E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Forest Ecophysiology and Biology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Johanna Riikonen

Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), Neulaniementie 5, 70200 Kuopio, Finland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: forest tree species, LED lighting, nursery production, photobiology, plant physiology
Guest Editor
Dr. Jaana Luoranen

Natural Resources Institute Finland, Management and Production of Renewable Resources, Suonenjoki 77600, Finland
Website | E-Mail
Interests: tree seedling production and forest regeneration, especially planting dates; frost hardiness of tree seedlings; mechanized planting and its biological basics; pine weevil damage and regeneration methods

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Rapid establishment of seedlings in forest regeneration or afforestation sites after planting is a prerequisite for a successful reforestation. Seedling survival after outplanting can be improved by using high-quality seedling material. Seedling quality consists of several features, such as genetic source, morphological properties, nutritional status, stress resistance, and vitality of the seedlings. Field performance of the seedlings is a complex process, which can be affected by many nursery and silvicultural practices. Nursery cultural practices strongly affect the seedling quality that is generally at the highest level during the growth period at the nursery.  Afterwards, when the seedlings are transported from the nursery to the planting site (including seedling storage, handling, shipping, and planting practices), quality of the seedlings can only remain the same or decline. For ensuring a successful regeneration, it is important to produce seedlings that retain their high quality until planting and to establish them quickly in the forest regeneration site. 

This Special Issue of Forests is focused on seedling quality, and how it can be manipulated in a nursery, and how the quality of the seedlings affect their field performance after planting. Research articles may focus on any aspect of seedling production of forest tree species, including interactive effects of nursery cultural practices and field site conditions, including manipulation treatments (e.g., soil preparation), on the field performance of seedlings. Studies dealing with the effects of nursery practices on the ability of seedlings to sustain stressful conditions better, from a nursery to the reforestation site, are also welcome.

Dr. Johanna Riikonen
Dr. Jaana Luoranen
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forests is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Tree seedling
  • Nursery production
  • Cultural practice
  • Seedling quality
  • Field performance

Published Papers (12 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-12
Export citation of selected articles as:

Editorial

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessEditorial Seedling Production and the Field Performance of Seedlings
Forests 2018, 9(12), 740; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9120740
Received: 19 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 27 November 2018
PDF Full-text (648 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid establishment of seedlings in forest regeneration or afforestation sites after planting is a prerequisite for successful reforestation. The relationship between the quality of the seedling material and their growth and survival after outplanting has been recognized for decades. Despite the existence [...] Read more.
The rapid establishment of seedlings in forest regeneration or afforestation sites after planting is a prerequisite for successful reforestation. The relationship between the quality of the seedling material and their growth and survival after outplanting has been recognized for decades. Despite the existence of a substantial amount of information on how to produce high-quality seedlings, there is still a need to develop practices that can be used in nurseries and at planting sites to be able to produce well-growing forest stands in ever-changing environments. This Special Issue of Forests is focused on seedling quality and how it can be manipulated in a nursery as well as how the quality of the seedlings affects their field performance after planting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings)

