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Special Issue "Leisure and Time Management in Fostering Wellbeing and Health: Current Issues and New Trends"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 December 2022 | Viewed by 19631

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Nuria Codina
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Social Psychology and Quantitative Psychology, 08035 University of Barcelona, Spain
Interests: psychology of leisure; leisure activities; leisure experience; leisure time; physical activity; time management; procrastination; time perspective; wellbeing, self and identity
Dr. Isabel Castillo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain
Interests: sport psychology; physical education; physical activity; parental styles; leisure time; lifestyle behaviors; motivation (SDT, AGT); leadership (transformational leadership); values and adolescents
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Leisure has the potential to promote well-being and health more than other areas of human activity. In this sense, it is important to promote the visibility of the incidence of leisure in general, leisure experiences and leisure activities—practicing from physical activity to cultural consumption, hobbies, music, sports, and intergenerational activities—in the physical and mental health of people (of any age, social condition, cultural capital, and changing sociocultural and personal contexts). Moreover, due to the link between a predominantly autonomous use of time and the enjoyment of leisure time, possibilities, capacities, habits, and attitudes (personal, social, cultural) regarding time management are of special importance too.

Based on this broad spectrum of analysis, this Special Issue will present advances in psychosocial knowledge about current issues and new trends in leisure and time management. Contributions based on strong theoretical frameworks that bring novelty to the topics covered, as well as qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method research are welcome.

Dr. Nuria Codina
Dr. Isabel Castillo
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • leisure activities
  • leisure experience
  • leisure time
  • cultural activity
  • physical activity
  • social influence
  • procrastination
  • time perspective
  • quality of life
  • well-/ill-being

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

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Article
Physical Activity, Healthy Behavior and Its Motivational Correlates: Exploring the Spillover Effect through Stages of Change
by , , and
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6161; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106161 - 19 May 2022
Viewed by 875
Abstract
On the basis of the spillover or transfer effect and the transtheoretical model of change, this study assessed the association between amount of physical activity, healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, and motivational types, as well as their variability across stages of change. [...] Read more.
On the basis of the spillover or transfer effect and the transtheoretical model of change, this study assessed the association between amount of physical activity, healthy and unhealthy weight control behaviors, and motivational types, as well as their variability across stages of change. A total of 1219 randomly selected Mexican adults from 18 to 65 years old, representative of the city of Monterrey (México), participated in the study. Correlation analyses, differences by gender, and multivariate analyses of variance, controlling for age, were performed. We found that in the maintenance stage, there is higher frequency of physical activity more healthy weight control behaviors, as well as higher autonomous motivation. In the contemplation stage, there is less physical activity, a higher frequency of unhealthy weight control behaviors, higher controlled motivation, and amotivation. Relationships were found between the healthy behaviors studied and the interaction dynamics observed across the stages of change, highlighting the key role of the contemplation and maintenance stages in weight control change. Physical activity as a targeted intervention objective could be a gateway to healthier weight control behavior, as well as higher autonomous motivation. Full article
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Article
Serious Leisure and Passion in University Programs for Seniors
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(6), 3573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19063573 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 726
Abstract
Perseverance and persistence, effort, leisure career, permanent acquisitions, specific norms, and identification with the occupation are some of the hallmarks of the serious leisure perspective. The Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP) understands passion as a strong inclination towards an activity that a person [...] Read more.
