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Special Issue "Sustainable Healthy Working Life for All Ages—Work Environment, Age Management and Employability"

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Kerstin Nilsson
E-Mail Website1 Website2 Website3
Guest Editor
Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University, 221 00 Lund, Sweden & Division of Public Health, Kristianstad University, SE-291 88 Kristianstad, Sweden
Interests: sustainable working life for all ages, public health, health promotion and prevention, work environment, work organisations, age management, age discrimination, employability
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Tove Midtsundstad
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Fafo Institute for Labour and Social Research, 0608 Oslo, Norway
Interests: pension systems and pension policy; retirement behaviour; age and work; age management; health promotion and prevention; lifelong learning
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Peter Lundqvist
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of People and Society, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Box 88, S, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden
Interests: health and safety; social sustainability in agriculture
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Joanne Crawford
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Health, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6012, New Zealand
Interests: occupational health and safety; age and work; ergonomics and work design
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Clas-Håkan Nygård
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Social Sciences, Tampere University, 33014 Tampere, Finland
Interests: occupational health; aging and work; occupational gerontology; strain at work; work ability and promotion of health and work ability; ergonomics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The proportion of elderly citizens is continuously increasing in most of the industrial world [1–3]. The current demographic trend is characterised by increased longevity and lower fertility rates and is leading to an increasingly ageing population. The retirement age in many countries is being postponed in order to adapt the economic and budgetary implications of increased longevity to the new demographic distribution. Older people are encouraged to keep working and to participate in the labour force for as long as possible [1–3]. The demographic situation stresses the importance of factors that motivate older employees and self-employed individuals to keep working and to maintain their employability until an older age, as well as the organisations and enterprises to care for their employees’ employability until an age older than the one considered, so far, the retirement age [4–7].

Against this backdrop, the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is announcing a Special Issue titled “Sustainable Healthy Working Life for All Ages—Work Environment, Age Management and Employability”. This Special Issue will provide an outlet for research contributing to the development of our theoretical and practical knowledge in these domains influencing people’s working life.

We are interested in scientific analyses, case studies, or interventions that generate original and innovative insights into the proposed topic and focus on the nine determinants of a healthy and sustainable working life for all ages, identified in the swAge-model [4,5], which are:

1) self-rated health, diagnoses, functional diversity

2) physical work environment

3) mental work environment

4) work schedule, work pace, time for recuperation

5) personal finances, work ability, employability

6) personal social environment and work–life balance

7) work social environment, discrimination, leadership and age management

8) motivation, stimulation and satisfaction with work tasks

9) knowledge, skills, competence

The “Sustainable Healthy Working Life for All Ages—Work Environment, Age Management and Employability ” Special Issue is jointly organized between “Sustainability” and “International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health” journals. Authors in the Special Issue can submit their papers to “Sustainability” or “International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health”.

We look forward to receiving your contributions.

Kind regards

Prof. Dr.  Kerstin Nilsson
Dr. Tove Midtsundstad
Prof. Dr. Peter Lundqvist
Prof. Dr. Joanne Crawford
Prof. Dr. Clas-Håkan Nygård

References:

  1. OECD. Pensions at a glance 2019. OECD and G20 indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing; 2019. doi:10.1787/b6d3dcfc-en.
  2. WHO. World report on ageing and health. Geneva: World health organization; 2017. http://www.who.int/ageing/publications/world-report-2015/en/
  3. OECD. Health at a glance 2019: OECD indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing; 2019. doi:10.1787/4dd50c09-en.
  4. Nilsson K. Conceptualization of ageing in relation to factors of importance for extending working life – a review. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health. 2016; 44: 490–505.
  5. Nilsson K. A sustainable working life for all ages – The swAge-model. Applied Ergonomics 2020; 103082: 1-27. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003687018305313?dgcid=author
  6. Fleuren BP. de Grip A. Jansen NWH. Kant I. Zijlstra FRH. Unshrounding the Sphere from Clouds: Towards a Comprehensive Conceptual Framework for Sustainable Employability. Sustainability. 2020;12:6366. doi:10.33909/su12166366.
  7. Van der Klink JJL. Bültmann U. Burdorf A. Schaufeli WB. Zijlstra FRH. Abma FI. BRouwer S. van der Wilt GJ. Sustainable employability – definition, conceptualization, and implications: A perspective based on the capability approach. Scand J Work Environment Health. 2016;42(1):71-79.