Research

Jump to: Editorial, Review

Open AccessArticle Mechanized Tree Planting in Sweden and Finland: Current State and Key Factors for Future Growth
Forests 2018, 9(7), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9070370
Received: 29 March 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 26 May 2018 / Published: 21 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1494 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Fennoscandia, mechanized tree planting is time-efficient and produces high-quality regeneration. However, because of low cost-efficiency, the mechanization of Fennoscandian tree planting has been struggling. To determine key factors for its future growth, we compared the operational, planning, logistical, and organizational characteristics of [...] Read more.
In Fennoscandia, mechanized tree planting is time-efficient and produces high-quality regeneration. However, because of low cost-efficiency, the mechanization of Fennoscandian tree planting has been struggling. To determine key factors for its future growth, we compared the operational, planning, logistical, and organizational characteristics of mechanized planting in Sweden and Finland. Through interviews with planting machine contractors and client company foresters, we establish that mechanized tree planting in Sweden and Finland presently shares more similarities than differences. Some notable differences include typically longer planting seasons in Sweden, and a tendency towards two-shift operation and less frequent worksite pre-inspection by contractors in Finland. Because of similar challenges, mechanized planting in both countries can improve cost-efficiency through education of involved foresters, flexible information systems, efficient seedling logistics, and continued technical development of planting machines. By striving to have multiple client companies, contractors can reduce their operating radii and increase their machine utilization rates. Above all, our results provide international readers with unprecedented detailed and comprehensive figures and characteristics of Swedish and Finnish mechanized tree-planting activities. We conclude that cooperation between Sweden’s and Finland’s forest industries and research institutes could enhance the mechanization level of Fennoscandian tree planting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effects of Seedling Quality and Family on Performance of Northern Red Oak Seedlings on a Xeric Upland Site
Forests 2018, 9(6), 351; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9060351
Received: 2 May 2018 / Revised: 28 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 June 2018 / Published: 13 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7690 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cultural practices to develop larger, more robust oak seedlings have been developed, however, the potential improvement conferred by these larger seedlings has received limited testing in the Northeast. We evaluated the effect of seedling size and pedigree on the survival, growth, and competitive [...] Read more.
Cultural practices to develop larger, more robust oak seedlings have been developed, however, the potential improvement conferred by these larger seedlings has received limited testing in the Northeast. We evaluated the effect of seedling size and pedigree on the survival, growth, and competitive ability of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings planted on a xeric site in northeastern Pennsylvania. We planted seedlings from a state tree nursery that represented locally available seedling stock, as well as high-quality seedlings from seven half-sibling families grown following improved nursery protocol. Half-sibling families were split into three size classes based on their root collar diameter and height; large, average, and poor. Eleven years after planting, survival across seedling treatments ranged from 45 percent for locally available seedlings, to 96 percent for one half-sibling family. Two families showed superior growth, survival, and competitive ability compared with the others. Seedling size class conferred moderate height and diameter advantage in four and three of the families, respectively. Initial seedling size was an important variable in models predicting survival, diameter, and dominance (competitive ability). Over time, the relationship between initial diameter and height diminished. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Development of Somatic Embryo Maturation and Growing Techniques of Norway Spruce Emblings towards Large-Scale Field Testing
Forests 2018, 9(6), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9060325
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 2 May 2018 / Accepted: 12 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1192 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The possibility to utilize non-additive genetic gain in planting stock has increased the interest towards vegetative propagation. In Finland, the increased planting of Norway spruce combined with fluctuant seed yields has resulted in shortages of improved regeneration material. Somatic embryogenesis is an attractive [...] Read more.
