Special Issue "Forest Sustainability: Wood Harvest, Supply and Procurement Chain, and Wood Raw Material Properties"

A special issue of Forests (ISSN 1999-4907). This special issue belongs to the section "Wood Science and Forest Products".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 April 2021) | Viewed by 13322

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Grzegorz Trzciński
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Forest Utilization, Institute of Forest Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences—SGGW, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: forest road; forest engineering; timber transport; wood supply chain; gross vehicle weight; axle load
Prof. Dr. Paweł Kozakiewicz
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Wood Sciences and Wood Preservation, Institute of Wood Sciences and Furniture, Warsaw University of Life Sciences –SGGW, 159 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Interests: influence of habitat and genetic origin of trees on properties of wood; wood raw materials; sawmilling; wood as an engineering material; properties and application of different species of wood
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

One of the persistent challenges facing economic forest management is the task of transporting timber from the forest to the processing site. It has already been pointed out that this activity is among those fundamental to forest management as it significantly impacts the costs of timber harvesting, but also enables the search for the most optimal solutions.

Supply logistics issues, including the organization of wood raw material transport, depend on the characteristics of the tree from which they were obtained (humidity, density, etc.). The volume and weight mass of the transported timber load depends on the season of the year and the origin of the timber, which has a significant impact on the weight mass of one cubic meter of the load. Habitat elements, soil conditions, age, height or site index, which may have a potential impact on the delivery of timber (wood) to the large processing plant (sawmill). The efficiency of wood transport depends not only on the maximum load capacity, but also on the duration of individual transport operations.

In this Special Issue we aim to showcase articles presenting the latest research on the organization of wood raw material transport, in particular, the impact of load parameters on transport efficiency.

Dr. Grzegorz Trzciński
Dr. Paweł Kozakiewicz
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • genetic origin
  • forest habitat
  • dendrometric
  • log and timber transport
  • wood supply chain
  • gross vehicle weight
  • axle load
  • biomass transport
  • wood raw materials
  • sawmilling
  • wood properties

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

Article
Radial Growth Response of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) after Increasing the Availability of Water Resources
Forests 2021, 12(8), 1053; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12081053 - 07 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 748
Abstract
In the years 1998–2022, about eight thousand hydrotechnical facilities were built or planned for construction at the State Forests National Forest Holding in Poland, which could slow down the outflow of water from small forest catchments and store over 50 hm³ of water. [...] Read more.
In the years 1998–2022, about eight thousand hydrotechnical facilities were built or planned for construction at the State Forests National Forest Holding in Poland, which could slow down the outflow of water from small forest catchments and store over 50 hm³ of water. Due to the innovative and unprecedented nature of investments retaining water resources on forest land, having a significant impact on the adaptation and mitigation of the negative effects of climate change, the literature on the subject lacks in studies describing their impact on the adjacent forest environment. The aim of the presented research is to determine the evolution of the tree-ring width of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) before and after the reconstruction of two water reservoirs and the construction of gates in drainage ditches as part of small retention projects in lowland areas. The research was carried out on the basis of core drillings collected in four forest districts and climate data provided by the Polish Institute of Meteorology and Water Management—National Research Institute. In the first stage of the work, no statistically significant influence of climatic conditions on the shaping of growths was demonstrated. In the next step, the variability of increments and their width in individual years before and after the investment was examined. Then, the distance of individual trees from reservoirs and drainage ditches was analyzed, as well as its importance in forming increments. The calculated statistical significance of differences in increments, average, minimum and maximum values, as well as standard deviation indicated the possible influence of retention reservoirs and valves on shaping the increments. The study did not confirm the importance of the distance of trees from the newly available water resources in the growth of the width of the increments. Full article
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Article
Importance of the Moisture Content of Large-Sized Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) Roundwood in Its Road Transport
Forests 2021, 12(7), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12070879 - 05 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 563
Abstract
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most important forest tree species in Europe, and its wood is a main raw material in the wood industry of many countries of the region. The high variability of pine wood density in [...] Read more.
