, emotional intelligence, anxiety, empathy and self-concept. The final sample consisted of 149 Spanish university students, with an average age of 21.59 years (SD = 4.64). Psychological well-being dimensions, along with learning style and methodology preferences, social skills, level of social responsibility, emotional intelligence, state and trait anxiety, empathy and levels of self-concept were measured using a series of validated self-report scales. The results indicate that the total variance explained by the university students’ psychological well-being factors were as follows: i) self-acceptance dimension (R2 = 0.586, F(6,99) = 23.335, p < 0.001); ii) positive relationships dimension (R2 = 0.520, F(6,99) = 17.874, p < 0.001); iii) autonomy dimension (R2 = 0.313, F(4,101) = 11.525, p < 0.001); iv) environmental mastery dimension (R2 = 0.489, F(4,101) = 24.139, p < 0.001); v) personal growth dimension (R2 = 0.354, F(4,101) = 13.838, p < 0.001); and vi) purpose-in-life dimension (R2 = 0.439, F(4,101) = 19.786, p < 0.001). The study findings may be used to inform new educational policies and interventions aimed at improving the psychological well-being of university students in the international context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Predicting Student Well-Being: Network Analysis Based on PISA 2018
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 4014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114014 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The latest trends in research extend the focus of school effectiveness beyond students’ acquisition of knowledge and skills, looking at aspects such as well-being in the academic context. Although the concept of well-being itself has been defined and measured in various ways, neither [...] Read more.
The latest trends in research extend the focus of school effectiveness beyond students’ acquisition of knowledge and skills, looking at aspects such as well-being in the academic context. Although the concept of well-being itself has been defined and measured in various ways, neither its dimensions nor the relationships between the components have been clearly described. The aim of the present study was to analyse how the elements of well-being interact and determine how they are influenced by school factors. To do that, we conducted a network analysis based on data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 international assessment. Our results demonstrated that cognitive, psychological, and social well-being variables form a solid welfare construct in the educational context, where students’ resilience and fear of failure, along with their sense of belonging, play central roles. Although the influence of school factors on student well-being is generally low, teaching enthusiasm and support promote positive school climates which are, in turn, crucial in reducing bullying. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Cognitive Behavioral Group Program for Mental Health Promotion of University Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3500; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103500 - 17 May 2020
Abstract
This study aimed to explore the effects of a group cognitive behavioral program on depression, self-esteem, and interpersonal relations among undergraduate students. A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. A convenient sample of 37 undergraduates (18 in the experimental group and 19 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to explore the effects of a group cognitive behavioral program on depression, self-esteem, and interpersonal relations among undergraduate students. A non-equivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. A convenient sample of 37 undergraduates (18 in the experimental group and 19 in the control group) at K university located in Changwon, South Korea was used. Data were collected from February 4, 2019 to June 18, 2019. The experimental group received eight sessions of the program, which were scheduled twice a week, with each session lasting 90 min. Collected data were analyzed using a chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test, independent t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA by SPSS/WIN 23.0 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The interaction of group and time was significant, indicating that the experimental group showed an improvement in depression, self-esteem, and personal relationship compared to the control group. A significant group by time interaction for depression, self-esteem, and personal relationship was also found between the two groups. The study results revealed that the group cognitive behavioral program was effective in reducing depression and improving self-esteem and interpersonal relation. Therefore, the group cognitive behavioral program can be used for promoting the mental health of students as well as for preventing depression in a university setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Suicidal Behavior in Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(8), 2820; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17082820 - 19 Apr 2020
Abstract
The main goal of the present study was to identify and validate latent classes of suicidal behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. The sample comprised a total of 1506 students, including 667 males (44.3%), selected through a sample stratified by clusters. The [...] Read more.
