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Special Issue "Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM)"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Environmental Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (28 February 2019)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Emily Ying Yang Chan

Assistant Dean, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
Website | E-Mail
Interests: health-emergency disaster risk management; climate change and health; humanitarian medicine; disaster case studies
Guest Editor
Dr. Holly Ching Yu Lam

JC School of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
E-Mail
Interests: envionmental epidemiology; public health; climate change and health

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Disaster such as earthquakes, cyclones, floods, heat waves, nuclear accidents, and large scale pollution incidents take lives and incur very learge health problems. The majority of large-scale disasters affect the most vulnerable populations, which are often comprised of extreme ages, remote living areas, endemic poverty, as well as people with low literacy. Health-related emergency disaster risk management (Health-EDRM) [1] refers to the systematic analysis and management of health risks surrounding emergencies and disasters, and plays an important role in reducing the hazards and vulnerability along with extending preparedness, response, and recovery measures. This concept encompasses risk analyses and interventions, such as accessible early warning systems, timely deployment of relief workers, provision suitable drugs, and medical equipment to decrease the impact of disaster on people before, during, and after an event(s). Currently, there is a major gap in the scientific literature regarding Health-EDRM to facilitate major global policies and initiatives for disaster risk reduction globally.

This Special Issue of IJERPH invites papers describing/reporting the latest disaster risks and health risk analyses, as well as interventions for health-related disaster risk management. Disaster risk profiling and interventions can be at the personal/household, community, and system/political levels, and can be targeted at specific health risks including respiratory issues caused by indoor burning, re-emergence of infectious disease due to low vaccination coverage, and gastrointestinal problems resulting from unregulated waste management. Research outcomes and findings of multi-disciplinary studies are highly encouraged to submit to this Special Issue.

Reference

[1] Chan, E.Y.Y.; Murray, V. What are the health research needs for the Sendai Framework? The Lancet 2017, 390, e35–e36. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)31670-7.

Prof. Emily Ying Yang Chan
Dr. Holly Ching Yu Lam
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Health-related disaster risk management
  • Natural disasters
  • Intervention
  • Community resilience

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Factors Influencing the Response to Infectious Diseases: Focusing on the Case of SARS and MERS in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1432; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081432
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 9 April 2019 / Published: 22 April 2019
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Abstract
Following the 2003 the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak in South Korea, this research aims to explore and examine the factors influencing the response to infectious diseases, which encompasses both communicable and non-communicable diseases. [...] Read more.
Following the 2003 the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the 2015 Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak in South Korea, this research aims to explore and examine the factors influencing the response to infectious diseases, which encompasses both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Through a qualitative research method, this research categorizes the factors as inputs, processes and outputs and applies them into the 2003 SARS and MERS outbreak in South Korea. As the results conducted meta-analyses to comprehensively analyze the correlations of factors influencing disaster response from a Korean context, the findings show that the legislative factor had direct and indirect influence on the overall process of infectious disease response and that Leadership of the central government, establishment of an intergovernmental response system, the need for communication, information sharing and disclosure and onsite response were identified as key factors influencing effective infectious disease response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
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Open AccessCommunication Psychosocial Management Before, During, and After Emergencies and Disasters—Results from the Kobe Expert Meeting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(8), 1309; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16081309
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 24 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
Emergencies and disasters typically affect entire communities, cause substantial losses and disruption, and result in a significant and persistent mental health burden. There is currently a paucity of evidence on safe and effective individual- and community-level strategies for improving mental health before, during, [...] Read more.