Perseverance and persistence, effort, leisure career, permanent acquisitions, specific norms, and identification with the occupation are some of the hallmarks of the serious leisure perspective. The Dualistic Model of Passion (DMP) understands passion as a strong inclination towards an activity that a person loves, considers important, and in which they invest a great amount of time and energy. This article proposes to explore these two theoretical constructs that converge in their conceptual bases, in a group of older people who regularly participate in university training programs throughout life. The sample is made up of 157 persons over 60 years old enrolled in courses for the elderly at the University of Deusto (Bilbao, Spain). The quantitative findings revealed: (1) that there are no significant differences according to sociodemographic variables, (2) that learning throughout life in the case of older people can be converted into serious leisure, and (3) that the participants in training programs for seniors develop a harmonious passion for such activity. Full article
Article
A Study of Differences in Leisure Satisfaction of Leisure Activity Patterns for South Korean Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010790 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1056
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyse differences in leisure satisfaction among leisure activity participants according to the type of activity including differences by gender. The study subjects were 448 adult men and women who were participating in leisure activities in Seoul, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyse differences in leisure satisfaction among leisure activity participants according to the type of activity including differences by gender. The study subjects were 448 adult men and women who were participating in leisure activities in Seoul, Gyeonggi, Chungcheong, and Gangwon-do, Korea. Frequency analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and latent mean analysis were applied to the data collected from the participants. First, the form, measurement, and intercept uniformity were verified to check that the study scale could be used equally with men and women. Second, it showed that leisure satisfaction was higher in sports activity of leisure activity patterns than hobbies, watching, socializing, tourism and games. It is concluded that infrastructure for sports should expand and that policy support is needed to increase leisure satisfaction in other leisure activities. Full article
Article
A Diary Study on Anticipated Leisure Time, Morning Recovery, and Employees’ Work Engagement
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(18), 9436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18189436 - 07 Sep 2021
Viewed by 1389
Abstract
Recovery during yesterday’s leisure time is beneficial for morning recovery, and morning recovery fosters employees’ work engagement, a positive, motivational state associated with job performance. We extended existing research by assuming that both, morning recovery (considered a resource) and anticipated leisure time (considered [...] Read more.
Recovery during yesterday’s leisure time is beneficial for morning recovery, and morning recovery fosters employees’ work engagement, a positive, motivational state associated with job performance. We extended existing research by assuming that both, morning recovery (considered a resource) and anticipated leisure time (considered an anticipated resource gain), relate to work engagement. Anticipated leisure time comprises two constructs: general anticipation of leisure time, which refers to employees’ cognitive evaluation of their entire upcoming leisure time, and pleasant anticipation of a planned leisure activity, which describes a positive affective reaction because of one specific, upcoming leisure activity. We suggested that employees with high pleasant anticipation generate more thoughts of a planned leisure activity (ToPLA), which may distract them from their work, reducing their work engagement. A diary study over five days showed that morning recovery and general anticipation of leisure time were positively related to work engagement. Furthermore, employees with higher pleasant anticipation of a planned leisure activity reported more ToPLA. In contrast to our expectations, neither pleasant anticipation nor ToPLA was related to work engagement. In sum, this study introduced anticipated leisure time as a novel antecedent of work engagement and demonstrated that anticipated resource gains are important for high work engagement. Full article
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Article
Grandparents’ and Grandchildren’s Shared Festive Leisure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8850; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168850 - 22 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1239
Abstract
Festive leisure provides experiences that can generate intergenerational well-being. The study aimed to examine the festive leisure activities shared by grandparents and grandchildren, and the link with times, spaces, motives, and well-being that these activities bring to both generations. A cross-sectional telematic survey [...] Read more.
Festive leisure provides experiences that can generate intergenerational well-being. The study aimed to examine the festive leisure activities shared by grandparents and grandchildren, and the link with times, spaces, motives, and well-being that these activities bring to both generations. A cross-sectional telematic survey was carried out with 357 grandparents living in the northern part of Spain, who had grandchildren aged between 6 and 12 years. Both a descriptive and inferential analysis was performed. A high proportion of grandparents and grandchildren share festive activities, which occur on weekends and holiday periods. Private spaces, such as bars, cafeterias, and restaurants are the ones chosen for going out to eat or drink, and open public spaces like parks, squares, and streets are dedicated to traditional festivals, and are excellent scenarios for coexistence and intergenerational social interaction. The reasons that drive this practice are associated with the strengthening of emotional ties and family intimacy. Grandparents consider the practice of shared festive leisure to be beneficial for their personal development because they perceive that, thanks to this leisure, they improve their creativity, physical condition, their happiness and fun, the relationship with their grandchildren, and develop new manual and technical skills. Full article
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Article
A Mediation Model between Self-Esteem, Anxiety, and Depression in Sport: The Role of Gender Differences in Speleologists
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(16), 8765; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18168765 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
The scientific literature on mental health has found an association between physical activity and emotional wellbeing and recommends active leisure activities as a way of keeping stress under control. The purpose of this research study is to analyze the level of anxiety, the [...] Read more.
