Household Preparedness and Preferred Communication Channels in Public Health Emergencies: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Residents in an Asian Developed Urban City
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Study Design and Study Population
- Socio-demographic and background information, including age, gender, district of residence, occupation and employment status, educational attainment, type and size of housing, and household income (21 questions). Vulnerable population referred to the elderly (>60 years old), those with respiratory or chronic diseases including asthma and hypertension and those who had flu in the past 2 weeks from the day of the interview.
- Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of preventive measures against A/H7N9 influenza infections (26 questions), reported elsewhere .
- Figure 2 summarizes the categories of household preparedness, the items for each category and the definition of household preparedness levels.
2.3. Data Collection
2.4. Statistical Analysis
3.1. Preparedness Level in General Disasters and Infectious Diseases Outbreaks
3.2. Characteristics of Respondents Lacking Household Preparedness
3.3. Suitable Channels for Community Disease Surveillance and Risk Communication
4.1. Household Preparedness Level
4.2. Preferred Channels in Different Countries
Conflicts of Interest
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|Demographics||Sample Population||Hong Kong Population 2011||Sample vs. Census p-Value a|
|Age (n = 1020)|
|Gender (n = 1020)|
|Education (n = 1019)|
|Primary education or below||138||13.5||22.7||0.18|
|Post-secondary education (including diploma and certificate)||364||35.7||27.3|
|Occupation (n = 1006)|
|Housewife, retired or unemployed||393||39.1||NA|
|Area of residence (n = 1020)|
|Hong Kong Island||185||18.1||18.0||1.00|
|Marital status (n = 1018)|
|Household income (n = 969)|
|Type of housing (n = 1017)|
|Public housing||387||38.1||30.3||0.61 b|
|Subsidized homeownership housing||160||15.7||15.9|
|Private permanent housing||455||44.7||52.3|
|Characteristics||Household Preparedness||a COR (95% CI)||bp-Value||c AOR (95% CI)||bp-Value|
|N (%)||N (%)|
|Male||214 (46.4)||247 (53.6)||1||1|
|Female||202 (36.1)||357 (63.9)||1.53 (1.19, 1.97)||<0.01||1.63 (1.25, 2.21)||<0.01|
|White collar||156 (38.0)||255 (62.0)||1|
|Blue collar||56 (58.3)||40 (41.7)||0.44 (0.28, 0.69)||<0.01|
|Unemployed||162 (41.2)||231 (58.8)||0.87 (0.66, 1.16)||0.34|
|Student||38 (35.8)||68 (64.2)||1.09 (0.70, 1.71)||0.69|
|Primary education or below||75 (54.3)||63 (45.6)||1||1|
|Secondary education||213 (41.2)||304 (58.8)||1.70 (1.16, 2.48)||0.01||1.68 (1.12, 2.53)||0.01|
|Post-secondary education (including diploma and certificate)||127 (34.9)||237 (65.1)||2.22 (1.49, 3.31)||<0.01||1.92 (1.21, 3.02)||0.01|
|Household characteristics: Type of housing|
|Public housing||176 (45.5)||211 (54.5)||1|
|Subsidized home ownership housing||71 (44.4)||89 (55.6)||1.05 (0.72, 1.51)||0.81|
|Private permanent housing||164 (36.0)||291 (64.0)||1.48 (1.12, 1.95)||0.01|
|<$10,000||70 (51.9)||65 (48.1)||1||1|
|$10,000–19,999||104 (47.3)||116 (52.7)||1.20 (0.78, 1.84)||0.40||1.12 (0.78, 1.73)||0.60|
|$20,000–39,999||140 (40.5)||206 (59.5)||1.58 (1.06, 2.36)||0.02||1.40 (0.93, 2.11)||0.11|
|≥$40,000||83 (31.0)||185 (69.0)||2.40 (1.57, 3.67)||<0.01||2.01 (1.27, 3.17)||<0.01|
|1||38 (61.3)||24 (38.7)||1|
|2||80 (40.8)||116 (59.2)||2.30 (1.28, 4.12)||0.01|
|3–4||233 (39.9)||351 (60.1)||2.39 (1.39, 4.08)||<0.01|
|≥5||65 (36.5)||113 (63.5)||2.75 (1.52, 4.99)||<0.01|
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Tam, G.; Huang, Z.; Chan, E.Y.Y. Household Preparedness and Preferred Communication Channels in Public Health Emergencies: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Residents in an Asian Developed Urban City. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1598. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081598
Tam G, Huang Z, Chan EYY. Household Preparedness and Preferred Communication Channels in Public Health Emergencies: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Residents in an Asian Developed Urban City. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018; 15(8):1598. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081598Chicago/Turabian Style
Tam, Greta, Zhe Huang, and Emily Ying Yang Chan. 2018. "Household Preparedness and Preferred Communication Channels in Public Health Emergencies: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Residents in an Asian Developed Urban City" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15, no. 8: 1598. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15081598