Chemistry and Applications of Lignocellulosic Materials

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Wood Science and Forest Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 June 2022) | Viewed by 5798

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Wood Science and Technology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Kongresni trg 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: chemistry of wood; nanocellulose; extractives; biopolymers; polymer chemistry; composites; spectroscopy; chromatography
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Guest Editor
Department of Wood Science and Technology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Kongresni trg 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: structure; biology; chemistry and properties of wood and bark; cellulose nanofibrils; extractives; application; circular economy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Wood Science and Technology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Kongresni trg 12, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
Interests: tree biomass; wood and bark extractives; natural durability of wood; inhibition of fungal growth; bioactive compounds; value-adding compounds; analytical methods; extraction methods; chromatography; bio-based antifungal/antimicrobial/antioxidant agents
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant and renewable resource on Earth, and can be processed in a number of ways by means of mechanical, chemical, or thermal conversion methods. Wood is a hierarchically organized biochemical product of trees, built mainly from three classes of macromolecule: celluloses and hemicelluloses, aromatic polymer lignins, and low-molecular-weight compounds, extractives. New trends in chemical processing include the isolation of individual wood fractions, the isolation of cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, extractives and fine chemicals, which we have termed valuable biopolymers and molecules, including nanomaterials such as nanocrystalline cellulose, nanofibrillar cellulose, and nanolignin. Due to their exceptional characteristics, they can be used to improve the properties of existing materials or for the formation of new materials from biopolymers or for the preparation of bionanocomposites. This Special Issue will address the chemical variability and versatile possibilities of the advanced use of lignocellulosic biomass. Papers presenting the original use of traditional and new advanced methods for the characterization of raw materials, building blocks, processing intermediates, and final products are also welcome.

Dr. Ida Poljansek
Prof. Dr. Primož Oven
Dr. Viljem Vek
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • wood
  • bark
  • lignocellulosic biomass
  • chemistry
  • structure
  • cellulose
  • lignin
  • hemicelluloses
  • extractives
  • fine chemicals
  • decomposition
  • nanocrystalline cellulose
  • nanofibrillated cellulose
  • nanolignin
  • advanced methods
  • characterization
  • application
  • bionanocomposites
  • biopolymers
  • biodegradable

Published Papers (2 papers)

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Research

9 pages, 722 KiB  
Article
Calorific Value and Ash Content of Extracted Birch Bark
by Lukas Gruber, Lukas Seidl, Michela Zanetti and Thomas Schnabel
Forests 2021, 12(11), 1480; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12111480 - 28 Oct 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2640
Abstract
Wood bark is one of the main residues in the forest industry worldwide. Currently, the bark is used to produce process heat and energy. A major amount of this is mainly used in power and heating plants. Due to the fact that the [...] Read more.
Wood bark is one of the main residues in the forest industry worldwide. Currently, the bark is used to produce process heat and energy. A major amount of this is mainly used in power and heating plants. Due to the fact that the demand for heating energy is seasonal, the storage of bark is necessary. The storage process of bark and therefore related problems (like biomass loss, increase of ash content etc.) were discussed in previous studies. Different approaches to increase the economic and ecologic value of wood bark through gaining extractives from the bark were investigated in order to revalue this by-product as well. This study shows the change in calorific value and ash content of birch bark based on results of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE). Regarding the energy content (gross calorific value), a comparison was made that showed that due to the extraction process, the energy content of the birch bark is decreased. The extraction yield of the methanol extracts results as 17.74%. The total phenolic content (TPC) of this extract was 447.75 mg GAE/g of oven-dried bark extracts. The amount of ash increased by 23.74% after the extraction. The gross calorific value of the birch bark decreased by 6.98%. The calculated energy content decreased from 2.48 MWh/m3 before extraction to 1.61 MWh/m3 after extraction, which is a loss of 35.08%. The obtained results show that through the extraction of birch bark via ultrasound-assisted extraction, valuable substances can be produced. At the same time, the ash content of extracted birch bark increased whereas the energy content decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry and Applications of Lignocellulosic Materials)
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12 pages, 4975 KiB  
Article
Variation of Chemical Components in Sapwood, Transition Zone, and Heartwood of Dalbergia odorifera and Its Relationship with Heartwood Formation
by Ruoke Ma, Heng Liu, Yunlin Fu, Yingjian Li, Penglian Wei and Zhigao Liu
Forests 2021, 12(5), 577; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12050577 - 6 May 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2229
Abstract
Heartwood has a high economic value because of its natural durability, beautiful color, special aroma, and richness in active ingredients used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the mechanism of heartwood formation remains unclear. Dalbergia odorifera was selected as the object of research to [...] Read more.
Heartwood has a high economic value because of its natural durability, beautiful color, special aroma, and richness in active ingredients used in traditional Chinese medicine. However, the mechanism of heartwood formation remains unclear. Dalbergia odorifera was selected as the object of research to analyze this variation in the chemical composition of sapwood, transition zone, and heartwood as well as to elucidate the relationship between this variation and the formation of heartwood. The variation of secondary metabolites was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, the variation of lignin was analyzed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry, and the variation law of mineral elements was analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results demonstrated that contents of characteristic secondary metabolites in Dalbergia odorifera were mainly distributed in heartwood (84.3–96.8%), increased from the outer to inner layers of the xylem, and sudden changes occurred in the transition zone (the fourth growth ring). The Dalbergia odorifera lignin can be identified as typical “syringyl–guaiacyl (S–G)” lignin, and the color darkened from the outside to the inside. The results demonstrated that there were more benzene rings and conjugated C=O structures in the heartwood. Additionally, the variation of minerals in the xylem was related to elemental types; the average concentrations of Mg, Ca, Fe and Sr were higher in the heartwood than in the sapwood, whereas the concentrations of K and Zn were higher in the sapwood than in the heartwood owing to the reabsorption of elements. The concentrations of Na and Cu were similar in the heartwood and sapwood. The composition and structural characteristics of secondary metabolites, lignin, and mineral elements in the three typical xylem regions (sapwood, transition zone and heartwood) of Dalbergia odorifera changed. The most abrupt change occurred in the narrow xylem transition zone, which is the key location involved in heartwood formation in Dalbergia odorifera. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemistry and Applications of Lignocellulosic Materials)
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