The scientific literature on mental health has found an association between physical activity and emotional wellbeing and recommends active leisure activities as a way of keeping stress under control. The purpose of this research study is to analyze the level of anxiety, the symptoms of depression and the level of self-esteem of people practicing speleology, as well as possible gender differences. This paper also attempts to understand whether self-esteem is associated with the presence of symptoms of depression in speleologists and whether anxiety has a mediating effect. We conduct a cross-sectional and descriptive research study with a sampling of 105 adult speleologists. The results reveal that the total mediation model is applicable, as self-esteem has a significant indirect association with depression through trait anxiety, as well as a partial mediation model that is applicable through state anxiety. This means that speleologists with high levels of self-esteem, who appreciate and value themselves adequately, reveal lower levels of trait anxiety, and this negatively influences their levels of depression (that is, a lower level of depressive symptoms). At the same time, speleologists with high levels of self-esteem, who appreciate and value themselves adequately, also reveal lower levels of state anxiety, which again has a negative impact on their levels of depression (with fewer symptoms of depression). Emotions such as anxiety, self-esteem, depression and their collateral effects are international topics of interest, which are relevant for people from all sporting backgrounds; therefore, value should be placed on supporting and carrying out further research into this topic. Full article
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Article
Effect of Outdoor Sports Participants on Leisure Facilitation, Recreation Specialization, and Leisure Satisfaction: Yacht and Golf Participants
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8128; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158128 - 31 Jul 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate leisure satisfaction among outdoor sports participants in golf and yachting. Influence was also measured of recreation specialization on leisure satisfaction, and the effect of the relationship between leisure facilitation and leisure satisfaction on golf and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate leisure satisfaction among outdoor sports participants in golf and yachting. Influence was also measured of recreation specialization on leisure satisfaction, and the effect of the relationship between leisure facilitation and leisure satisfaction on golf and yacht participation was investigated as well. Frequency, reliability, confirmatory, and correlation analysis, as well as structural equation modeling results, indicate that leisure facilitation had no influence on outdoor sports participants’ recreation specialization. Leisure facilitation had a positive influence on leisure satisfaction among the golf and yachting participants, and their recreation specialization had a positive influence on their leisure satisfaction. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic are addressed, specifically the constraints that the disease has imposed on outdoor sports and leisure, and strategies are presented for addressing these constraints and promoting outdoor sports participation. Full article
Article
The Influence of Power on Leisure: Implications for Inclusive Leisure Services
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052220 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1530
Abstract
Many people experience domination as they encounter oppression and marginalization because of power differentials limiting their leisure. We rely on Foucault for guidance to examine connections between power and opportunities for people to be included in leisure and recognize that, like Foucault, we [...] Read more.
Many people experience domination as they encounter oppression and marginalization because of power differentials limiting their leisure. We rely on Foucault for guidance to examine connections between power and opportunities for people to be included in leisure and recognize that, like Foucault, we experience privilege. Considering such privilege, we explore power and people connections, scrutinize ways power influences leisure, and examine methods to promote or resist power to increase leisure. Drawing on the analysis of power and leisure, we examine how discourse influences leisure and identify ways to facilitate inclusive leisure. We consider these aspects via Allen’s (1998) modalities of power-over, power-to, and power-with. Analyzing these modalities, we address barriers to leisure associated with power, strategies people use to engage in resistance through leisure, and ways inclusive leisure might occur. We conclude that each person can make positive contributions and offer inclusive leisure. Full article
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Article
Daily Time Use by Activity of Community-Dwelling Older Koreans: Focus on Health Management
by
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(4), 1688; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041688 - 10 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1150
Abstract
This study aimed to examine the daily time use by activity and identified factors related to health management time (HMT) use among 195 older adults (mean age = 77.5, SD = 6.28 years; 70.8% women) attending a Korean senior center. Descriptive statistics were [...] Read more.
This study aimed to examine the daily time use by activity and identified factors related to health management time (HMT) use among 195 older adults (mean age = 77.5, SD = 6.28 years; 70.8% women) attending a Korean senior center. Descriptive statistics were analyzed and gamma regression analyses were performed. Participants used the most time on rest, followed by leisure, health management, daily living activities, and work. The mean duration of HMT was 205.38 min/day. The mean score for the subjective evaluation of health management (SEHM) was 13.62 and the importance score for SEHM was 4.72. Factors influencing HMT included exercise, number of chronic conditions, fasting blood sugar level, low density lipoprotein level, and cognitive function. HMT and frailty significantly predicted SEHM. HMT interventions focus on promoting exercise and acquiring health information to improve health outcomes among older adults in senior centers. Full article
Article
Time Management by Young People in Social Difficulties: Suggestions for Improving Their Life Trajectories
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 9070; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17239070 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1982
Abstract
This article covers the responses provided by professional practitioners in socio-educational intervention who are responsible for young people in social difficulties, in other words those facing personal and social issues that stop them from leading a normal life. It considers their suggestions for [...] Read more.
