Topical Collection "The Rise of Forensic Anthropology and Documented Human Osteological Collections"

Editors

Dr. Francisca Alves Cardoso
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Center for Research in Anthropology, CRIA, NOVA FCSH, 1069-061 Lisboa, Portugal
2. Cranfield Defense & Security, Cranfield University, Bedford MK43 0AL, UK
Interests: forensic anthropology; age assessment; sex assessment; human collection; ethics; paleopathology
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Vanessa Campanacho
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
1. American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY, USA
2. LABOH- Laboratório de Antropologia Biológica e Osteologia Humana, CRIA - Center for Research in Anthropology, 1649-026 Lisbon, Portugal
3. CEF - Centre for Functional Ecology - Group of Paleoecology and Forensic Sciences, 3004-531 Coimbra, Portugal
Interests: age estimation; age at death; pubis symphysis
Dr. Claudia Regina Plens
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
1. Department of History, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Campus Guarulhos, Guarulhos, São Paulo 07252-312, Brazil
2. Teaching and Research Center of Forensic Archaeology and Anthropology (NEPAAF), Laboratory of Archaeological Studies (LEA), Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Guarulhos, São Paulo, Brazil
Interests: peopling of the Americas; Beringia; American Indians

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

In 1988 Mehmet Yaşar Işcan wrote an article on the “Rise of Forensic Anthropology”. It mentioned the need for documented modern skeletal collections to address individualization factors such as biological sex, age at death, and ancestry. In 2008, Dirkmaat and colleagues revisited Forensic Anthropology, offering new perspectives, reinforcing the need for modern samples to test traditional methods and develop new ones. Thus, more than three decades passed, and there has been an increase in documented modern collections and intensification in Forensic Anthropology research.

A major asset of the documented collection is the biographical data associated with each skeleton. This individualized information enables the development of hypothesis-driven research on sex and age-at-death estimation methods, individual and population ancestry and variability, behaviour patterns and/or activity related bone changes, and bone lesions’ correlation with cause of death. These approaches have also benefited from methodological and technical improvements.

However, documented collections are not without bias, as many have skewed age-at-death distribution, with biographical data being self-reported, inaccurate, and/or historically inadequate to present days. In addition, ancestral and ethnicity affiliation may express phenotype bias classification, and cause of death and occupation may not relate to a pattern of bone changes observed on the skeletons. These biases are problematic when developing methods to infer accurate age-at-death and sex estimations and ancestry classifiers, or when exploring diseases with a biological solid age association. 

Ethical issues associated with documented collections are also becoming prominent in Anthropological discourse. These include discussion on the provenance of the remains, consent issues, preservation and curation issues, data dissemination and replication, amongst others.

This Special Issue aims to aggregate information on documented collections worldwide, focusing on, but not limited to: 1) collection profile description and its legal and ethical contextualization; 2) documented-collections-associated resources use and dissemination (e.g., biographical data, imagological data, metrical data); 3) collection scientific contribution to sex and age-at-death estimation methods; 4) collection scientific contribution to individual and population variability; 5)  methods on sex and age-at-death, as well as morphometric methods; 6) collection-based methodological and technological development; and 7) collection bias assessment and methodological approach. 

Submissions dealing with the abovementioned topics are welcome, as are others offering alternative views and the results of interdisciplinary work.

Dr. Francisca Alves Cardoso
Guest Editor

Dr. Vanessa Campanacho
Dr. Claudia Regina Plens
Co-Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Forensic Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • identified collections
  • sex assessment
  • age-at-death assessment
  • ancestry
  • morphometrics
  • aDNA
  • ethics
  • biographical data
  • data dissemination
  • 3D
  • pathology

Published Papers (13 papers)