The possibility to utilize non-additive genetic gain in planting stock has increased the interest towards vegetative propagation. In Finland, the increased planting of Norway spruce combined with fluctuant seed yields has resulted in shortages of improved regeneration material. Somatic embryogenesis is an attractive method to rapidly facilitate breeding results, not in the least, because juvenile propagation material can be cryostored for decades. Further development of technology for the somatic embryogenesis of Norway spruce is essential, as the high cost of somatic embryo plants (emblings) limits deployment. We examined the effects of maturation media varying in abscisic acid (20, 30 or 60 µM) and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG) concentrations, as well as the effect of cryopreservation cycles on embryo production, and the effects of two growing techniques on embling survival and growth. Embryo production and nursery performance of 712 genotypes from 12 full-sib families were evaluated. Most embryos per gram of fresh embryogenic mass (296 ± 31) were obtained by using 30 µM abscisic acid without PEG in the maturation media. Transplanting the emblings into nursery after one-week in vitro germination resulted in 77% survival and the tallest emblings after the first growing season. Genotypes with good production properties were found in all families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Biochar Can Be a Suitable Replacement for Sphagnum Peat in Nursery Production of Pinus ponderosa Seedlings
Forests 2018, 9(5), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9050232
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 20 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2203 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We replaced a control peat medium with up to 75% biochar on a volumetric basis in three different forms (powder, BC; pyrolyzed softwood pellets, PP; composite wood-biochar pellets, WP), and under two supplies of nitrogen fertilizer (20 or 80 mg N) subsequently grew [...] Read more.
We replaced a control peat medium with up to 75% biochar on a volumetric basis in three different forms (powder, BC; pyrolyzed softwood pellets, PP; composite wood-biochar pellets, WP), and under two supplies of nitrogen fertilizer (20 or 80 mg N) subsequently grew seedlings with a comparable morphology to the control. Using gravimetric methods to determine irrigation frequency and exponential fertilization to ensure all treatments received the same amount of N at a given point in the growing cycle, we successfully replaced peat with 25% BC and up to 50% PP. Increasing the proportion of biochar in the media significantly increased pH and bulk density and reduced effective cation exchange capacity and air-filled porosity, although none of these variables was consistent with resultant seedling growth. Adherence to gravimetric values for irrigation at an 80% water mass threshold in the container revealed that the addition of BC and WP, but not PP, required adjustments to the irrigation schedule. For future studies, we encourage researchers to provide more details about bulk density, porosity, and irrigation regime to improve the potential inference provided by this line of biochar and growing media work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Stocktype and Vegetative Competition Influences on Pseudotsuga menziesii and Larix occidentalis Seedling Establishment
Forests 2018, 9(5), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9050228
Received: 31 March 2018 / Revised: 14 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2044 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mayr) Franco), and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) are species of ecological and commercial importance that occur throughout the Western United States. Effective reforestation of these species relies on successful seedling establishment, which is affected [...] Read more.
Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Mayr) Franco), and western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) are species of ecological and commercial importance that occur throughout the Western United States. Effective reforestation of these species relies on successful seedling establishment, which is affected by planting stock quality, stocktype size, and site preparation techniques. This study examined the effects of container volume (80, 130, 200, and 250 cm3) and vegetative competition on seedling survival and physiological and morphological responses for two years, post-outplanting. Glyphosate application (GS) and grass planting (HC) were used to achieve low and high levels of competition. For all measured attributes, the container volume × vegetative competition was not significant. Mortality was strongly influenced by competition, with higher mortality observed for Douglas fir and western larch planted in HC plots one (28% and 98%) and two (61% and 99%) years following outplanting. When competition was controlled, seedlings of both species exhibited greater net photosynthesis (>9 μmol m−2 s−1), greater predawn water potential (>−0.35 MPa), and lower mortality (2–3%) following one year in the field, indicating establishment success. The 80 cm3 stocktype remained significantly smaller and exhibited lower growth rates for the duration of the study, while all other stocktypes were statistically similar. Our results demonstrate the importance of controlling vegetative competition regardless of stocktype, especially for western larch, and suggest that benefits to post-planting seedling physiology and growth in relation to container size plateau beyond 130 cm3 among the investigated stocktypes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle First-Year Vitality of Reforestation Plantings in Response to Herbivore Exclusion on Reclaimed Appalachian Surface-Mined Land
Forests 2018, 9(4), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9040222
Received: 30 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 21 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conventional Appalachian surface-mine reclamation techniques repress natural forest regeneration, and tree plantings are often necessary for reforestation. Reclaimed Appalachian surface mines harbor a suite of mammal herbivores that forage on recently planted seedlings. Anecdotal reports across Appalachia have implicated herbivory in the hindrance [...] Read more.