Emergencies and disasters typically affect entire communities, cause substantial losses and disruption, and result in a significant and persistent mental health burden. There is currently a paucity of evidence on safe and effective individual- and community-level strategies for improving mental health before, during, and after such events. In October 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) Centre for Health Development (WHO Kobe Centre) convened a meeting bringing together leading Asia Pacific and international disaster research experts. The expert meeting identified key research needs in five major areas, one being “Psychosocial management before, during, and after emergencies and disasters”. Experts for this research area identified critical gaps in observational research (i.e., the monitoring of long-term psychological consequences) and interventional research (i.e., the development and evaluation of individual- and community-level interventions). Three key research issues were identified. First, experts underscored the need for a standardized and psychometrically robust instrument that classified the mental health/psychosocial risk of people within both a clinical and community setting. Then, the need for a standardization of methods for prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment for affected people was highlighted. Finally, experts called for a better identification of before, during, and after emergency or disaster assets associated with greater community resilience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
Open AccessCommunication Is “Perceived Water Insecurity” Associated with Disaster Risk Perception, Preparedness Attitudes, and Coping Ability in Rural China? (A Health-EDRM Pilot Study)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1254; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071254
Received: 27 February 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 7 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
Water security is essential for maintaining health and well-being, and for reducing a population’s vulnerability in a disaster. Among resource-poor villagers in China, water-related disasters and climate change may increasingly affect people’s water security. The purpose of this study was to explore the [...] Read more.
Water security is essential for maintaining health and well-being, and for reducing a population’s vulnerability in a disaster. Among resource-poor villagers in China, water-related disasters and climate change may increasingly affect people’s water security. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between perceived water security and disaster risk perception in a rural ethnic minority community. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in 2015 in Xingguang village, Chongqing, China, examining the association between villagers’ perceptions of household water security, disaster risk, and sociodemographic variables. Among 52 household representatives, 84.6% relied on rainwater as their main water source and 63.5% reported having insufficient water on a regular basis. Only 32.7% perceived themselves to be living in a high-risk area, of which climate-related disasters such as storms (44.4%) and droughts (38.9%) were the most frequently reported disasters in their area. Insufficient water quantity, previous disaster experience, and household members on chronic disease medication were found to be associated with higher disaster risk perception. Perceived water security indicators were not found to be predictors of preparedness attitudes and coping ability. Addressing water sufficiency in both disaster risk reduction strategies and long-term water management will be necessary to improve the health and livelihood of rural villagers in the coming decades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
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Open AccessArticle Planning of a Health Emergency Disaster Risk Management Programme for a Chinese Ethnic Minority Community
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061046
Received: 30 January 2019 / Revised: 6 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 22 March 2019
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Abstract
Rural populations living in poverty are the most vulnerable to disaster. Despite this increased risk of recurrent disaster, previous disaster experience is not a good predictor for disaster preparedness in these populations. This was evidenced on 31 August 2012, when a major flood [...] Read more.
Rural populations living in poverty are the most vulnerable to disaster. Despite this increased risk of recurrent disaster, previous disaster experience is not a good predictor for disaster preparedness in these populations. This was evidenced on 31 August 2012, when a major flood occurred in Sichuan, China. A health needs assessment carried out in December 2012 showed that residents of Hongyan village, a Yi-minority community in Sichuan lacked disaster preparedness. This indicated that measures were necessary to improve Health Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM) in the community. Nutbeam’s planning model for health promotion was used to guide the development of a Health-EDRM programme at Hongyan Village, Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan. Relevant information was obtained from sources such as literature review, household surveys and stakeholder interviews. A team of stakeholders conducted an interactive workshop to train villagers on disaster preparedness in March 2014. Disaster kits and equipment for Oral Rehydration Solution preparation were handed out to villagers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
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Open AccessCommunication Health Data Collection Before, During and After Emergencies and Disasters—The Result of the Kobe Expert Meeting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050893
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 3 March 2019 / Accepted: 4 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
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Abstract
In October 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a meeting to identify key research needs, bringing together leading experts from WHO, WHO Thematic Platform for Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM) Research Network (TPRN), World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine [...] Read more.