2022

Jump to: 2021

Article
The Fall and Rise of Identified Reference Collection: It Is Possible and Necessary to Transition from a Typological Conceptualization of Variation to Effective Utilization of Collections
Forensic Sci. 2022, 2(2), 438-454; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci2020033 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 300
Abstract
In some jurisdictions, race, ancestry or population affinity are part of the biological profile used in preliminary identification, for historical and political reasons. It is long overdue for forensic anthropologists to abandon this typological approach to human variation, regardless of the terms used. [...] Read more.
In some jurisdictions, race, ancestry or population affinity are part of the biological profile used in preliminary identification, for historical and political reasons. It is long overdue for forensic anthropologists to abandon this typological approach to human variation, regardless of the terms used. Using a sample (n = 105) selected from the Terry and Coimbra identified reference collections, a blind experimental approach is used to test several metric methods and versions of methods for group estimation (Fordisc 3.0 and 3.1, and AncesTrees), that rely on different statistical approaches (discriminant function analysis and random forest algorithms, respectively) derived from different reference samples (Howells’ data in AncesTrees and Fordisc 3.1, and different forensic subsamples in Fordisc 3.0 and 3.1). The accuracy for matching premortem documented group designation is consistently low (36 to 50%) across testing parameters and consistent with other independent tests. The results clearly show that a change in terminology, software updates, alternative statistics, expanded reference samples, and newer collections will not solve the underlying fundamental problems. It is possible and necessary to transition from a typological conceptualization of variation to the effective utilization of identified reference collections in Forensic Anthropology. In addition to the theoretical and methodological reasons, it is unethical for forensic anthropologists to continue to use on the deceased methods that do not work and that serve only to further exclude and marginalize the living. Full article
Article
The John A. Williams Human Skeletal Collection at Western Carolina University
Forensic Sci. 2022, 2(2), 362-370; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci2020026 - 02 Apr 2022
Viewed by 534
Abstract
This manuscript serves to introduce The John A. Williams Human Skeletal (JAW) Collection, which is a donated skeletal collection consisting of individuals from the Body Donation Program at Western Carolina University. Full body donors decompose naturally at the Forensic Osteology Research Station (FOREST) [...] Read more.
This manuscript serves to introduce The John A. Williams Human Skeletal (JAW) Collection, which is a donated skeletal collection consisting of individuals from the Body Donation Program at Western Carolina University. Full body donors decompose naturally at the Forensic Osteology Research Station (FOREST) before curation within the JAW Collection. As of 31 December 2021, the JAW Collection has 98 skeletal donors and 16 cremated donors. There are also nearly 40 donors within various stages of the decomposition and curation processes. The importance of a willed-body collection such as the JAW Collection is its ability to be utilized in educational efforts for both students and members of the public. Undergraduate students at Western Carolina University learn from our willed-body donors from the initial intake at FOREST through processing and curation within the Western Carolina Human Identification Lab (WCHIL). The JAW Collection also enables a thriving outreach program through continuing education efforts. Courses are offered throughout the year that would not be possible without a donated skeletal collection. Additionally, the FOREST and JAW Collection serve a larger community purpose by offering environmentally friendly alternatives to traditional burials for community members, demonstrating that these collections have a variety of purposes outside of academic research. Full article
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Article
Scientific and Ethical Aspects of Identified Skeletal Series: The Case of the Documented Human Osteological Collections of the University of Bologna (Northern Italy)
Forensic Sci. 2022, 2(2), 349-361; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci2020025 - 29 Mar 2022
Viewed by 752
Abstract
Osteological collections are an essential source of information on human biological and cultural variability, providing insights about developmental, evolutionary, and biocultural processes. Among osteological series, documented human osteological collections (DHOC) are especially useful due to the opportunity to control biological parameters such as [...] Read more.
Osteological collections are an essential source of information on human biological and cultural variability, providing insights about developmental, evolutionary, and biocultural processes. Among osteological series, documented human osteological collections (DHOC) are especially useful due to the opportunity to control biological parameters such as age-at-death and sex, which are typically unknown in archaeological or forensic cases. Raising ethical concerns about the collection, management, and study of human remains poses anthropologists with renewed responsibilities. These issues become especially pressing when dealing with DHOC. In this contribution, we discuss the scientific value and ethical issues characterizing DHOC using as case study the documented human osteological collections of the University of Bologna. This series includes more than 1000 individuals from Northern Italian and Sardinian cemeteries and is among the largest in Europe. It represents the basis for ongoing research on a large range of methodological studies, especially focused on the reconstruction of biological profile. After outlining the scientific studies performed on this DHOC, we discuss it in the context of the specific legislation featuring the Italian territory. Finally, we highlight some directions where work can be carried out to better balance scientific research, preservation needs, and ethical concerns, stressing the advantages of modern imaging techniques. Full article
Article
Population-Inclusive Assigned-Sex-at-Birth Estimation from Skull Computed Tomography Scans
Forensic Sci. 2022, 2(2), 321-348; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci2020024 - 26 Mar 2022
Viewed by 808
Abstract