The main goal of the present study was to identify and validate latent classes of suicidal behavior in a representative sample of adolescents. The sample comprised a total of 1506 students, including 667 males (44.3%), selected through a sample stratified by clusters. The mean age was 16.15 years (SD = 1.36). The instruments used evaluated suicidal behavior, positive and negative affect, emotional and behavioral problems, prosocial behavior, and subjective well-being. Using the Paykel Suicide Scale, the latent class analysis identified four homogeneous subgroups: “low risk”, “suicidal act”, “suicidal ideation”, and “high risk for suicide”. These subgroups presented a differential pattern in terms of their social-emotional adjustment. The subgroups with the highest theoretical risk showed lower scores on subjective well-being and positive affect as well as higher scores on emotional and behavioral problems and negative affect compared to the non-risk subgroups. This study contributes to an understanding of the typologies of suicidal behavior among adolescents and the relationship with psychopathological adjustment. Ultimately, these findings may promote the development or improvement of early detection and prevention strategies in the suicidal behavior field in order to reduce the socio-economic burdens associated with suicide in young populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Association between Sexual Satisfaction and Depression and Anxiety in Adolescents and Young Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 841; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030841 - 29 Jan 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
The role of sexual satisfaction in adolescents and young adults’ mental health has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this work is to study differences in sexual satisfaction and mental health (anxiety and depression) based on romantic relationship status (having a partner [...] Read more.
The role of sexual satisfaction in adolescents and young adults’ mental health has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this work is to study differences in sexual satisfaction and mental health (anxiety and depression) based on romantic relationship status (having a partner vs. not having one) and gender. Likewise, the association between sexual satisfaction and mental health and the moderating effect of romantic relationship status and gender was addressed in this research. A total of 1682 Spanish adolescents (14–17) and young adults (18–29) agreed to participate in this cross-sectional investigation. Two-factor ANOVA and MANOVA, and hierarchical regression models were utilized in this study. In general, results showed more difficulties in sexual satisfaction and mental health for those not in a current relationship and for women. Additionally, higher levels of sexual satisfaction was associated with lower levels of anxiety for adolescents and lower levels of depression for young adults. These associations were stronger for those in a current relationship. This study highlights the importance of sexual satisfaction as a modifying factor against mental health problems, especially in the context of a current romantic relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Patterns of Bullying Victimization and Associations with Mental Health Problems in Chinese Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 779; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030779 - 27 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
Bullying victimization in school students is a serious public health concern and has been linked to a wide range of mental health problems. The current study aims to examine patterns of involvement in different types of bullying victimization among Chinese adolescents and evaluate [...] Read more.
Bullying victimization in school students is a serious public health concern and has been linked to a wide range of mental health problems. The current study aims to examine patterns of involvement in different types of bullying victimization among Chinese adolescents and evaluate the associations between bullying victimization and mental health problems. Cross-sectional data from 20,722 middle school students from Guangdong Province were sampled using a multistage, stratified cluster-randomized sampling method. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed on seven items representing bullying victimization. Levels of mental health outcomes were compared across each latent class. Four latent classes were identified for boys: the high victimization class (0.6%), the moderate victimization class (2.8%), the verbal victimization class (12.4%), and the low victimization class (84.2%). For girls, three latent classes were identified: the high victimization class (0.7%), the moderate victimization class (5.6%), and the low victimization class (93.7%). Characteristics of the item probabilities were different between boys and girls. For both genders, a graded relationship was found between bullying victimization class membership and mental health outcomes. These findings underline the complexity of bullying victimization patterns among Chinese adolescents. Students with higher involvement in bullying victimization have more severe mental health problems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Online Learning Communities and Mental Health Literacy for Preschool Teachers: The Moderating Role of Enthusiasm for Engagement
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4448; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224448 - 13 Nov 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Background: Most of the existing literature analyzes preschool teachers’ perceptions of information seeking and measures their satisfaction with online support for mental health issues. Seldom has this literature considered the influence of enthusiasm for or preference towards online engagement and social media [...] Read more.
Background: Most of the existing literature analyzes preschool teachers’ perceptions of information seeking and measures their satisfaction with online support for mental health issues. Seldom has this literature considered the influence of enthusiasm for or preference towards online engagement and social media in the development of preschool teachers’ mental health literacy. Methods: This study focused on preschool teachers’ attitudes towards the impact of an online learning community on mental health literacy and explored the moderation of enthusiasm for engagement on this relationship. A survey was conducted in Taiwan, and the researchers employed partial least squares to test the moderating effect. Results: The results indicate that enthusiasm for engagement has a negative moderating effect on the relationship between an online learning community and mental health literacy for preschool teachers. Conclusions: The moderating effect of enthusiasm for engagement in this relationship reminds us to consider the advantages and disadvantages of the employment of online learning communities for the improvement of mental health literacy and well-being. This study recommends cautiously integrating online learning communities and real-world communication into an appropriate and user-friendly interactive model to help preschool teachers promote their mental health literacy and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing the Impact of School-Based Greenness on Mental Health Among Adolescent Students in Ontario, Canada
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(22), 4364; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224364 - 08 Nov 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Neighbourhood greenness has been frequently associated with improved mental health in adulthood, yet its impact among youth is less clear. Additionally, though youth spend large portions of time at school, no study has investigated associations between school-based measures of greenness and students’ mental [...] Read more.