In October 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) convened a meeting to identify key research needs, bringing together leading experts from WHO, WHO Thematic Platform for Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM) Research Network (TPRN), World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM), the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and delegates to the Asia Pacific Conference for Disaster Medicine (APCDM) 2018. The meeting identified key research needs in five major research areas for Health-EDRM. One of the five major research areas was “Health data collection during emergency and disaster”. Experts for this research area highlighted WHO Emergency Medical Team Minimum Data Set (EMT MDS), a standardized medical data collection method during and after disasters, as an example of substantial progress, with knowledge gaps and challenges in implementation in some regions and countries (i.e., information collection methodology in medical facilities of affected local areas, seamless and practical connection between acute phase data collection and post-acute phase local surveillance). The discussion on this research area also identified key research needs in standardization of broader health-related data to inform effective Health EDRM (i.e., community vulnerabilities, hospital functional status, infrastructure, lifelines and health workforce). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
Open AccessCommunication Research Methods and Ethics in Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management: The Result of the Kobe Expert Meeting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(5), 770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16050770
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 3 March 2019
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Abstract
In October 2018, at Asia Pacific Conference for Disaster Medicine (APCDM), an expert meeting to identify key research needs was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) Centre for Health Development (WHO Kobe Centre (WKC)), convening the leading experts from Asia Pacific region, [...] Read more.
In October 2018, at Asia Pacific Conference for Disaster Medicine (APCDM), an expert meeting to identify key research needs was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) Centre for Health Development (WHO Kobe Centre (WKC)), convening the leading experts from Asia Pacific region, WHO, WHO Thematic Platform for Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM) Research Network (TPRN), World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM), in collaboration with Asia Pacific Conference for Disaster Medicine (APCDM) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). International experts, who were pre-informed about the meeting, contributed experience-based priority issues in Health-EDRM research, ethics, and scientific publication. Two moderators, experienced in multi-disciplinary research interacted with discussants to transcribe practical issues into related methodological and ethical issues. Each issue was addressed in order to progress research and scientific evidence in Health-EDRM. Further analysis of interactive dialogues revealed priorities for action, proposed mechanism to address these and identified recommendations. Thematic discussion uncovered five priority areas: (1) the need to harmonize Health-EDRM research with universal terms and, definitions via a glossary; (2) mechanisms to facilitate and speed up ethical review process; (3) increased community participation and stakeholder involvement in generating research ideas and in assessing impact evaluation; (4) development of reference materials such as possible consensus statements; and (5) the urgent need for a research methods resource textbook for Health-EDRM addressing these issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
Open AccessArticle Is Urban Household Emergency Preparedness Associated with Short-Term Impact Reduction after a Super Typhoon in Subtropical City?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040596
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 13 February 2019 / Accepted: 14 February 2019 / Published: 19 February 2019
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Abstract
Climate change-related extreme events are increasing in frequency and severity. Understanding household emergency preparedness capacity in Health-Emergency and Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM) for at risk urban communities is limited. The main objective of the study is to explore the association among risk perception, [...] Read more.
Climate change-related extreme events are increasing in frequency and severity. Understanding household emergency preparedness capacity in Health-Emergency and Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM) for at risk urban communities is limited. The main objective of the study is to explore the association among risk perception, household preparedness, and the self-reported short-term impacts of Typhoons for urban residents. A population-based, cross-sectional telephone survey using random digit-dialling was conducted among Hong Kong adults within 2 weeks following 2018 Typhoon Mangkhut, the most intense typhoon that affected Hong Kong, a subtropical city, in thirty years. Among the 521 respondents, 93.9% and 74.3% reported some form of emergency preparedness and typhoon-specific preparedness measure (TSPM) against Mangkhut, respectively. Respondents who perceived a higher risk at home during typhoons and had practiced routine emergency preparedness measures (during nonemergency periods) were more likely to undertake TSPM. Of the respondents, 33.4% reported some form of impact (11.1% were household-specific) by Typhoon Mangkhut. Practicing TSPM was not associated with the reduction of short-term household impacts. Current preparedness measures may be insufficient to address the impact of super typhoons. Strategies for health-EDRM for urban residents will be needed to cope with increasing climate change-related extreme events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
Open AccessArticle From Science to Policy and Practice: A Critical Assessment of Knowledge Management before, during, and after Environmental Public Health Disasters
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040587
Received: 15 January 2019 / Revised: 3 February 2019 / Accepted: 11 February 2019 / Published: 18 February 2019
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Abstract
Canada regularly faces environmental public health (EPH) disasters. Given the importance of evidence-based, risk-informed decision-making, we aimed to critically assess the integration of EPH expertise and research into each phase of disaster management. In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 leaders in disaster management [...] Read more.
