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Open AccessArticle

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Its Pharmacotherapy, and Adrenal Gland Dysfunction: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan

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Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
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Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
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Department of Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 813, Taiwan
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Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Graduate Institute of Medicine, School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
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Community Medicine Research Center, Keelung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung 204, Taiwan
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Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan City 333, Taiwan
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Institute of Molecular Biology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan
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Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3709; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103709
Received: 24 March 2020 / Revised: 5 May 2020 / Accepted: 20 May 2020 / Published: 25 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD in Adolescents)
This study aims to examine the co-occurrence rate of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adrenal gland disorders, as well as whether pharmacotherapy may affect ADHD patients’ risk of developing adrenal gland disorder. One group of patients newly diagnosed with ADHD (n = 75,247) and one group of age- and gender-matching controls (n = 75,247) were chosen from Taiwan′s National Health Insurance database during the period of January 1999 to December 2011. Both patients and controls were monitored through December 31, 2011, in order to identify the occurrence of adrenal gland disorders (ICD-9-CM code 255.X). We also explored the potential effect of methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) treatments on the risk of developing adrenal gland disorders. We found that ADHD patients showed a significantly increased probability of developing an adrenal gland disorder compared to the control group (0.2% of ADHD vs. 0.1% of controls). However, neither MPH nor ATX treatment significantly influenced the patients’ risk of developing adrenal gland dysfunction. We propose that patients with ADHD had greater comorbid rates with adrenal gland dysfunction than the control subjects. Nevertheless, undergoing treatment with MPH or ATX did not significantly influence the risk of developing adrenal gland dysfunction among ADHD patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: ADHD; comorbidity; adrenal gland dysfunction; epidemiology; pharmacotherapy ADHD; comorbidity; adrenal gland dysfunction; epidemiology; pharmacotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peng, P.-H.; Tsai, M.-Y.; Lee, S.-Y.; Liao, P.-C.; Shyu, Y.-C.; Wang, L.-J. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Its Pharmacotherapy, and Adrenal Gland Dysfunction: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 3709.

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