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) is one of the most important forest tree species in Europe, and its wood is a main raw material in the wood industry of many countries of the region. The high variability of pine wood density in connection with its moisture content is a challenge in transport operations. An important part of the roundwood transport of pine wood by trucks is the transport of large-size roundwood (sawlogs). As part of the research, an analysis was carried out of the influence of absolute wood moisture content, determined in various ways, on selected truck transport parameters of large-size pine wood. The analyses of the supply of wood to a large sawmill in northern Poland took into account different seasons. The results indicate that the average moisture content of the transported pine wood is at a level of approximately 95% (determined by dry weight) and the density at 0.878 Mg m−3 (determined using the stereometric method). Quick measurement with the use of a resistance hygrometer gives significantly lower results both on the side surface and on the cross-cut end of the log. Regardless of the method of measurement, the absolute moisture content of wood in loads depends on the date of delivery (season), which is reflected in the variability of the density and weight of the loads. The indicated strong correlations between the selected, tested characteristics of roundwood transports are important for forestry practice too. It is the possibility of using the methods of quick determination of fresh wood moisture to estimate the density of wood and to predict and determine the mass of the load. Full article
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Article
Performance of Small-Scale Sawmilling Operations: A Case Study on Time Consumption, Productivity and Main Ergonomics for a Manually Driven Bandsaw
Forests 2021, 12(6), 810; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12060810 - 19 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 832
Abstract
Sawmilling operations represent one of the most important phases of the wood supply chain, because they connect the conversion flow of raw materials into finite products. In order to maintain a high volume of processed wood, sawmills usually adopt different processing strategies in [...] Read more.
Sawmilling operations represent one of the most important phases of the wood supply chain, because they connect the conversion flow of raw materials into finite products. In order to maintain a high volume of processed wood, sawmills usually adopt different processing strategies in terms of equipment and methods, which can increase the value or volume of the lumber produced from logs. In this study, the performance of small-scale sawmilling operations was monitored, whilst also evaluating the exposure of workers to harmful factors. An assessment of time consumption, productivity, and main ergonomics was conducted during the use of a manually driven bandsaw. In addition, the exposure to noise was investigated to complement the knowledge in this regard. The results indicated a rather high time utilization in productive tasks, which may come at the expense of exposure to noise and to poor working postures. The modelling approach resulted in statistically significant time consumption models for different phases (blade adjustment, effective sawing, returning, unloading lumber, and loading and fixing lumber). The exposure to noise was close to 92 dB (A) (8 h) and, therefore, the level of emitted noise is likely to depend on the condition of the used blades, species sawn and on the dimensional characteristics of the logs. In terms of ergonomic risks, the poorest postures were those related to tasks such as moving the logs, loading the logs, fixing the logs, rotating and removing the logs, as well as unloading the lumber. Full article
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Article
Identification of Extractives from Various Poplar Species
Forests 2021, 12(5), 647; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12050647 - 19 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 906
Abstract
Fast-growing poplar trees from plantations are the source of inexpensive wood that is intended mainly for chemical processing in the pulp and paper industry. Their potential as raw material for biofuel manufacturing is widely discussed as well. The detailed chemical composition of this [...] Read more.
Fast-growing poplar trees from plantations are the source of inexpensive wood that is intended mainly for chemical processing in the pulp and paper industry. Their potential as raw material for biofuel manufacturing is widely discussed as well. The detailed chemical composition of this raw material is therefore an important question. Five species of poplars were investigated: Populus alba, P. maximowiczii, P. trichocarpa, P. nigra, and P. tremula. Wood is a material consisting mainly of lignocellulose, but there are also many extractives. In temperate zone climate they typically represent up to 5% of wood mass. Their identification is difficult, due to various classes of compounds and great number of individual ones. These compounds can affect the properties of wood—its resistance to biotic agents and suitability to enzymatic treatment towards biofuels. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was used to analysis of extractives in various species of poplar wood. Compounds from several classes were identified like phenols, fatty acids, and their derivatives, sterols. Their identification was discussed along with estimation of their content in wood of investigated species. Full article
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Article
Impact of Tree Age and Size on Selected Properties of Black Locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) Wood
Forests 2021, 12(5), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12050634 - 17 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 694
Abstract
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a non-native tree species that occupies a remarkable area in the forests of western Poland. It is mainly cultivated for the bee-keeping purposes as well as for its high quality wood. We investigated the impact of [...] Read more.
Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) is a non-native tree species that occupies a remarkable area in the forests of western Poland. It is mainly cultivated for the bee-keeping purposes as well as for its high quality wood. We investigated the impact of tree age and diameter on the selected structural, physical and mechanical attributes of wood of black locust that grows in conditions of mesic oligotrophic site. We analysed 200 samples originating from 18 trees that varied with age (38, 60 and 71 years old) and diameter (thin, medium and thick specimen selected according to Hartig’s method). Individual wood properties were determined along with corresponding European or Polish standards. Structural and mechanical attributes were determined for moisture of 12%. We found significant impact of tree age on tree-ring width, latewood proportion, density, oven-dry density, basic density, share of woody substance, porosity, as well as radial, tangential, longitudinal and volumetric shrinkage, compression strength parallel to grain, static bending, coefficient of compression strength parallel to grain and coefficient of static bending. The older the trees, the higher values of individual attributes were observed. In turn, the effect of tree diameter was less profound and no significant impact of that feature was found for latewood proportion, anisotropy and almost all of the shrinkage parameters. Thin trees exhibited the lowest values of the analysed parameters, while medium ones—the highest. In general, the highest technical quality of the investigated wood can be found in the youngest trees, whose wood characterises with the properties significantly exceeding native Polish tree species such as oak or beech. Full article
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Article
The Technical Quality of the Wood of Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) of Diverse Genetic Origin
Forests 2021, 12(5), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12050619 - 14 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 670
Abstract
This work contains the preliminary results of research into the technical quality of the wood from Scots pine trees of diverse genetic origin, grown on an experimental plot at the Forest Experimental Station in Rogów. The following are the parent stands, numbered: 5 [...] Read more.
This work contains the preliminary results of research into the technical quality of the wood from Scots pine trees of diverse genetic origin, grown on an experimental plot at the Forest Experimental Station in Rogów. The following are the parent stands, numbered: 5 (the Tucholskie Forest 130 m a.s.l.), 7 (the Napiwodzko–Ramuckie Forest 145 m a.s.l.), 10 (the Piska Forest 145 m a.s.l.), 12 (the Biała Forest 95 m a.s.l.), 13 (the Namysłowsko–Ostrzeszowskie Forest 190 m a.s.l.), 15 (the Knyszyńska Forest 165 m a.s.l.), and 16 (the Nowotarskie Forest 590 m a.s.l.). The tested wood was obtained in 2018 from trees aged 52 years. The research material came from 100 trees in total. After felling, two logs approximately 0.5 m in length were cut from each tree. The height on the tree from which the material was taken ranged from breast height (1.3 m) to approximately 2.5 m. Next, planks were cut from the logs in a north–south direction; these were precisely described and then left to season. The work included the measurement and statistical analysis of one physical property, wood density (kg/m3), and of the following mechanical properties: compressive strength along the fibres, Rc12 (MPa); static bending strength, Rg12 (MPa); modulus of elasticity under static bending, Eg12 (MPa); and indices of strength quality of the tested mechanical properties, JRc12, JRg12, and JEg12 (km). The origin of the logs was shown to have a significant influence on wood density, compressive strength, static bending strength, and modulus of elasticity under static bending. The highest mean density was found for trees originating from stand 10 (537 kg/m3). The highest values of compressive strength were obtained for trees originating from stands 5 (45 MPa), and the highest static bending strength and modulus of elasticity under static bending were obtained for trees originating from stand 12 (102 and 9825 MPa, respectively). Full article
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Article
Mechanical Properties of Machine Stress Graded Sawn Timber Depending on the Log Type
Forests 2021, 12(5), 532; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12050532 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 647
Abstract
This article presents the results of tests conducted on Scots pine timber from three different kinds of logs: butt, middle and top. A planed pine timber batch composed of 510 pieces, dried to ca. 12% humidity, was machine-graded using a portable MTG device, [...] Read more.