Canada regularly faces environmental public health (EPH) disasters. Given the importance of evidence-based, risk-informed decision-making, we aimed to critically assess the integration of EPH expertise and research into each phase of disaster management. In-depth interviews were conducted with 23 leaders in disaster management from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia, and were complemented by other qualitative methods. Three topics were examined: governance, knowledge creation/translation, and related barriers/needs. Data were analyzed through a four-step content analysis. Six critical success factors emerged from the analysis: blending the best of traditional and modern approaches; fostering community engagement; cultivating relationships; investing in preparedness and recovery; putting knowledge into practice; and ensuring sufficient human and financial resources. Several promising knowledge-to-action strategies were also identified, including mentorship programs, communities of practice, advisory groups, systematized learning, and comprehensive repositories of tools and resources. There is no single roadmap to incorporate EPH expertise and research into disaster management. Our findings suggest that preparation for and management of EPH disaster risks requires effective long-term collaboration between science, policy, and EPH practitioners at all levels in order to facilitate coordinated and timely deployment of multi-sectoral/jurisdictional resources when and where they are most needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
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Open AccessArticle Health Vulnerability Index for Disaster Risk Reduction: Application in Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) Region
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(3), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030380
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 25 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
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Abstract
Despite the importance of health vulnerability in disaster risk assessment, most of the existing disaster vulnerability indicators only emphasize economic and social vulnerability. Important underlying health risks such as non-communicable disease are not included in vulnerability measures. A three-phase methodology approach was used [...] Read more.
Despite the importance of health vulnerability in disaster risk assessment, most of the existing disaster vulnerability indicators only emphasize economic and social vulnerability. Important underlying health risks such as non-communicable disease are not included in vulnerability measures. A three-phase methodology approach was used to construct a disaster risk model that includes a number of key health indicators which might be missing in global disaster risk analysis. This study describes the development of an integrated health vulnerability index and explains how the proposed vulnerability index may be incorporated into an all-hazard based disaster risk index in the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), also known as the “Silk Road Economic Belt”, region. Relevant indicators were identified and reviewed in the published literature in PubMed/Medline. A two-stage dimension reduction statistical method was used to determine the weightings of relevant dimensions to the construction of the overall vulnerability index. The proposed final health vulnerability index included nine indicators, including the proportion of the population below 15 and above 65 years, under-five mortality ratio, maternal mortality ratio, tuberculosis prevalence, age-standardized raised blood pressure, physician ratio, hospital bed ratio, and coverage of the measles-containing-vaccine first-dose (MCV1) and diphtheria tetanus toxoid and pertussis (DTP3) vaccines. This proposed index, which has a better reflection of the health vulnerability in communities, may serve as a policy and implementation tool to facilitate the capacity-building of Health-Emergency Disaster Risk management (Health-EDRM). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
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Open AccessArticle Health Emergency Disaster Risk Management of Public Transport Systems: A Population-Based Study after the 2017 Subway Fire in Hong Kong, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020228
Received: 8 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 15 January 2019
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Abstract
Background: Literature on health emergency disaster risk management (Health-EDRM) for urban public transport safety is limited. This study explored: (i) the confidence in public transport safety, (ii) the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and risk perception of transport safety and (iii) the association between [...] Read more.