Conventional Appalachian surface-mine reclamation techniques repress natural forest regeneration, and tree plantings are often necessary for reforestation. Reclaimed Appalachian surface mines harbor a suite of mammal herbivores that forage on recently planted seedlings. Anecdotal reports across Appalachia have implicated herbivory in the hindrance and failure of reforestation efforts, yet empirical evaluation of herbivory impacts on planted seedling vitality in this region remains relatively uninitiated. First growing-season survival, height growth, and mammal herbivory damage of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.), shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.), and white oak (Quercus alba L.) are presented in response to varying intensities of herbivore exclusion. Seedling survival was generally high, and height growth was positive for all species. The highest herbivory incidence of all tree species was observed in treatments offering no herbivore exclusion. While seedling protectors lowered herbivory incidence compared with no exclusion, full exclusion treatments resulted in the greatest reduction of herbivore damage. Although herbivory from rabbits, small mammals, and domestic animals was observed, cervids (deer and elk) were responsible for 95.8% of all damaged seedlings. This study indicates that cervids forage heavily on planted seedlings during the first growing-season, but exclusion is effective at reducing herbivory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Influence of Scarification on the Germination Capacity of Acorns Harvested from Uneven-Aged Stands of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur L.)
Forests 2018, 9(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9030100
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 23 February 2018 / Published: 26 February 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2226 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Scarification involves the partial removal of the seed coat on the side of the hilum, opposite the radicle, to speed up germination in acorns. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of scarification on the germination capacity of pedunculate oak [...] Read more.
Scarification involves the partial removal of the seed coat on the side of the hilum, opposite the radicle, to speed up germination in acorns. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of scarification on the germination capacity of pedunculate oak acorns, selected and prepared for sowing. The diameter, length and mass of acorns were measured before and after scarification in four batches of acorns harvested from uneven-aged trees (76, 91, 131 and 161 years). The measured parameters were used to determine the correlations between acorn dimensions and mass, and to calculate the dimensional scarification index and the mass scarification index in acorns. Individual complete and scarified acorns from every batch were germinated on sand and peat substrate for 28 days. The analyzed acorns were characterized by average size and mass. Scarification decreased acorn mass by around 22% and acorn length by around 31% on average. Scarification and the elimination of infected acorns increased germination capacity from around 64% to around 81% on average. Acorns can be divided into size groups before scarification to obtain seed material with varied germination capacity. Larger acorns with higher germination capacity can be used for sowing in container nurseries, whereas smaller acorns with lower germination capacity can be sown in open-field nurseries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Taxon-Independent and Taxon-Dependent Responses to Drought in Seedlings from Quercus robur L., Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl. and Their Morphological Intermediates
Forests 2017, 8(11), 407; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8110407
Received: 31 August 2017 / Revised: 21 October 2017 / Accepted: 24 October 2017 / Published: 27 October 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3592 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The increasing severity and frequency of summer droughts at mid-latitudes in Europe may impact forest regeneration. We investigated whether the sympatric species Quercus robur L., Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl., and their morphological intermediates respond differentially to water deficit. Acorns were sourced from a [...] Read more.
The increasing severity and frequency of summer droughts at mid-latitudes in Europe may impact forest regeneration. We investigated whether the sympatric species Quercus robur L., Q. petraea (Matt.) Liebl., and their morphological intermediates respond differentially to water deficit. Acorns were sourced from a naturally mixed population. Half of the potted seedlings were subjected to two successive drought periods during the first growing season, each followed by a plentiful re-watering. The surviving drought-exposed seedlings subsisted independent of the taxon of the mother tree. The phenological responses were also taxon-independent. However, drought-exposed plants showed a retarded height growth in the year following the treatment which was taxon-dependent. Offspring from Q. robur and from trees with leaves resembling Q. robur leaves and infructescences resembling Q. petraea infructescences showed a stronger decrease in height growth compared to the offspring from Q. petraea and from trees with leaves resembling Q. petraea leaves and infructescences resembling Q. robur infructescences. Diameter growth in the year following the drought treatment showed a weak taxon-dependent response. Together, our results may suggest that the composition of oak species and their hybrids in natural oak forests could be altered upon prolonged periods of precipitation deficit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Germination of Seeds of Melanoxylon brauna Schott. under Heat Stress: Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Antioxidant Activity
Forests 2017, 8(11), 405; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8110405