Neighbourhood greenness has been frequently associated with improved mental health in adulthood, yet its impact among youth is less clear. Additionally, though youth spend large portions of time at school, no study has investigated associations between school-based measures of greenness and students’ mental health in Canada. We addressed this gap by linking participant responses from the 2016–2017 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey to school-based features of the built environment. Our analyses included 6313 students, ages 11–20. Measures of greenness were the mean and max of the annual mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index within 500 m and 1000 m from the centroid of the school postal code. Measures of mental health included: serious psychological distress (Kessler 6-item Psychological Distress Scale), self-rated mental health (using a five-point Likert scale), suicide ideation, and suicide attempt. In our study population, the prevalence of serious psychological distress and low self-rated mental health was 16.7% and 20.3%, respectively. Suicide ideation was reported by 13.5% of participants, while 3.7% reported a suicide attempt. Quantity of greenness was similar between schools in the lower and upper quartiles. In logistic regressions, we found no association between objective school-based greenness and mental health, as assessed by multiple measures, both before and after adjustment. Null findings held true after stratification by season, as well. Whether other characteristics of school greenness (such as type, quality, or access and use) are more impactful to students’ mental health should be a focus of future analyses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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Open AccessArticle
Post-Traumatic Stress and School Adaptation in Adolescent Survivors Five Years after the 2010 Yushu Earthquake in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4167; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214167 - 29 Oct 2019
Abstract
(1) Background: The devastating Ms 7.1 earthquake struck Yushu city, China, in 2010, leading to serious consequences and damage in the central Tibetan Plateau. This study aimed to assess school adaptation and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of adolescent survivors five years after [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The devastating Ms 7.1 earthquake struck Yushu city, China, in 2010, leading to serious consequences and damage in the central Tibetan Plateau. This study aimed to assess school adaptation and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of adolescent survivors five years after the Yushu earthquake. (2) Methods: A large-scale, school-based mental health survey was conducted 5 years after the earthquake among Tibetan students in the city of Yushu using the Adolescent’s School Adaptation Scale (ASAS) and the PTSD Checklist. (3) Results: A total of 1976 questionnaires were collected. A total of 30.7% of Tibetan adolescents had poor school adaptation and 19.5% were estimated as having probable PTSD. Logistic regression showed that females (OR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.60–0.89), senior students (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.39–0.59), and those who participated in post-disaster reconstruction (OR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.54–0.85) were less likely to have poor school adaptation, while a positive association was observed among those buried under a collapsed building (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.04–2.09) and those who experienced bereavement (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.27–2.45). Students who had experienced bereavement were also more likely to have PTSD (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.12–2.28). (4) Conclusions: The post-traumatic effects of the Yushu earthquake on Tibetan adolescents were severe and long-lasting. Sustainable long-term mental health services to help adolescents to restructure their mental health are necessary. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
Open AccessArticle
Gender Difference in the Effect of Short Sleep Time on Suicide among Korean Adolescents
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(18), 3285; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183285 - 06 Sep 2019
Abstract
A close association between the duration of sleep and suicide has been reported in previous studies. This study was designed to investigate whether there is a difference in the effects of sleep duration on suicide by gender. This study was conducted based on [...] Read more.
A close association between the duration of sleep and suicide has been reported in previous studies. This study was designed to investigate whether there is a difference in the effects of sleep duration on suicide by gender. This study was conducted based on the results of a volunteer online survey for adolescents in middle and high school in the Republic of Korea. The results showed that the effect of a depressive mood on short sleep time and on suicide was not different between male and female adolescents. It has been reported that the direct effect of short sleep time on increasing suicidal ideation is 2.50 times higher in female than in male adolescents. Differences in the metabolism of sex hormones and sleep-associated neurotransmitters might have affected this result, but further studies are needed to clarify more obvious mechanisms. In addition, this result should be considered when establishing sleep education for adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Well-Being in Adolescence: Environment and Behavior)
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