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2500 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Related Special Issue

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Article
Perceived Work Ability during Enforced Working from Home Due to the COVID-19 Pandemic among Finnish Higher Educational Staff
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106230 - 20 May 2022
Viewed by 695
Abstract
Background: Due to COVID-19 pandemic, many employees were forced to suddenly shift to working from home (WFH). How this disruption of work affected employees’ work ability is not known. In this study, we investigated the developmental profiles of work ability among Finnish higher [...] Read more.
Background: Due to COVID-19 pandemic, many employees were forced to suddenly shift to working from home (WFH). How this disruption of work affected employees’ work ability is not known. In this study, we investigated the developmental profiles of work ability among Finnish higher education employees in a one-year follow-up during the enforced WFH. Secondly, we investigated demographic, organizational, and ergonomic factors associated with the developmental profiles. Methods: A longitudinal web-survey was conducted with four measurement points (April 2020–February 2021). Employees of a Finnish university who answered the questionnaire at baseline and at least at two follow-up surveys (n = 678) were included (71% women, 45% teachers/research staff, 44% supporting staff, 11% hired students). Perceived work ability was measured on a scale of 1–5 in all timepoints. Latent class growth curve analysis was used to identify profiles of work ability. Multinomial logistic regression was used to determine the associations of demographic factors, perceived stress, musculoskeletal pain, functionality of home for work, and organizational support with the work ability profiles. Results: Six distinct work ability profiles were identified. For most (75%), work ability remained stable during the follow-up. A total of 17% had a favourable trend (very good-stable or increasing) of work ability, and 8% had non-favourable (poor-stable or decreasing). Poor ergonomics at home, low organizational support, high stress, and musculoskeletal pain were associated with non-favourable development of work ability. Conclusions: Heterogeneity in development of work ability during forced WFH was found. Several factors were identified through which work ability can be supported. Full article
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Article
Sustainable Working Life in Intensive Care: A Qualitative Study of Older Nurses
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(10), 6130; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19106130 - 18 May 2022
Viewed by 563
Abstract
To counteract the shortage of nurses in the workforce, healthcare organizations must encourage experienced nurses to extend their working lives. Intensive care (IC) has higher nurse-to-patient ratios than other settings, which includes a particular susceptibility to staff shortage. This qualitative study investigated how [...] Read more.
To counteract the shortage of nurses in the workforce, healthcare organizations must encourage experienced nurses to extend their working lives. Intensive care (IC) has higher nurse-to-patient ratios than other settings, which includes a particular susceptibility to staff shortage. This qualitative study investigated how older IC nurses experienced their working life and their reflections on the late-career and retirement. Semi-structured interviews with 12 IC nurses in Sweden (aged 55–65 years) were analyzed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. The results showed that nurses planned to continue working until the age of 65 and beyond. When reflecting on their late-career decisions, nurses considered nine areas covering individual, work, and organizational factors as being central to their ability and willingness to stay. Overall, the nurses had good health and were very satisfied and committed to their job and to the organization. They mentioned having both the job and personal resources required to cope with the physical and mental job demands, which were perceived as motivational challenges, rather than hinders. They also reflected on various human resource management practices that may promote aging-in-workplace. These findings may inform organizations aiming at providing adequate conditions for enabling healthy and sustainable working lives for IC nurses. Full article
Article
School Principals’ Work Participation in an Extended Working Life—Are They Able to, and Do They Want to? A Quantitative Study of the Work Situation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(7), 3983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19073983 - 27 Mar 2022
Viewed by 781
Abstract
The objective of this study is to increase the knowledge regarding school principals’ work situations by examining the associations between various factors and the school principals’ assessments of their ability or wish to work until 65 years of age or longer. The 1356 [...] Read more.
