Special Issue "Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD in Adolescents"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Children's Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Cheng-Fang Yen
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Guest Editor
Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Interests: child and adolescent psychiatry; addiction; sex and gender research
Dr. Liang-Jen Wang
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Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
Interests: child and adolescent psychiatry; neuropsychoendocrinology; psychiatry epidemiology; psychopharmacology
Dr. Ray C. Hsiao
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Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195, USA
Interests: child and adolescent psychiatry; addiction
Dr. Mu-Hong Chen
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Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Psychiatry, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Tapei, Taiwan
Interests: child and adolescent psychiatry; resistant depression; secondary data analysis
Dr. Yi-Ling Chien
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Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital, Tapei, Taiwan
Interests: child and adolescent psychiatry; autism spectrum disorder

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Assessing and managing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescence are unique challenges to physicians. Research has established that nearly 80% of children with ADHD continue to experience symptoms into the adolescent years and suffer from significant disability. There are many factors affecting physicians’ comfort and ability to screen, diagnose and treat adolescent ADHD. First, many of the ADHD symptoms listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersFifth Edition (DSM-5) diagnostic criteria are primarily written for younger children and may not be applicable to adolescetns. Some of the ADHD symptoms, such as extreme hyperactivity, may be more subtle in adolescents than in younger children. Second, obtaining reliable reports of adolescents’ current and past symptoms from parents and teachers is more difficult. Third, the presence of comorbidities, such as mood disorders and substance use disorder, may complicate the diagnosis of ADHD. Fourth, demands for all adolescents grow with expected increases in responsibility, planning, futureorientation and organization, yet these are the key areas that are problematic for those with ADHD. Thus, it can be difficult to determine if the adolescent is exhibiting “typical immaturity” within the range of the healthy adolescence or ADHD. The consequences of ADHD symptoms during the adolescent years can have profound longterm impacts for the individuals. Thus, this Special Issue is open to researchers to submit empirical studies associated with the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in adolescents. This issue is also open to the submission of studies investigating the risk factors of adolescent ADHD and risk-taking behaviors in adolescents with ADHD. The studies can provide knowledge to diminish scientific gaps in research on adolescent ADHD.

Prof. Cheng-Fang Yen
Dr. Liang-Jen Wang
Dr. Ray C. Hsiao
Dr. Mu-Hong Chen
Dr. Yi-Ling Chien
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • adolescent

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Objective Analysis of Movement in Subjects with ADHD. Multidisciplinary Control Tool for Students in the Classroom
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(15), 5620; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155620 - 04 Aug 2020
Abstract
The term Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has a long history of problems behind it. The origin of all these problems lies in the lack of agreement in the assessment procedures and evaluation instruments. The diagnosis is clinical and is determined by the [...] Read more.
The term Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has a long history of problems behind it. The origin of all these problems lies in the lack of agreement in the assessment procedures and evaluation instruments. The diagnosis is clinical and is determined by the observation and information provided by parents and teachers. So, this is highly subjective and leads to disparate results. Therefore, on the one hand the inaccuracy of the diagnosis of ADHD, which has been based on subjective criteria, together with the fact that hyperactivity is one of the main symptoms of this disorder, implies that several studies (with limitations) have been carried out to record objective measures of movement in subjects in at least the last ten years. In order to solve some of this derived problems and limitations of previous studies, a computer program has been developed to objectively record the amount of movement of subjects. The main objective of this study is threefold: first to register the amount of movement of both experimental group and control group, then to compare them with the movement registered by observers and finally to determine the validity of the software developed as a tool to support the diagnosis of ADHD. Results show that there are significant differences in the amount of objective movement between a clinical group of subjects with ADHD and a control group, obtaining a higher average of movement the experimental group. In addition, results also demonstrate that the developed software is a valid tool for the evaluation of movement that solves the limitations of previous studies. The proposed tool is developed from different aspects to give it a multidisciplinary character. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD in Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle
Adolescent–Parent Agreement on Callous–Unemotional Traits in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(11), 3888; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17113888 - 30 May 2020
Abstract
This study examined the levels of agreement between the reports of 207 adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their parents regarding the adolescents’ callous–unemotional (CU) traits and investigated the factors influencing adolescent–parent agreement. Adolescent–parent agreement about CU traits in three dimensions according to [...] Read more.
This study examined the levels of agreement between the reports of 207 adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their parents regarding the adolescents’ callous–unemotional (CU) traits and investigated the factors influencing adolescent–parent agreement. Adolescent–parent agreement about CU traits in three dimensions according to the Chinese version of the Inventory of Callous and Unemotional Traits was examined. The influence of demographic characteristics, comorbid conduct disorder (CD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and ADHD symptoms on adolescent–parent agreement was also examined. The results indicated that adolescent–parent agreement on the CU trait of uncaringness was moderate, whereas agreement on the CU traits of callousness and unemotionality was poor. Adolescent–parent agreement on the three dimensions of CU traits varied depending on the adolescents’ sex and comorbid CD and ODD symptoms as well as parental age. Therefore, multiple sources of information are required when assessing the severity of CU traits in adolescents with ADHD. The factors influencing the levels of the agreement should also be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD in Adolescents)
Open AccessArticle
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Its Pharmacotherapy, and Adrenal Gland Dysfunction: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103709 - 25 May 2020
Abstract
This study aims to examine the co-occurrence rate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adrenal gland disorders, as well as whether pharmacotherapy may affect ADHD patients’ risk of developing adrenal gland disorder. One group of patients newly diagnosed with ADHD (n [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the co-occurrence rate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adrenal gland disorders, as well as whether pharmacotherapy may affect ADHD patients’ risk of developing adrenal gland disorder. One group of patients newly diagnosed with ADHD (n = 75,247) and one group of age- and gender-matching controls (n = 75,247) were chosen from Taiwan′s National Health Insurance database during the period of January 1999 to December 2011. Both patients and controls were monitored through December 31, 2011, in order to identify the occurrence of adrenal gland disorders (ICD-9-CM code 255.X). We also explored the potential effect of methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) treatments on the risk of developing adrenal gland disorders. We found that ADHD patients showed a significantly increased probability of developing an adrenal gland disorder compared to the control group (0.2% of ADHD vs. 0.1% of controls). However, neither MPH nor ATX treatment significantly influenced the patients’ risk of developing adrenal gland dysfunction. We propose that patients with ADHD had greater comorbid rates with adrenal gland dysfunction than the control subjects. Nevertheless, undergoing treatment with MPH or ATX did not significantly influence the risk of developing adrenal gland dysfunction among ADHD patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD in Adolescents)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlations between Quality of Life, School Bullying, and Suicide in Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(9), 3262; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093262 - 07 May 2020
Abstract
Although adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a higher risk of suicidality and more problems related to school bullying, and quality of life (QoL) is reportedly associated with school bullying, suicide, and ADHD, no study has examined their correlation. This study examined [...] Read more.
Although adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a higher risk of suicidality and more problems related to school bullying, and quality of life (QoL) is reportedly associated with school bullying, suicide, and ADHD, no study has examined their correlation. This study examined the complex relationships between QoL, school bullying, suicide, and ADHD symptoms. A total of 203 adolescents with ADHD aged between 12 and 18 years were recruited. School bullying and QoL were examined using the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire and the Taiwanese Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adolescents. Network model analysis was conducted to graphically present their relationships. We identified triangular correlations between school bullying, QoL, and suicidality, indicating possible pathways from school bullying to suicidality, and the originating or mediating roles of personal competence and psychological well-being. Furthermore, the ADHD symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity may differentially regulate these pathways. Longitudinal studies are warranted to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD in Adolescents)
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