Received: 9 August 2017 / Revised: 6 October 2017 / Accepted: 9 October 2017 / Published: 25 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1699 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this article, the authors aimed to analyze the physiological and biochemical alterations in Melanoxylon brauna seeds subjected to heat stress. For this, seed germination, electric conductivity (EC), the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. [...] Read more.
In this article, the authors aimed to analyze the physiological and biochemical alterations in Melanoxylon brauna seeds subjected to heat stress. For this, seed germination, electric conductivity (EC), the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and the activity of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. Seeds were incubated at constant temperatures of 25, 35, and 45 °C. Independent samples were first incubated at 35 and 45 °C and then transferred to 25 °C after the intervals of 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. To evaluate EC, seeds were soaked for 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, at 25, 35, and 45 °C and then transferred to Erlenmeyer flasks containing 75 mL of deionized water at 25 °C, for 24 h. ROS production and enzyme activity were assessed every 24 h in seeds soaked at the aforementioned temperatures. Germination did not occur at 45 °C. Seeds soaked at 35 °C for 72 h and then transferred to 25 °C showed higher percentages of germination and a higher germination speed. Seed soaking at 45 °C increased peroxide production, which compromised the antioxidant enzyme system due to a reduction in the activity of enzymes APX, POX, and CAT, thus ultimately also compromising the cell membrane system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Establishing Pine Monocultures and Mixed Pine-Hardwood Stands on Reclaimed Surface Mined Land in Eastern Kentucky: Implications for Forest Resilience in a Changing Climate
Forests 2017, 8(10), 375; https://doi.org/10.3390/f8100375
Received: 13 September 2017 / Revised: 28 September 2017 / Accepted: 29 September 2017 / Published: 4 October 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1890 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Surface mining and mine reclamation practices have caused significant forest loss and forest fragmentation in Appalachia. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) is threatened by a variety of stresses, including diseases, pests, poor management, altered fire regimes, and climate change, and the species [...] Read more.
Surface mining and mine reclamation practices have caused significant forest loss and forest fragmentation in Appalachia. Shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) is threatened by a variety of stresses, including diseases, pests, poor management, altered fire regimes, and climate change, and the species is the subject of a widescale restoration effort. Surface mines may present opportunity for shortleaf pine restoration; however, the survival and growth of shortleaf pine on these harsh sites has not been critically evaluated. This paper presents first-year survival and growth of native shortleaf pine planted on a reclaimed surface mine, compared to non-native loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), which has been highly successful in previous mined land reclamation plantings. Pine monoculture plots are also compared to pine-hardwood polyculture plots to evaluate effects of planting mix on tree growth and survival, as well as soil health. Initial survival of shortleaf pine is low (42%), but height growth is similar to that of loblolly pine. No differences in survival or growth were observed between monoculture and polyculture treatments. Additional surveys in coming years will address longer-term growth and survival patterns of these species, as well as changes to relevant soil health endpoints, such as soil carbon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Editorial, Research

Open AccessReview Seedling Quality: History, Application, and Plant Attributes
Forests 2018, 9(5), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9050283
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 8 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2658 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the early 20th century, silviculturists have recognized the importance of planting seedlings with desirable attributes, and that these attributes are associated with successful seedling survival and growth after outplanting. Over the ensuing century, concepts on what is meant by a quality seedling [...] Read more.
Since the early 20th century, silviculturists have recognized the importance of planting seedlings with desirable attributes, and that these attributes are associated with successful seedling survival and growth after outplanting. Over the ensuing century, concepts on what is meant by a quality seedling have evolved to the point that these assessments now provide value to both the nursery practitioner growing seedlings and the forester planting seedlings. Various seedling quality assessment procedures that measure numerous morphological and physiological plant attributes have been designed and applied. This paper examines the historical development of the discipline of seedling quality, as well as where it is today. It also examines how seedling quality is employed in forest restoration programs and the attributes that are measured to define quality. The intent is to provide readers with an overall perspective on the field of seedling quality and the people who developed this discipline from an idea into an operational reality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seedling Production and Field Performance of Seedlings)
Figures

Figure 1

Forests EISSN 1999-4907 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top