Background: Literature on health emergency disaster risk management (Health-EDRM) for urban public transport safety is limited. This study explored: (i) the confidence in public transport safety, (ii) the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and risk perception of transport safety and (iii) the association between previous first-aid training and response knowledge. Method: This is a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey conducted in March 2017, one month after a major subway incident in Hong Kong. Respondents were randomly selected with the Random Digit Dialing method among Cantonese-speaking population ≥15 years. Sociodemographic information, type of transport used and the corresponding worries, response knowledge and previous first-aid training experience (as a proxy for individual skills in Health-EDRM training proxy) were collected. Results: Among the 1000 respondents, 87% used public transport daily. The self-reported confidence in subway safety was 85.6% even after a subway fire accident. Female, those with lower income and people unmarried were more likely to express worry about transport safety. About 46.1–63.2% respondents had the correct fire related health response knowledge. Previous first-aid training (32%) was found to be associated with fire response knowledge in a mixed pattern. Conclusions: Despite inadequacy in fire response knowledge, previous first-aid training appeared to be a beneficial factor for emergency response knowledge. Emergency responses education should be provided to the public to reduce health losses during emergencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
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Open AccessArticle Health Consequences of an Armed Conflict in Zamboanga, Philippines Using a Syndromic Surveillance Database
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2690; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122690
Received: 3 November 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 29 November 2018
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Abstract
The Zamboanga armed conflict was a 19-day long encounter in the Philippines in 2013 that displaced 119,000 people from their homes. This study describes the health consequences of this complex emergency in different age groups, time periods, and health facilities using data from [...] Read more.
The Zamboanga armed conflict was a 19-day long encounter in the Philippines in 2013 that displaced 119,000 people from their homes. This study describes the health consequences of this complex emergency in different age groups, time periods, and health facilities using data from Surveillance in Post Extreme Emergencies and Disasters (SPEED). This is a descriptive study of the SPEED database spanning 196 days of observation post-disaster and 1065 SPEED reports from 49 health facilities. Evacuation centers and village health centers, both primary care facilities, had the highest number of consults. Common infections and noncommunicable diseases were the most common reasons for consultations, namely, acute respiratory infections, fever, watery diarrhea, skin disease, and hypertension. Infections can be associated with environmental conditions in displaced populations, while hypertension has a high prevalence in the country and implies long-term care. Conflict-related injuries and deaths were not frequently observed due to the volatile situation that influenced health-seeking behavior as well as possible reporting gaps. In conclusion, in complex emergencies, as in natural disasters, wherein early alert and warning for potential outbreaks is crucial, SPEED can assist decision makers on response and recovery interventions. Linkages between SPEED and other surveillance and reporting systems need to be explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
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Open AccessArticle Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Negative Emotions in New York City After a Natural Disaster as Seen in Social Media
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(10), 2275; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15102275
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 5 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 October 2018 / Published: 17 October 2018
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Abstract
Disasters have substantial consequences for population mental health. We used Twitter to (1) extract negative emotions indicating discomfort in New York City (NYC) before, during, and after Superstorm Sandy in 2012. We further aimed to (2) identify whether pre- or peri-disaster discomfort were [...] Read more.
Disasters have substantial consequences for population mental health. We used Twitter to (1) extract negative emotions indicating discomfort in New York City (NYC) before, during, and after Superstorm Sandy in 2012. We further aimed to (2) identify whether pre- or peri-disaster discomfort were associated with peri- or post-disaster discomfort, respectively, and to (3) assess geographic variation in discomfort across NYC census tracts over time. Our sample consisted of 1,018,140 geo-located tweets that were analyzed with an advanced sentiment analysis called ”Extracting the Meaning Of Terse Information in a Visualization of Emotion” (EMOTIVE). We calculated discomfort rates for 2137 NYC census tracts, applied spatial regimes regression to find associations of discomfort, and used Moran’s I for spatial cluster detection across NYC boroughs over time. We found increased discomfort, that is, bundled negative emotions after the storm as compared to during the storm. Furthermore, pre- and peri-disaster discomfort was positively associated with post-disaster discomfort; however, this association was different across boroughs, with significant associations only in Manhattan, the Bronx, and Queens. In addition, rates were most prominently spatially clustered in Staten Island lasting pre- to post-disaster. This is the first study that determined significant associations of negative emotional responses found in social media posts over space and time in the context of a natural disaster, which may guide us in identifying those areas and populations mostly in need for care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
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Open AccessArticle Reducing the Future Risk of Trauma: On the Integration of Global Disaster Policy within Specific Health Domains and Established Fields of Practice
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091932
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
The global increase in the frequency and severity of natural hazards and extreme climatic events necessitates more efficient global and national strategies to reduce the likelihood and impact of traumatic consequences for disaster-affected populations. The recent inclusion of mental health in the Sendai [...] Read more.