The objective of this study is to increase the knowledge regarding school principals’ work situations by examining the associations between various factors and the school principals’ assessments of their ability or wish to work until 65 years of age or longer. The 1356 participating school principals in this study were aged between 50 and 64 years of age. Individual and work factors were evaluated in relation to two dichotomized outcomes: i.e., can work and want to work beyond 65 years of age, respectively. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) models were used to specify bivariate and multivariate cross-sectional logistic regression models that accounted for repeated measurements. The results showed that, both in 2018 and 2019, about 83% of the school principals stated that they could work and about 50% stated that they wanted to work until 65 years of age and beyond. School principals’ exhaustion symptoms and experiences of an excessive burden were statistically significantly associated with whether they both could not and did not want to work beyond 65 years of age. Additionally, the school principals’ experiences of support from the executive management in the performance of their managerial duties was of primary importance for whether the school principals wanted to work until 65 years of age and beyond. To conclude, it is important that school principals receive sufficient support from the management to cope with their often very stressful leadership tasks so that they have the opportunity to be able and willing to continue working their entire working life. The study strengthens the robustness of the theoretical SwAge model regarding the investigated factors related to determinant factors for a sustainable working life and as a basis for developing practical tools for increased employability for people of older ages. Full article
Article
Can They Stay or Will They Go? A Cross Sectional Study of Managers’ Attitudes towards Their Senior Employees
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(3), 1057; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031057 - 18 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 560
Abstract
A larger amount of older people need to participate in working life due to the global demographic change. It is the employer, through the manager, who enables employees to have access to measures in the workplace that facilitate and enable a sustainable extended [...] Read more.
A larger amount of older people need to participate in working life due to the global demographic change. It is the employer, through the manager, who enables employees to have access to measures in the workplace that facilitate and enable a sustainable extended working life. The aim of this study was to evaluate work life factors associated with managers believing their employees can work versus wanting to work until age 65 or older. This cross-sectional study included 249 managers in the Swedish municipality sector. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate associations between different univariate estimates and in data modelling using the SwAge-model. The result stated that 79% of managers believed their employees ‘can’ work and 58% of managers believed their employees ‘want to’ work until age 65 or older. Health, physical work environment, skills and competence are associated the strongest to managers believing employees ‘can’ work until age 65 or older. Insufficient social support at work and lacking possibilities for relocations associated the strongest to managers believing employees would not ‘want to’ work until age 65 or older. Though, several countries (especially in Europe) have included in their social policy measures that retirement age be increased after 65, proposing ages approaching 70. When these proposals become laws, through obligation, people will have no choice (if they want to or if they can continue working). However, people’s attitudes to work may be different (especially after the COVID-19 pandemic), and this analysis of the participating managers’ attitudes showed there is a difference between why employees ‘can’ versus ‘want’ to work respectively. Therefore, different strategies may be needed to contribute to employees both being able to and willing to participate in working life until an older age. These findings on managers’ perspectives, regarding whether they believe employees would be able to versus would want to work and the SwAge-model, will hopefully contribute to an increased understanding of organisational actions and measures in the process of creating a sustainable extended working life and to increase senior employees’ employability. Full article
Article
The Complexity of Decreased Work Ability: Individuals’ Perceptions of Factors That Affect Returning to Work after Sickness Absence
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(1), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19010113 - 23 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Much of what has been written about decreased work ability is based on quantitative studies and has been written from the perspective of professionals, service providers or authorities. In our qualitative study, we sought to understand how affected individuals themselves perceive and experience [...] Read more.
Much of what has been written about decreased work ability is based on quantitative studies and has been written from the perspective of professionals, service providers or authorities. In our qualitative study, we sought to understand how affected individuals themselves perceive and experience the multifaceted factors that are related to their decreased work ability. Sixteen individuals in Finland with musculoskeletal diseases (MSD) participated in semi-structured interviews. The participants were potential clients of a multi-professional service pilot model, the TOIKE Work Ability Centre. Narrative and thematic analyses were utilised. The study found that individuals with decreased work ability have differing perspectives towards returning to work and often complex life situations. Five distinctive groups were identified based on self-assessed health, work ability and orientation towards work or pension: (1) the Successful; (2) the Persevering; (3) the Forward-looking; (4) the Stuck; and (5) the Pension-oriented. Health problems, unemployment, age discrimination, financial difficulties and skill deficits were the major challenges of the interviewees. Furthermore, they perceived the service and benefit systems as complicated. The TOIKE service proved useful to some of them. However, many had not utilised it due to a lack of understanding of its purpose. Identifying the distinctive groups and their needs may improve interventions. Ultimately, this may help to achieve Target 8.5 of the UN Sustainable Development Goals, which advocates the right to employment for all ages and for those with disabilities. Full article
