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Special Issue "Satisfaction, Stress, and Mental Health in the Tourism/Hospitality Industry"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Economics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 28 February 2023 | Viewed by 8425

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Sunghyup Sean Hyun
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Tourism, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
Interests: workplace well-being; employee mental health; flight attendant psychological well-being; human resource management; cabin crew work environment; convention; cruise; casino; 3c convergence (convention, cruise, casino); neo-fusion tourism industry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Satisfaction and stress are directly related to mental health, and, due to the human resource-based characteristics of the tourism/hospitality industry, their management and control have been a difficult issue from the perspective of employees and customers.

Thus, this Special Issue focuses on two critical issues in the tourism/hospitality industry: (1) employee work stress, job satisfaction, and mental health, as well as (2) customers’ satisfaction level, dissatisfaction-related stress, and mental health, also covering the quality of life, happiness, turnover intention, and behavioral intentions in the tourism/hospitality industry.

Prof. Dr. Sunghyup Sean Hyun
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • mental health
  • stress
  • satisfaction
  • tourist/customer quality of life
  • happiness
  • job stress
  • turnover intention
  • behavioral intention
  • tourism/hospitality

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Article
Will Perceived Risk of COVID-19 Move Exhibition Visitors from On-Site to Virtual? Focusing on Exhibition Quarantine Service Quality and Switching Intention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(11), 6388; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19116388 - 24 May 2022
Viewed by 224
Abstract
COVID-19 has shifted people’s activities from the real world to the virtual world in many fields, such as conferences, shopping, education, and more. In the field of MICE, however, exhibitions have been held steadily since the second half of 2020 in the form [...] Read more.
COVID-19 has shifted people’s activities from the real world to the virtual world in many fields, such as conferences, shopping, education, and more. In the field of MICE, however, exhibitions have been held steadily since the second half of 2020 in the form of on-site exhibitions. The exhibition organizers and related authorities have tried to attract exhibitors and visitors to the exhibition hall by providing exhibition quarantine services. Moreover, despite various perceived risks during the COVID-19 period, exhibition visitors continue to visit the exhibition. This study, therefore, paid attention to the psychological factors of visitors who consistently visit on-site exhibitions even during the pandemic. In addition to the perceived risks, this study tried to examine the quality of exhibition quarantine services and switching intention of visitors, and to analyze the relationships between them. A survey of 167 people who visited the camping exhibition and well-food exhibition held in June 2021 found that they would not visit the exhibition due to the functional and financial risk of the exhibition rather than the risk of the virus. On the other hand, it was found that visitors who felt the social risk of COVID-19 valued the quality of exhibition quarantine service. Furthermore, the study found that the quarantine service quality lowered switching intention. Therefore, the study suggests that exhibition organizers should think about ways to strengthen the most essential characteristics of on-site exhibitions along with appropriate quarantine measures to induce steady visits even during the pandemic. Full article
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Article
Positive Humor and Work Withdrawal Behaviors: The Role of Stress Coping Styles in the Hotel Industry Amid COVID-19 Pandemic
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6233; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106233 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 273
Abstract
Working in the hospitality industry is stressful due to the intensive workload and extended work hours; this stress has increased after the COVID-19 pandemic due to high levels of job insecurity, downsizing, and laying off procedures. Employees in the hotel industry can deal [...] Read more.
Working in the hospitality industry is stressful due to the intensive workload and extended work hours; this stress has increased after the COVID-19 pandemic due to high levels of job insecurity, downsizing, and laying off procedures. Employees in the hotel industry can deal with stress positively by utilizing task-coping styles or negatively by emotion- and avoidance-coping styles. Building on the transactional theory of stress and coping, and the benign violation theory of humor, the current study explores the relationships between positive humor and work withdrawal behaviors with the mediating effects of coping styles. A total of 407 hotel employees participated, and the obtained data were analyzed by structural equation modeling with partial least squares (PLS). The results asserted that affiliative humor is able to reduce coping with stresses via the negative styles and to increase coping with stresses via the positive style. The results also demonstrated the ability of task-coping in reducing work withdrawal behavior. Significant insights into theoretical and practical implications are further discussed. Full article
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Article
Digital-Free Tourism Holiday as a New Approach for Tourism Well-Being: Tourists’ Attributional Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 5974; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105974 - 14 May 2022
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Digital-free tourism (DFT) has recently attracted tourism service providers’ attention for its benefits in terms of enhancing tourists’ experiences and well-being at destinations. DFT refers to tourists who are likely to voluntarily avoid digital devices and the Internet on holiday, or travel to [...] Read more.