This article presents the results of tests conducted on Scots pine timber from three different kinds of logs: butt, middle and top. A planed pine timber batch composed of 510 pieces, dried to ca. 12% humidity, was machine-graded using a portable MTG device, and classified into the following classes: C18, C24, C30, C35 and C40 (according to EN 338:2016). During the second stage of the study, the timber was tested to determine its density, MOE and MOR, in accordance with EN 408:2012. We analyzed the impact of the timber’s log of origin on the results of machine strength grading and on the values of correlation coefficients between the tested properties. The results show, among others, that there is a correlation between the C classes and MOR of the tested timber, as well as its origin from butt, middle or top logs. Full article
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Article
Operational Costs of Mid-Performance Forwarders in Czech Forest Bioeconomy
Forests 2021, 12(4), 435; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040435 - 04 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 795
Abstract
Cut-to-length (CTL) operations are expanding in Central European bio-economies. However, they are costly, so efficiency must be maximized. The objective of this study was to analyze direct operational costs of three forwarders from the year 2006 until 2019. Annual amortization, services, materials, and [...] Read more.
Cut-to-length (CTL) operations are expanding in Central European bio-economies. However, they are costly, so efficiency must be maximized. The objective of this study was to analyze direct operational costs of three forwarders from the year 2006 until 2019. Annual amortization, services, materials, and personnel costs were analyzed and compared through ANOVA, trends were analyzed through linear regression. Forwarders LVS 5, John Deere 1010, and John Deere 1110E were deployed in coniferous forest stands with a mean stem volume between 0.10 and 0.84 m3/stem, forwarding distance between 261 and 560 m. The machines forwarded between 4045 and 34,604 m3 of timber per year, over operational times between 490 and 3896 MH (machine hours)/year, reaching machine utilization between 58% and 89%, machine productivity between 3.5 and 12.3 m3/MH, and costs between 20.95 and 84.39 €/MH. The most substantial were personnel costs (35 to 66% of the total costs), followed by materials (14.9–27.1%), amortization (12.5–15.7%), and services (3.3–22.1%). Differences between total operational costs per m3 of machines with different engine powers were not observed. Full article
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Article
Changes in the Market of Precious Wood: A Case Study of Submission System in Poland
Forests 2021, 12(4), 421; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12040421 - 01 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 667
Abstract
A timber market occupies a very particular position within the economic reality. Trading of commodities such as precious timber is, indeed, strongly conditioned by the carrying capacity and the silvicultural potential of the forest ecosystem. Timber markets in Poland are characterized by a [...] Read more.
A timber market occupies a very particular position within the economic reality. Trading of commodities such as precious timber is, indeed, strongly conditioned by the carrying capacity and the silvicultural potential of the forest ecosystem. Timber markets in Poland are characterized by a controlling position of the State Forests, and one of the possible forms of wood sale is the system of submission. A submission usually implies that small quantities of wood with unusual features are being offered to a specific group of customers. The paper presents the sale results and prices of veneer wood commercialized in submission systems and in other forms of timber sale in the territory of Krosno during the years 2000−2019. It is one of the oldest submission markets in Poland, where the most expensive log ever in Poland was sold (13,000 USD/log—close to 7000 USD/m3). The Regional Directorate of State Forest (RDSF) of Krosno is located in the south-eastern part of Poland and manages a forest area of approximately 400,000 hectares. Annual timber harvesting amounts to 2 million m3, of which less than 2000 m3 annually is allocated to the submissions. The data cover a 20-year continuous time series and allow tracing changes in the wood volume offered to the market, the species population structure, and price trends for individual species. The data are being discussed against the background of the economic situation and in relation to the average prices obtained from other methods of sale. Beech was the most sold, but the demands for oak and sycamore appeared to be particularly high during the period of observation. The unity prices can be very variable even for wood from the same species, especially for sycamore. The prices are generally demand-driven and show strong influences from furniture industries and fashion. A rising demand for high quality timber and logs of big dimensions has been noticed. The submission system results in substantial economic benefits for the forest management and the region as a whole. Full article
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Article
Parameters of Trucks and Loads in the Transport of Scots Pine Wood Biomass Depending on the Season and Moisture Content of the Load
Forests 2021, 12(2), 223; https://doi.org/10.3390/f12020223 - 15 Feb 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 940
Abstract
Transport of wood biomass is one of the key operations in forestry and in the wood industry. An important part is the transport of shredded wood, where the most common forms are chips and sawdust. The aim of the research was to present [...] Read more.