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Article
Redefinition and Measurement Dimensions of Sustainable Employability Based on the swAge-Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(24), 13230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182413230 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 929
Abstract
Objectives: To solve the labour shortage, we clarify the definition and dimensions of sustainable employability, and make it possible to develop sustainable employability scales in the future and lay the foundation for subsequent quantitative research. Finally, people’s sustainable employability can be improved. Highly [...] Read more.
Objectives: To solve the labour shortage, we clarify the definition and dimensions of sustainable employability, and make it possible to develop sustainable employability scales in the future and lay the foundation for subsequent quantitative research. Finally, people’s sustainable employability can be improved. Highly sustainable employability employees can continue to work in the labour market and their working lives can be prolonged. Labour market supply will increase and labour shortage will be partly solved. Methods: We discuss the concept of sustainable employability based on some previous studies. Our conclusion is that the existing definitions and measurement dimensions are problematic. The swAge-model, a tool that helps us understand how to make working life more sustainable and healthier for all ages, can be the basis of sustainable employability. Results: We develop a discussion paper concerning the definition and measurement dimensions of sustainable employability using the swAge-model with an added factor of intrinsic work value and the dynamic chain. Conclusions: Our definition of sustainable employability takes environmental factors into consideration and makes it clear that it is not a solely personal characteristic, but the result of an interaction between individuals and the environment, thus distinguishing employability from work ability. We use the swAge-model as a basis to make the composition of our definition more logical and informed. Our measurement dimensions are clearly described to facilitate the future development of a scale, and our concept may ultimately help to extend the working lives of older and retired workers and thus solve the future labour shortage problem. Full article
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Article
Factors Influencing Retirement Decisions among Blue-Collar Workers in a Global Manufacturing Company—Implications for Age Management from A System Perspective
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(20), 10945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph182010945 - 18 Oct 2021
Viewed by 673
Abstract
The maintenance of older workers and determining the appropriate age for retirement are growing issues related to the fact that fewer people, still active in working life, have to provide for more non-working people due to increased life expectancy. As a result, retirement [...] Read more.
The maintenance of older workers and determining the appropriate age for retirement are growing issues related to the fact that fewer people, still active in working life, have to provide for more non-working people due to increased life expectancy. As a result, retirement age has started to rise in many countries, and employers need to find ways to maintain an older and healthy work force, not least to avoid the loss of important experience. The aim of the current study was to increase the knowledge of factors influencing the retirement decisions among blue-collar workers in different national settings. A survey and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of 100 blue-collar workers in Sweden, the Netherlands, and France, aged 55 years and older, within a global manufacturing company. Based on the results, implications for companies’ age management strategies were discussed from a system perspective. Factors contributing to both retirement and to a prolonged work life were found on individual, organisational, and societal levels. This indicates the importance of a system perspective when planning for age management interventions. Full article
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Article
Psychosocial Working Conditions and Social Participation. A 10-Year Follow-Up of Senior Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9154; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179154 - 30 Aug 2021
Viewed by 919
Abstract