The global increase in the frequency and severity of natural hazards and extreme climatic events necessitates more efficient global and national strategies to reduce the likelihood and impact of traumatic consequences for disaster-affected populations. The recent inclusion of mental health in the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction marks a pivotal point in the recognition of the significant burden of disasters on mental health, and a global commitment to reducing its impacts. Nevertheless, effective agreement implementation and efforts to reduce disaster mental health risks are facing significant challenges. These include a lack of clarity about the conceptual interlinkages and place of disaster risk reduction principles within the field of disaster mental health, which is traditionally marked by a prevailing recovery orientation, and the need for effective translation into disaster mental health policy and practice. Therefore, this study drew on data from interviews with European disaster mental health and risk reduction experts in order to appraise the merit and implications of a global disaster risk reduction policy for advancing population mental health in the context of disaster. Study findings outline existing opportunities, challenges, and key strategies for the integration of disaster risk reduction within disaster mental health policy and practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
Open AccessArticle Transmission of Influenza A in a Student Office Based on Realistic Person-to-Person Contact and Surface Touch Behaviour
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1699; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081699
Received: 2 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
Influenza A viruses result in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of individuals worldwide each year. In this study, influenza A transmission in a graduate student office is simulated via long-range airborne, fomite, and close contact routes based on real data from more [...] Read more.
Influenza A viruses result in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of individuals worldwide each year. In this study, influenza A transmission in a graduate student office is simulated via long-range airborne, fomite, and close contact routes based on real data from more than 3500 person-to-person contacts and 127,000 surface touches obtained by video-camera. The long-range airborne, fomite and close contact routes contribute to 54.3%, 4.2% and 44.5% of influenza A infections, respectively. For the fomite route, 59.8%, 38.1% and 2.1% of viruses are transmitted to the hands of students from private surfaces around the infected students, the students themselves and other susceptible students, respectively. The intranasal dose via fomites of the students’ bodies, belongings, computers, desks, chairs and public facilities are 8.0%, 6.8%, 13.2%, 57.8%, 9.3% and 4.9%, respectively. The intranasal dose does not monotonously increase or decrease with the virus transfer rate between hands and surfaces. Mask wearing is much more useful than hand washing for control of influenza A in the tested office setting. Regular cleaning of high-touch surfaces, which can reduce the infection risk by 2.14%, is recommended and is much more efficient than hand-washing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
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Open AccessArticle Decision Analysis of Disturbance Management in the Process of Medical Supplies Transportation after Natural Disasters
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1651; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081651
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
Public health emergencies, such as casualties and epidemic spread caused by natural disasters, have become important factors that seriously affect social development. Special medical supplies, such as blood and vaccines, are important public health medical resources, and the cold-chain distribution of medical supplies [...] Read more.
Public health emergencies, such as casualties and epidemic spread caused by natural disasters, have become important factors that seriously affect social development. Special medical supplies, such as blood and vaccines, are important public health medical resources, and the cold-chain distribution of medical supplies is in a highly unstable environment after a natural disaster that is easily affected by disturbance events. This paper innovatively studies the distribution optimization of medical supplies after natural disasters from the perspective of disturbance management. A disturbance management model for medical supplies distribution is established from two dimensions: time and cost. In addition, a hybrid genetic algorithm is introduced to solve the model. Disturbance recovery schemes with different weight coefficients are obtained through the actual numerical experiments, and experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed model and algorithm. Finally, we discuss the formulation of weight coefficients in the case of emergency distribution and general distribution, which provide a reference for emergency decisions in disturbance events. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
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Open AccessArticle Household Preparedness and Preferred Communication Channels in Public Health Emergencies: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Residents in an Asian Developed Urban City
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(8), 1598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081598
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 14 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
Disaster awareness and household preparedness are crucial for reducing the negative effects of a disaster. This study aims to examine the citizens’ preparedness level in the event of a general disaster or outbreak of infectious disease and to identify suitable channels for community [...] Read more.