Transport of wood biomass is one of the key operations in forestry and in the wood industry. An important part is the transport of shredded wood, where the most common forms are chips and sawdust. The aim of the research was to present the variability of the total weight of trucks (gross vehicle weight, GVW), the weight of the empty trucks (tare), and loads of chips and sawdust in different periods of the year. Changes in specific parameters were analyzed: GVW; tare weight; trailer capacity; use of the trailer load capacity; bulk volume and bulk density of wood biomass loads; solid cubic meter (m3) and weight of 1m3 of the load; and load weight depending on the season, with simultaneous measurements of wood chips and sawdust moisture. More than 250 transports from four seasons of the year were analyzed in the research. It was found that the total weight of trucks (GVW) was at a comparable level, on average from 39.42 to 39.64 Mg with slight differences (with SD 0.29 and 0.39). The weight of empty trucks was 16.15 Mg for chip-bearing trucks and 15.93 Mg for sawdust-bearing trucks (with SD 0.604 and 0.526). The type of wood material has an influence on the transported volume. The average quantity of load in the bulk cubic meter was 64.783 m3 for wood chips (SD 3.127) and 70.465 m3 (SD 2.516) for sawdust. Over 30% differences in the volume of transported wood chips and approximately 18% for sawdust were observed. The use of the loading capacity of the trailer was on average 72.58% (SD 5.567) for the transport of wood chips and 77.42% (SD 3.019) for the transport of sawdust. The sawdust bulk density was from 0.3050 to 0.4265 Mg⋅m−3 for wood chips and 0.3200 to 0.3556 Mg⋅m−3 for sawdust. This parameter is significantly dependent on moisture content, and the determined correlation functions can be used for estimating and predicting bulk density. The abovementioned absolute moisture content of chips and sawdust also depends on the season, which also affects the selected parameters of wood biomass loads. Full article
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Article
The Influence of Scots Pine Log Type (Pinus sylvestris L.) on the Mechanical Properties of Lumber
Forests 2020, 11(12), 1257; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11121257 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 537
Abstract
The paper presents an analysis of the influence of geographical origin and Scots pine log type on the mechanical properties of the timber sawn from them. The tested timber was sawn from logs obtained from three different forestry regions in Poland, located in [...] Read more.
The paper presents an analysis of the influence of geographical origin and Scots pine log type on the mechanical properties of the timber sawn from them. The tested timber was sawn from logs obtained from three different forestry regions in Poland, located in the western part of the country. A batch of 150 timber pieces was obtained from each region. The cross-section had the dimensions of 40 mm × 138 mm. The timber was sawn from logs of three different types: butt, middle and top, from a fresh, mixed forest around 120 years old. The timber was dried in industrial conditions and planed four times. The values determined for the timber under research were the static modulus of elasticity in bending (MOE), and the bending strength (MOR). Moreover, timber density (DEN) was determined with the stereometric method. For all three sites, the highest average values of the tested timber properties were obtained for timber made of butt logs, and the lowest for timber made of top logs. It was concluded that the tested Scots pine properties depended on the type of log, and to limited extent, on its geographic origin. The statistical analysis revealed that the geographic origin of the logs that the tested timber was made of had a statistically significant impact on the variance of all the tested timber properties. The type of log also had a statistically significant influence on the variance of all the tested properties. Full article
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Article
Simulating Combined Self-Loading Truck and Semitrailer Truck Transport in the Wood Supply Chain
Forests 2020, 11(12), 1245; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11121245 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
Forestry faces frequent and severe natural calamities causing high amounts of salvage wood. Especially under mountainous conditions, regional available self-loading truck capacity is often the main limiting factor causing transport capacity bottlenecks. Therefore, innovative logistics strategies are needed to ensure quick transport of [...] Read more.
