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Article

Incidence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Diagnoses in Navarre (Spain) from 2003 to 2019

1
Unit of Innovation and Organization, Navarre Health Service, 31003 Pamplona, Navarre, Spain
2
NNBi, 31191 Pamplona, Navarre, Spain
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Navarre Institute for Health Research (IdiSNA), 31008 Pamplona, Navarre, Spain
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Therapeutics Initiative, Department of Anesthesiology, Pharmaceuticals and Therapeutics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada
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Navarrabiomed Biomedical Research Centre, Navarre Institute for Health Research (IdiSNA), Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Public University of Navarre (UPNA), 31008 Pamplona, Navarre, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Cheng-Fang Yen, Liang-Jen Wang, Ray C. Hsiao, Mu-Hong Chen and Yi-Ling Chien
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(17), 9208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179208
Received: 24 June 2021 / Revised: 24 August 2021 / Accepted: 27 August 2021 / Published: 31 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD in Adolescents)
(1) Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) constitutes one of the leading mental health and behavioral disorders in childhood and adolescence. The main objective of this study was to analyze the time trend in the incidence of ADHD diagnoses in Navarre (Spain) from 2003 to 2019 in children and adolescents from 5 to 19 years old. Additionally, the seasonal trends of ADHD incidence and ADHD prevalence were determined. (2) Methods: A population-based observational retrospective study, which included people born between 1991 and 2011 and who attended compulsory education between 2007 and 2017 in Navarre (Spain), was carried out with data from both the Education and Health Department databases. (3) Results: The incidence rate increased from 4.18 cases per 1000 person-years in 2003 to 7.43 cases per 1000 person-years in 2009, before decreasing progressively to 2.1 cases per 1000 person-years in 2019. A peak incidence rate at 7–8 years of age was observed, which is consistent across the study period and for both genders. Males were more than twice as likely to be diagnosed with ADHD than females, with similar time trends in both. A seasonal pattern in ADHD diagnosis was found, with peaks in February–March and the lowest rates in the summer months. Inattentive cases were much more frequent than hyperactive cases, whereas combined cases remained low across the study period. (4) Conclusions: In this age-period-cohort analysis, a clear period and age effect was observed. We found a decreasing trend in the ADHD incidence rate since 2015. Further research is needed to confirm whether a change of trend is occurring globally. View Full-Text
Keywords: attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; hyperactivity; inattention; behavior disorder attention deficit hyperactivity disorder; hyperactivity; inattention; behavior disorder
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MDPI and ACS Style

Leache, L.; Arrizibita, O.; Gutiérrez-Valencia, M.; Saiz, L.C.; Erviti, J.; Librero, J. Incidence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Diagnoses in Navarre (Spain) from 2003 to 2019. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 9208. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179208

AMA Style

Leache L, Arrizibita O, Gutiérrez-Valencia M, Saiz LC, Erviti J, Librero J. Incidence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Diagnoses in Navarre (Spain) from 2003 to 2019. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021; 18(17):9208. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179208

Chicago/Turabian Style

Leache, Leire, Olast Arrizibita, Marta Gutiérrez-Valencia, Luis C. Saiz, Juan Erviti, and Julián Librero. 2021. "Incidence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Diagnoses in Navarre (Spain) from 2003 to 2019" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18, no. 17: 9208. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18179208

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