Social participation is important for health, and it is well known that high strain jobs impact negatively on mental and physical health. However, knowledge about the impact of psychosocial working conditions on social participation from a long-term perspective is lacking. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Social participation is important for health, and it is well known that high strain jobs impact negatively on mental and physical health. However, knowledge about the impact of psychosocial working conditions on social participation from a long-term perspective is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations between different job types and social participation from a long-term perspective. A comprehensive public health questionnaire “The Scania Public Health Survey”, was used, and psychosocial working conditions were measured with a Swedish translation of the Job Content Questionnaire. Based on data from 1098 working respondents aged 55 at baseline and a 10-year follow-up when the respondents were not working, the analyses revealed that social participation varied by job type. Jobs with high decision latitude, as in active and relaxed jobs, seem to predict high social participation, even after cessation of employment. Besides that, the result suggests that high social participation during working life is a predictor of high social participation from a long-term perspective which promotes healthy aging. Incentives for working longer are strongly related to good working conditions. A supportive work environment with possibilities for employees to participate in decision making, i.e., high control, is vital for a sustainable working life. This may contribute to an extended working life and may also support social participation prior to retirement as well as after retirement and thus to healthy aging. Full article
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Article
Meetings are an Important Prerequisite for Flourishing Workplace Relationships
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(15), 8092; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18158092 - 30 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1066
Abstract
Relationships among colleagues, managers, and care recipients are mutually important, and need to be highlighted in workplace health promotion. The aim was to explore prerequisites for flourishing workplace relationships in a municipal healthcare setting for old people. As part of this process, we [...] Read more.
Relationships among colleagues, managers, and care recipients are mutually important, and need to be highlighted in workplace health promotion. The aim was to explore prerequisites for flourishing workplace relationships in a municipal healthcare setting for old people. As part of this process, we explored the staff’s suggestions on how work relationships could be improved. The study had a salutogenic and participatory approach, examining staff perceptions of what was required for flourishing relationships to be created, and their suggestions for the relationships to be more promotive. Four multi-stage focus groups, which met three times each, were conducted with staff (n = 26) in old age healthcare settings. A deductive analysis was performed, based on components of the flourishing concept: challenge, connectivity, autonomy, and competence. Informal and formal meetings at work were shown to build positively perceived relationships. The study describes meetings and relationships connected to the four components of flourishing. Suggestions for improving work relationships are also presented. This study contributes to workplace health promotion, and has a salutogenic and participatory focus on how to explore workplace relationships as a resource. The flourishing concept shows how workplace relationships can be explored as prerequisites for workplace health promotion. Full article
Article
Sustainable Working Life in a Swedish Twin Cohort—A Definition Paper with Sample Overview
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5817; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115817 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1754
Abstract
Background: A unified or consensus definition of “sustainable working life” remains lacking, although studies investigating risk factors for labour market exit are numerous. In this study, we aimed (1) to update the information and to explore a definition of “sustainable working life” [...] Read more.
Background: A unified or consensus definition of “sustainable working life” remains lacking, although studies investigating risk factors for labour market exit are numerous. In this study, we aimed (1) to update the information and to explore a definition of “sustainable working life” via a systematic literature review and (2) to describe the working life trajectories via the prevalence of sickness absence (SA), disability pension (DP), and unemployment in a Swedish twin cohort to provide a sample overview in our Sustainable Working Life-project. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the studies with the search phrase “sustainable working life” in PubMed, PsycInfo, and the Web of Science Database of Social Sciences in January 2021, resulting in a total of 51 references. A qualitative synthesis was performed for the definitions and the measures of “sustainable working life.” Based on the Swedish Twin project Of Disability pension and Sickness absence (STODS), the current dataset to address sustainable working life includes 108 280 twin individuals born between 1925 and 1990. Comprehensive register data until 2016 for unemployment, SA and DP were linked to all individuals. Using STODS, we analysed the annual prevalence of SA, DP, and unemployment as working life trajectories over time across education and age groups. Results: The reviewed 16 full articles described several distinct definitions for sustainable working life between 2007 and 2020 from various perspectives, i.e., considering workplaces or employees, the individual, organizational or enterprise level, and the society level. The definition of “sustainable working life” appearing most often was the swAge-model including a broad range of factors, e.g., health, physical/mental/psychosocial work environment, work motivation/satisfaction, and