Forestry faces frequent and severe natural calamities causing high amounts of salvage wood. Especially under mountainous conditions, regional available self-loading truck capacity is often the main limiting factor causing transport capacity bottlenecks. Therefore, innovative logistics strategies are needed to ensure quick transport of high amounts of salvage wood. Consequently, a multi-echelon unimodal transport concept, where timber is synchronously transshipped at a truck terminal with four transshipment lots from self-loading trucks to semitrailers, was modeled by means of a discrete event simulation. The simulation model calculates key performance indicators such as transshipped volumes and costs and support estimations of optimal truck fleet configuration. The results provide cost-optimal truck fleet configurations in terms of the number of self-loading trucks, semitrailers and prime mover trucks for varying transshipment volumes, delivery time to terminal and legal truck payload scenarios. Applying the truck terminal concept considerably decreases the number of self-loading trucks needed to transport the same volume when compared to unimodal wood transport, which is most common under mountainous conditions in Europe. In the majority of delivery time to terminal and terminal transshipment volume scenarios, the number of self-loading trucks was reduced by more than 50%. Increasing the legal gross vehicle weight for timber transport from 44 t up to 50 t reduces the number of self-loading trucks needed by 20% to 38%, depending on the scenario setting. Additionally, less self-loading trucks arriving at the terminal also cuts queuing times and system efficiency increases as transport cost/t is reduced by 6% to 11% depending on the scenario setting. Expanding the truck terminal concept by adding storage capacity as well as varying the number of transshipping lots and also including costs for terminal construction and operations in the economic analyses are promising topics for future studies. Full article
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Article
Quality and Bending Properties of Scots Pine (Pinus Sylvestris L.) Sawn Timber
Forests 2020, 11(11), 1200; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11111200 - 14 Nov 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 632
Abstract
The paper presents the partial research results of a mechanical properties study conducted on Scots pine from the Silesian Forestry Area in Poland. The scope of research included the visual strength grading of the timber according to the PN-D-94021:2013 standard, mechanical testing (according [...] Read more.
The paper presents the partial research results of a mechanical properties study conducted on Scots pine from the Silesian Forestry Area in Poland. The scope of research included the visual strength grading of the timber according to the PN-D-94021:2013 standard, mechanical testing (according to EN 408:2012) and an attempt to assign visuals to the C strength classes. The EN 1912: 2012 standard assigns the visual sorting classes of individual wood species (according to national sorting standards) to the C strength classes introduced by the EN 338: 2018 standard. At the moment, this standard does not assign Polish visual sorting classes (KW, KS, and KG) to C strength classes. The obtained MOE (modulus of elasticity) and MOR (static bending strength) values were corrected according to the EN 384:2018 standard, and their characteristic values were later calculated. On this basis, we proposed a classification of the grading classes determined on the basis of PN-D-94021 into C classes described in EN 338:2018, which is necessary in the process of the transposition of Polish strength grades (KW, KS, KG, and Reject) and the qualification of them in line with EN 1912:2012. The calculated characteristic values of density, MOR and E0 (the modulus of elasticity parallel to the grain) allowed us to assign Polish visual grades KW, KS, and KG to C35, C30, and C20, respectively. The pine timber under research had high physical and mechanical parameters, which translated into high C classes to which the KW, KS, and KG timber categories were assigned. Full article
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Article
Assessing Wood Waste by Timber Industry as a Contributing Factor to Deforestation in Ghana
Forests 2020, 11(9), 939; https://doi.org/10.3390/f11090939 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2143
Abstract
This study assesses the wood waste generation, its management practices, and its effects on the forests in Ghana. The rate of logging in Ghana has increased and this can be attributed to the increase in the establishment of Sawmilling companies in the country. [...] Read more.
This study assesses the wood waste generation, its management practices, and its effects on the forests in Ghana. The rate of logging in Ghana has increased and this can be attributed to the increase in the establishment of Sawmilling companies in the country. Increased in the installation of sawmilling companies has increased the sawn timber production. The use of outmoded milling machines has led to an increase in waste generation. An increase in production has led to an increase in the annual allowable cut in the country, which has overrun the limit of sustainable forestry. A qualitative research method was employed for the research work. A well-structured questionnaire was administered to the study to solicit the views of the wood industries about wood waste generation and its management practices. The study population comprised of 50 sawmilling companies. From the data collected, it was observed that most of the timber production companies do not know how to manage the waste generated and the waste is left un-utilized. In general 80% of the timber production companies responded that they have an idea of wood waste management but do not have the technical know-how to manage the waste. It was observed that 80% of the timber production companies do not manage the waste they generate during their operations. Wood shavings, sawdust, wood slabs, offcuts, branches, and others are left un-utilized. From the observations made in the visited sawmills, chunks of waste are generated on the site. The fact that the wood which is un-utilized (waste) and the wood, which is utilized as sold products, are equal in cost to the company which highlights the poor material and cost-efficiency. Wood industry materials and cost efficiency, together with waste management practices and their contribution to deforestation in the country, are discussed. Full article
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