Digital-free tourism (DFT) has recently attracted tourism service providers’ attention for its benefits in terms of enhancing tourists’ experiences and well-being at destinations. DFT refers to tourists who are likely to voluntarily avoid digital devices and the Internet on holiday, or travel to destinations without network signals. DFT has advantages for tourists in increasing well-being, mental health, and social networking during their journeys. DFT also has a benefit for tourism marketers in that they can consider it as a new tourism approach. However, there is a lack of studies into tourists’ locus of control (LOC) while experiencing DFT holidays. LOC refers to how individuals assign the responsibility of event outcomes—whether they assign it to themselves (internal LOC) or they say it is beyond their control (external LOC). Therefore, the current study contributes to investigating tourists’ LOC impacts while experiencing DFT holidays. The study relies on semi-structured interviews with millennial tourists who have experienced DFT holidays. The study findings reveal that millennial tourists with an internal LOC (vs. external) are more likely to perceive the DFT advantages (vs. obstacles) during and after the DFT holidays. However, millennial tourists with external LOC incrementally change their attitudes and perceive the DFT holiday benefits through their self-efficacy enhancement. The findings propose managerial strategies for developing effective DFT holidays for millennial tourists regarding their LOC. Full article
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Article
Toward Improving Working Conditions to Enhance Professionalism of Convention Workers: Focusing on the Difference between Job Satisfaction and Job Performance According to Professionalism Perception
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 5829; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19105829 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 253
Abstract
In recent years, the importance of professionalism of convention workers has been rapidly emerging. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to establish a strategy for strengthening the professionalism of convention workers. For this, the study investigates if there are any differences in [...] Read more.
In recent years, the importance of professionalism of convention workers has been rapidly emerging. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to establish a strategy for strengthening the professionalism of convention workers. For this, the study investigates if there are any differences in job satisfaction and job performance based on the segmented groups of professionalism perception of convention workers. The results of factor analysis showed six underlying dimensions of professionalism perception of convention workers. Cluster analysis showed that there were different segmented groups of professionalism perception: high level (cluster 1), low level (cluster 2), moderate level (cluster 3). Lastly, MANOVA showed that there were differences in job satisfaction and job performance among the segmented groups. More theoretical and practical implications are discussed in the conclusion. Full article
Article
The Future of Medical Tourism for Individuals’ Health and Well-Being: A Case Study of the Relationship Improvement between the UAE (United Arab Emirates) and South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5735; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095735 - 08 May 2022
Viewed by 431
Abstract
The medical tourism industry has been growing rapidly in recent years as governments seek new sectors for sustainable growth. The increase in medical tourism and cooperation in the health and medical sector may be a path to improving relationships between countries. As a [...] Read more.
The medical tourism industry has been growing rapidly in recent years as governments seek new sectors for sustainable growth. The increase in medical tourism and cooperation in the health and medical sector may be a path to improving relationships between countries. As a result of globalization, international tourism has been growing faster than any other time in the past. The growth of international tourism is being regarded as a contributor to the development of the economy, social cooperation, politics, and cultural relations. This paper suggests that developing medical tourism may act as a basis for increasing tourism in general, thereby enhancing cultural exchanges and improving the relationship between South Korea (Republic of Korea) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), especially by establishing a new cooperative relationship in the health and medical field. This paper focuses on the functions of medical tourism in the past and its potential in the future, which may play a significant role in the relationship between South Korea and the UAE, particularly its influence on South Korea’s policies of cooperation with the UAE in the field of health and medical services. Full article
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Article
Study on Factors That Influence Human Errors: Focused on Cabin Crew
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5696; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095696 - 07 May 2022
Viewed by 293
Abstract
This study aims to reduce the possibility of human mistakes and accidents among airline cabin crew by identifying the cause of human errors by focusing on the importance of the causal relationship between human factors and human errors. According to statistical analysis, among [...] Read more.