the family situation and leisure activities. Our dataset comprised of 81%–94% of individuals who did not meet SA, DP, or unemployment during the follow-up in 1994–2016, being indicative for “sustainable working life.” The annual prevalence across years had a decreasing trend of unemployment over time, whereas the prevalence of SA had more variation, with DP being rather stable. Both unemployment and DP had the highest prevalence among those with a lower level of education, whereas in SA, the differences in prevalence between education levels were minor. Unemployment was highest across the years in the youngest age group (18–27 years), the age group differences for SA were minor, and for DP, the oldest age group (58–65 years) had the highest prevalence. Conclusions: No consensus exists for a “sustainable working life,” hence meriting further studies, and we intend to contribute by utilising the STODS database for the Sustainable Working Life project. In the upcoming studies, the existing knowledge of available definitions and frameworks will be utilised. The dataset containing both register data and self-reports enables detailed follow-up for labour market participation for sustainable working life. Full article
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Article
Organisational Measures and Strategies for a Healthy and Sustainable Extended Working Life and Employability—A Deductive Content Analysis with Data Including Employees, First Line Managers, Trade Union Representatives and HR-Practitioners
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(11), 5626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115626 - 25 May 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1639
Abstract
Due to the global demographic change many more people will need to work until an older age, and organisations and enterprises need to implement measures to facilitate an extended working life. The aim of this study was to investigate organisational measures and suggestions [...] Read more.
Due to the global demographic change many more people will need to work until an older age, and organisations and enterprises need to implement measures to facilitate an extended working life. The aim of this study was to investigate organisational measures and suggestions to promote and make improvements for a healthy and sustainable working life for all ages in an extended working life. This is a qualitative study, and the data were collected through both focus group interviews and individual interviews that included 145 participants. The study identified several suggestions for measures and actions to increase employability in the themes: to promote a good physical and mental work environment; to promote personal financial and social security; to promote relations, social inclusion and social support in the work situation; and to promote creativity, knowledge development and intrinsic work motivation, i.e., based on the spheres of determination in the theoretical swAge-model (sustainable working life for all ages). Based on the study results a tool for dialogue and discussion on employee work situation and career development was developed, and presented in this article. Regular conversations, communication and close dialogue are needed and are a prerequisite for good working conditions and a sustainable working environment, as well as to be able to manage employees and develop the organisation further. The identified measures need to be revisited regularly throughout the employees’ entire working life to enable a healthy and sustainable working life for all ages. Full article
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Article
Should I Stay or Should I Go? Associations between Occupational Factors, Signs of Exhaustion, and the Intention to Change Workplace among Swedish Principals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(10), 5376; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105376 - 18 May 2021
Viewed by 883
Abstract
A high turnover among principals may disrupt the continuity of leadership and negatively affect teachers and, by extension, the students. The aim was to investigate to what extent various work environment factors and signs of exhaustion were associated with reported intentions to change [...] Read more.
A high turnover among principals may disrupt the continuity of leadership and negatively affect teachers and, by extension, the students. The aim was to investigate to what extent various work environment factors and signs of exhaustion were associated with reported intentions to change workplace among principals working in compulsory schools. A web-based questionnaire was administered twice, in 2018 and in 2019. Part I of the study involved cross-sectional analyses of the associations 2018 (n = 984) and 2019 (n = 884) between occupational factors, signs of exhaustion, and the intention to change workplace, using Generalized Estimating Equations models. Part II involved 631 principals who participated in both surveys. The patterns of intended and actual changes of workplace across two years were described, together with associated changes of occupational factors and signs of exhaustion. Supportive management was associated with an intention to stay, while demanding role conflicts and the feeling of being squeezed between management and co-workers (buffer-function) were associated with the intention to change workplace. The principals who intended to change their workplace reported more signs of exhaustion. To increase retention among principals, systematic efforts are probably needed at the national, municipal, and local level, in order to improve their working conditions. Full article
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