This article covers the responses provided by professional practitioners in socio-educational intervention who are responsible for young people in social difficulties, in other words those facing personal and social issues that stop them from leading a normal life. It considers their suggestions for helping young people to better their lives by becoming autonomous, as well as to manage and use their time in their transition to adulthood. A qualitative study was conducted that used an open, ad-hoc questionnaire administered to thirty participants (Madrid, Spain), in which the data analysis involved MAXQDA Analytics Pro 2020 software. The results identify suggestions at macrosocial level targeting the system, legal status, therapy, safety nets, education and the range and provision of social services. On another level, suggestions for improvement were identified in an immediate setting in which the young people interact with agencies, practitioners and counsellors. An initial level featured mostly statements of support for autonomy from the system and social services. The second level contained mainly suggestions for agencies, centres and social services. The conclusion is that there are implications at different levels of social ecology according to Bronfenbrenner’s model (1994). The practical suggestions for young people’s self-sufficiency in the use and management of their time should therefore be flexible, linked and cater for their more therapeutic needs through to their leisure time. Full article
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Article
Examining the Mediating Role of Motivation in the Relationship between Multidimensional Perfectionism and Well- and Ill-Being in Vocational Dancers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 4945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17144945 - 09 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2568
Abstract
Perfectionism is considered to be an important personality factor within the dance context given the high number of dancers whose psychological health is influenced by its consequences. The relationship between perfectionism and dancers’ well- and ill-being can be mediated by a range of [...] Read more.
Perfectionism is considered to be an important personality factor within the dance context given the high number of dancers whose psychological health is influenced by its consequences. The relationship between perfectionism and dancers’ well- and ill-being can be mediated by a range of variables. The present study explores the role of forms of motivation (i.e., autonomous motivation, controlled motivation and amotivation) as mediators in the relationship between perfectionism (i.e., self-oriented and socially prescribed) and an indicator of well-being (i.e., subjective vitality) and ill-being (i.e., burnout). Participants of the study were 146 male and female Spanish vocational dancers aged between 12 and 26 years old (Mean age = 15.40 ± 2.96) who completed questionnaires measuring the variables of interest. Results of multiple mediator regression analyses showed that amotivation mediated the relationships between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism with burnout and subjective vitality. Self-oriented perfectionism was negatively correlated, and socially prescribed perfectionism positively associated with amotivation. Amotivation of dancers was a positive predictor of burnout and a negative predictor of subjective vitality. Overall, the findings corroborate the importance of amotivation in the relationship between perfectionism dimensions and well-being and ill-being in dancers. Full article
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Review

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Review
Imbalances in the Study of the Relationship between Leisure and Self-Esteem: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5555; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155555 - 31 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1974
Abstract
This systematic review offers a comprehensive examination of the relationship between leisure and self-esteem. The different perspectives were analyzed according to a framework that includes the different approaches for defining and measuring leisure, and a similar one was proposed for self-esteem. Articles indexed [...] Read more.
This systematic review offers a comprehensive examination of the relationship between leisure and self-esteem. The different perspectives were analyzed according to a framework that includes the different approaches for defining and measuring leisure, and a similar one was proposed for self-esteem. Articles indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) up to the end of 2018 were reviewed, specifically those that contained the keywords “leisure”, “self-esteem” or “self esteem” anywhere in the manuscript. Articles that did not present the qualitative or quantitative instruments needed to evaluate leisure or self-esteem were excluded. A total of 49 articles included the final quantitative synthesis. The overall findings showed that the prevailing methodology was objective (external). As regards content, the following combinations predominated: the behavioral approach to leisure with the unidimensional approach to self-esteem and the experiential approach to leisure with the unidimensional approach to self-esteem. Less studies were observed with the combination of mixed approaches and more comprehensive analyses: the behavioral-experiential combined with the multidimensional. To conclude, this study shows there is a demand for further empirical studies that explore the relationships between leisure and self-esteem. It also identified which approaches are most desirable to expand our understanding of the relationships between leisure and self-esteem. Full article
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