This study aims to reduce the possibility of human mistakes and accidents among airline cabin crew by identifying the cause of human errors by focusing on the importance of the causal relationship between human factors and human errors. According to statistical analysis, among the five human factors, physical fatigue, psychological stress, and the complacency of cabin crew had a positive impact on human errors. However, hurrying under time pressure and the distractions caused by external factors do not significantly affect human errors. Human errors have a negative impact on job crafting and mental health. This study analyzed the human factors influencing the cabin crew’s errors and revealed the importance of complacency, which was not covered in previous studies. Finally, the research implications, limitations, and future studies were discussed. Full article
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Article
The Effects of Workplace Loneliness on the Psychological Detachment and Emotional Exhaustion of Hotel Employees
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 5228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19095228 - 25 Apr 2022
Viewed by 419
Abstract
This study was aimed at establishing whether loneliness among hotel employees in the workplace affects their psychological and emotional experiences by empirically investigating their perceptions of negative situations. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 300 hotel employees, after which confirmatory factor analysis was [...] Read more.
This study was aimed at establishing whether loneliness among hotel employees in the workplace affects their psychological and emotional experiences by empirically investigating their perceptions of negative situations. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 300 hotel employees, after which confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to reassess the reliability and validity of the measured questionnaire items. A model of workplace loneliness, psychological detachment, and emotional exhaustion was developed and examined through structural equation modeling. The results showed that the hotel employees experienced workplace loneliness and expressed a desire to be psychologically detached from their jobs for recovery. Workplace loneliness also contributed to emotional exhaustion. Theoretical and practical implications, as well as limitations and future research directions, are discussed. Full article
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Article
Unethical Organization Behavior: Antecedents and Consequences in the Tourism Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(9), 4972; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19094972 - 20 Apr 2022
Viewed by 420
Abstract
The entire tourism and hospitality industry has witnessed a considerable increase in the number of ethical difficulties that occur in the workplace. It has been discovered that unethical organizational behavior (UOB) is the most significant category in tourists’ unpleasant experiences, driving them to [...] Read more.
The entire tourism and hospitality industry has witnessed a considerable increase in the number of ethical difficulties that occur in the workplace. It has been discovered that unethical organizational behavior (UOB) is the most significant category in tourists’ unpleasant experiences, driving them to switch and spread unfavorable word-of-mouth information. This study aims to explore the effects of three contextual factors on UOB (i.e., work intensification, job insecurity, and an unethical company-profit climate) and to investigate its possible employee-related consequences, including the feeling of guilt, emotional exhaustion, and customer-oriented citizenship behavior. A total of 970 employees working in hotels (5-star and 4-star) and travel agencies (Category A) participated, and the obtained data were analyzed by structural equation modeling. The results asserted that work intensification, job insecurity, and an unethical company-profit climate stimulate unethical organizational behavior, and unethical organizational behavior leads to feelings of guilt, emotional exhaustion, and customer-oriented citizenship behavior. Significant insights into theoretical and practical implications were further discussed. Full article
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Article
How Will Video Conference Fatigue Affect Participants of MICE in the With-COVID-19 Era? Focusing on Video Conference Quality, Social Presence Theory, and Flow
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4601; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084601 - 11 Apr 2022
Viewed by 530
Abstract
Is our mental health at risk due to spending a significant amount of time online due to the COVID-19 pandemic? In the new era that we are living in, where we live a life that coexists with the virus, we are participating in [...] Read more.