Disaster awareness and household preparedness are crucial for reducing the negative effects of a disaster. This study aims to examine the citizens’ preparedness level in the event of a general disaster or outbreak of infectious disease and to identify suitable channels for community disease surveillance and risk communication. We used a stratified random design to conduct a digit-dialed telephone survey in Hong Kong during February 2014. Level of disaster preparedness was examined according to the possession of disaster kit items. Associations between socio-demographic factors and good household preparedness were assessed using multiple logistic regression models. Preferences for infectious disease surveillance were collected and analyzed. There were 1020 respondents. Over half of the respondents (59.2%) had good household preparedness. After adjustment, female respondents, having higher education and higher household income were significantly associated with good household preparedness. Television and telephone were the preferred channels to obtain and report infectious disease information, respectively. In conclusion, general and specific infectious-disease household preparedness levels in Hong Kong were generally good. Tailored preparedness programs targeted to specific communities are necessary for those lacking preparedness. Risk communication and public health surveillance should be conducted through television and telephone, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
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Open AccessReview Resilience to Climate-Induced Disasters and Its Overall Relationship to Well-Being in Southern Africa: A Mixed-Methods Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2375; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112375
Received: 29 August 2018 / Revised: 21 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (988 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The available literature suggests that natural disasters, especially droughts and floods, were occurring in southern Africa in the early 1900s. However, their frequency and intensity increased during the 1980s. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the relationship between resilience to [...] Read more.
The available literature suggests that natural disasters, especially droughts and floods, were occurring in southern Africa in the early 1900s. However, their frequency and intensity increased during the 1980s. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the relationship between resilience to droughts and people’s well-being in southern Africa. A combination of keywords was used to search the following 13 electronic bibliographic databases: Africa Journal Online (AJOL), MEDLINE, Academic Search Complete, Environment Complete, Humanities International Complete, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, PsycINFO, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, Applied Social Science Index and Abstracts, ProQuest Central, and CINAHL. Relevant websites were also searched and potential studies for inclusion were downloaded in an EndNote database and screened for eligibility using pre-determined criteria. Quality assessment of the studies was undertaken using the Joana Briggs Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) checklist, and the Authority, Accuracy, Coverage, Objectivity, Date, Significance (AACODS) checklist. Resilience and well-being scales used in the studies for inclusion were also assessed using pre-defined criteria. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Poverty alleviation policies were important in strengthening resilience and well-being outcomes. Resilience and well-being were connected by old age, gender, race, adaptive farming and livelihoods diversification, security, and knowledgeability. Resilience and well-being outcomes were advanced by the synergistic effect of household, community and governance level capacities encapsulated in knowledgeability. This systematic review is critical to improving southern Africa context-specific resilience, and well-being policies and interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
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Open AccessCommentary WHO Thematic Platform for Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management Research Network (TPRN): Report of the Kobe Expert Meeting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(7), 1232; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16071232
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 25 March 2019 / Accepted: 30 March 2019 / Published: 6 April 2019
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Abstract
The WHO Thematic Platform for Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management Research Network (TPRN) was established in 2016 in response to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. The TPRN facilitates global collaborative action for improving the scientific evidence base in health [...] Read more.
The WHO Thematic Platform for Health Emergency and Disaster Risk Management Research Network (TPRN) was established in 2016 in response to the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030. The TPRN facilitates global collaborative action for improving the scientific evidence base in health emergency and disaster risk management (Health EDRM). In 2018, the WHO convened a meeting to identify key research questions, bringing together leading experts from WHO, TPRN, World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine (WADEM), and the Japan International Cooperation Agency, and delegates to the Asia Pacific Conference on Disaster Medicine (APCDM). The meeting identified research questions in five major areas for Health EDRM: health data management, psychosocial management, community risk management, health workforce development, and research methods and ethics. Funding these key research questions is essential to accelerate evidence-based actions during emergencies and disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health-Related Emergency Disaster Risk Management (Health-EDRM))
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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