Is our mental health at risk due to spending a significant amount of time online due to the COVID-19 pandemic? In the new era that we are living in, where we live a life that coexists with the virus, we are participating in video conferences held online rather than on-site in order to slow the spread of the virus. Video conferencing has become our necessity since March 2020, and is becoming a new standard, especially in the MICE industry. Recently, however, people who have excessively used video conference platforms are complaining of video conference fatigue, which is a new negative emotion such as stress, anxiety, and worry as well as general work fatigue. Therefore, this study focused on the mechanism of video conferencing in MICE, which is rapidly digitally converted by the virus, and the digital psychological factors of the participants. This study derived the quality attributes of video conferencing in MICE and empirically analyzed the relationship with digital psychological factors of the video conference participants, such as video conference fatigue, social presence, and flow. One hundred and thirty-eight valid questionnaires collected from participants of several international academic conferences held in EXCO, Daegu, Korea, from 23 to 28 May 2021, were analyzed. The main results are as follows. First, unlike general video conference fatigue, MICE video conference fatigue was not found to be related to the preceding and following variables. This is due to the characteristics of the MICE video conference and the expertise of the participants. Second, social presence was identified as an important variable in MICE video conferencing. Although media-mediated, the feeling of being present with the presenter and participants was found to affect the participants’ flow in the video conference. Third, in this study, the fun factor was identified as the most important video conference quality that can enhance the social presence of the video conference participants of MICEs. Full article
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Article
Effects of Parent Brand Equity on Perceived Fit and Customer Behavior of Extended Brand—Focused on MICE Destination
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(8), 4540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19084540 - 09 Apr 2022
Viewed by 524
Abstract
This study aims to examine the relationship among tourism destination brand equity (as parent brand), perceived fit, and customer behavior intention toward the extended MICE destination brand. It also identifies the moderating effect of place attachment between brand equity and customer behavior by [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the relationship among tourism destination brand equity (as parent brand), perceived fit, and customer behavior intention toward the extended MICE destination brand. It also identifies the moderating effect of place attachment between brand equity and customer behavior by adopting the brand extension concept in tourism and MICE destinations. The analysis of data collected from 381 respondents revealed that perceived fit is the most important factor influencing customer behavior, even though tourism brand equity and place attachment both had a positive effect on customer behavior, supporting all hypotheses. The theoretical implication of broadening the brand extension concept in MICE destinations and DMO marketing strategies is discussed. Full article
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Article
Impact of Rural Tourism Development on Residents’ Satisfaction with the Local Environment, Socio-Economy and Quality of Life in Al-Ahsa Region, Saudi Arabia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 4410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074410 - 06 Apr 2022
Viewed by 850
Abstract
Tourism has a significant role in destination development, particularly in rural regions. However, within the context of the highly sensitive nature of rural areas to the ecological, economic, and socio-cultural effects of tourism development, it is important to assess the levels of satisfaction [...] Read more.
Tourism has a significant role in destination development, particularly in rural regions. However, within the context of the highly sensitive nature of rural areas to the ecological, economic, and socio-cultural effects of tourism development, it is important to assess the levels of satisfaction among the residents of rural destinations. The current study aimed to assess the impact of rural tourism development in the Al-Ahsa region, Saudi Arabia on the overall resident satisfaction and three relevant subdomains. The findings revealed that the three tourism development impacts under investigation, including the social, economic and environmental effects, were positively associated with resident overall satisfaction. The three influential developmental categories were also independent predictors of the satisfaction with the quality of life and environment subdomains. National policy makers are required to implement adequate rural tourism development measures and regulations to improve tourism services and activities, which would eventually be reflected in the quality of life of local residents. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Psychological Anxiety Caused by COVID-19 on Job Self-Esteem and Job Satisfaction of Airline Flight Attendants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 4043; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19074043 - 29 Mar 2022
Viewed by 592
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate how psychological anxiety caused by COVID-19 has influenced airline cabin crew job self-esteem and job satisfaction. A questionnaire based on prior research was developed to identify factors of psychological anxiety among cabin crews as a result of COVID-19. [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate how psychological anxiety caused by COVID-19 has influenced airline cabin crew job self-esteem and job satisfaction. A questionnaire based on prior research was developed to identify factors of psychological anxiety among cabin crews as a result of COVID-19. The survey sample was limited to current cabin crews who experienced leave of absence due to COVID-19, and questionnaires were distributed to 201 crew members from 15 February to 15 April 2021. As a result of the analysis, the hypothesis that salary reduction, career stagnation, social perception, and employment insecurity have a significant effect on job self-esteem and job satisfaction was supported, while perceived infection risk and benefit reduction were rejected. This study found that psychological anxiety caused by COVID-19 affected cabin crew’s self-esteem and job satisfaction. These findings could aid in the development of strategies for effective airline human resource management to prevent psychological anxiety from creating stress and negatively affecting work. Furthermore, since the alert for the emergence of new viruses will not be eased in the future, this study will prevent psychological anxiety among cabin crews to cause job self-esteem and job dissatisfaction. Full article
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Article
The Mediating Effects of Work–Life Balance (WLB) and Ease of Using WLB Programs in the Relationship between WLB Organizational Culture and Turnover Intention
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3482; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063482 - 15 Mar 2022
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Work–life balance (WLB) is an important concern for all workers irrespective of their age, sex, education level, family structure, or occupation. This study analyzes WLB’s mediating effects and the ease of using WLB programs in the relationship between WLB organizational culture of hotels [...] Read more.
Work–life balance (WLB) is an important concern for all workers irrespective of their age, sex, education level, family structure, or occupation. This study analyzes WLB’s mediating effects and the ease of using WLB programs in the relationship between WLB organizational culture of hotels and turnover intention of its culinary staff. We conducted a survey featuring 320 culinary staff members at hotels in Incheon from 10 to 30 August 2020 and performed statistical analysis using 290 responses. We find that the company’s willingness for WLB, empathetic communication with colleagues, material support of colleagues for WLB, and the ease of using WLB programs in organizational culture had a positive impact on WLB. The company’s willingness for WLB, boss’s consideration for WLB, empathetic communication with colleagues, and material support of colleagues for WLB in organizational culture had a negative impact on turnover intention. The ease of using WLB programs had no indirect effect on the relationship between organizational culture and turnover intention. However, WLB had an indirect effect on the relationship between the four components except for the boss’s consideration for WLB and turnover intention. Hotel management should create an organizational culture that supports the WLB of culinary staff. Full article
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Article
The Effects of Types of Service Providers on Experience Economy, Brand Attitude, and Brand Loyalty in the Restaurant Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3430; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063430 - 14 Mar 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 837
Abstract
This study was designed to understand the relationships among the experience economy, brand attitude, and brand loyalty based on the type of service providers, such as robot servers and human servers in the restaurant industry. The data were collected from 296 people who [...] Read more.
This study was designed to understand the relationships among the experience economy, brand attitude, and brand loyalty based on the type of service providers, such as robot servers and human servers in the restaurant industry. The data were collected from 296 people who experienced robot servers and from 294 people who experienced human servers and was analyzed through structural equation modeling (SEM), which indicated that the four sub-dimensions of the experience economy: education, entertainment, esthetics, and escapism, positively affect brand attitude, which in turn has a significant positive impact on brand loyalty. In addition, statistical differences were found with the average value of the six constructs based on the type of service providers, such as robot servers and human servers. Full article
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Article
Perceived Risk of Job Instability and Unethical Organizational Behaviour Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Role of Family Financial Pressure and Distributive Injustice in the Tourism Industry
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 2886; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19052886 - 02 Mar 2022
Viewed by 783
Abstract
The economic disaster precipitated by the pandemic of COVID-19 changed people’s perceptions of ordinary job stability and elevated it to an ultimate high level. To avoid being laid off, employees who are concerned about job stability may engage in unethical activities in the [...] Read more.
The economic disaster precipitated by the pandemic of COVID-19 changed people’s perceptions of ordinary job stability and elevated it to an ultimate high level. To avoid being laid off, employees who are concerned about job stability may engage in unethical activities in the name of their employer. In this study, the influence of job instability on unethical organizational behaviour (UOB) was investigated through the mediating role of family financial pressure and distributive injustice. Perceptions of 830 employees working in hotels (5-star and 4-star) and travel agencies (Category A) were explored and further analyzed using structural equation modelling. The results asserted that family financial pressure and distributive injustice partially mediated the effects of job insecurity on UOB. Important insights on theoretical and practical implications were further deliberated towards the end of this study. Full article
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