Methods for estimating assigned, binary sex at birth from skeletonized remains have primarily been developed for specific population groups in the U.S. (e.g., African American, European American, Hispanic) and, thus, inherently rely on ancestry estimation as a foundational component for constructing the biological [...] Read more.
Methods for estimating assigned, binary sex at birth from skeletonized remains have primarily been developed for specific population groups in the U.S. (e.g., African American, European American, Hispanic) and, thus, inherently rely on ancestry estimation as a foundational component for constructing the biological profile. However, ongoing discussions in forensic anthropology highlight pressing issues with ancestry estimation practices. Therefore, this research provides population-inclusive assigned-sex estimation models for cases where ancestry is not estimated or is truly unknown. The study sample (n = 431) includes 3D volume-rendered skull computed tomography scans from the novel New Mexico Decedent Image Database of African, Asian, European, Latin, and Native Americans. Five standard nonmetric traits were scored, and eighteen standard measurements were obtained. Binary logistic regressions and discriminant function analyses were employed to produce models and classification accuracies, and intraobserver reliability was assessed. The population-inclusive nonmetric and metric models produced cross-validated classification accuracies of 81.0–87.0% and 86.7–87.0%, respectively, which did not differ significantly from the accuracy of most population-specific models. Moreover, combined nonmetric and metric models increased accuracy to 88.8–91.6%. This study indicates that population-inclusive assigned-sex estimation models can be used instead of population-specific models in cases where ancestry is intentionally not estimated, given current concerns with ancestry estimation. Full article
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Article
Osteological Collections of the National Museum in Brazil: Challenges and New Perspectives for a Historical Collection
Forensic Sci. 2022, 2(2), 287-301; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci2020022 - 22 Mar 2022
Viewed by 681
Abstract
The National Museum of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (NM-UFRJ), Brazil, suffered a serious fire in 2018, resulting in the loss or severe damage of many collections. The human osteological collection, also affected, was one of the largest and oldest in [...] Read more.
The National Museum of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (NM-UFRJ), Brazil, suffered a serious fire in 2018, resulting in the loss or severe damage of many collections. The human osteological collection, also affected, was one of the largest and oldest in the country, holding over two thousand entries from prehistoric to historic sites, including some international donations. The oldest remains were those of “Luzia”, dating to 11.5 thousand years. While part of the collection was recovered from the debris, the bones were mostly warped and damaged by the fire, making the possibility of identification uncertain. Therefore, this collection is now inadequate for regular forensic and bioarchaeological studies. Considering the need for the construction of a new human osteological collection, especially with forensic perspectives, we conducted a survey of Brazilian national and local (capitals of the Southeast region) legislation, regarding donation and institutionalization of human remains for scientific collections and ossuaries, considering the potential ethics and logistics aspects. Results suggest that legislation generally treats human remains studies and collections as an issue of lesser importance Thus, private donations may become the simplest way to receive human remains, even though they are generally age biased. We conclude that it is necessary to broaden legal and ethical discussions in order to build contemporary human bone collections with proper scientific potential for the needs of society. Full article
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Review
The Estimation of Sex of Human Skeletal Remains in the Portuguese Identified Collections: History and Prospects
Forensic Sci. 2022, 2(1), 272-286; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci2010021 - 21 Mar 2022
Viewed by 821
Abstract
The estimation of biological sex is of paramount significance for the identification of anonymous skeletal remains in contemporary medico-legal contexts or bioarcheological studies of past societies. Sex estimation techniques are usually affected by population-specific sexual dimorphism. As such, the need for distinctive standards [...] Read more.
The estimation of biological sex is of paramount significance for the identification of anonymous skeletal remains in contemporary medico-legal contexts or bioarcheological studies of past societies. Sex estimation techniques are usually affected by population-specific sexual dimorphism. As such, the need for distinctive standards for each population has long been acknowledged. This paper aims to document and critically address sex estimation methods that have been created, or tested, in Portuguese identified skeletal collections in a historically situated dimension. Moreover, the ever-changing landscape of forensic anthropology calls for a deep reflection about a plethora of issues regarding sex estimation in human remains, including the usage of medical imaging methods and innovative statistical approaches, the biological and social resignification of sex and gender, the problems arising from secular change, and the ethics involving the use of human skeletal collections within the discipline. Full article
Review
The Identified Osteological Collections of South America and Their Ethical Dimensions
Forensic Sci. 2022, 2(1), 238-252; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci2010018 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 803
Abstract
Recent years have brought an important increase in the interest in identified human osteological collections in South America. Their number has been systematically growing and their sizes have been expanding, allowing the development of the field of forensic anthropology, among other disciplines, in [...] Read more.
Recent years have brought an important increase in the interest in identified human osteological collections in South America. Their number has been systematically growing and their sizes have been expanding, allowing the development of the field of forensic anthropology, among other disciplines, in this region. These collections are used mainly for the validation of international forensic anthropology methods for national and local populations, as well as for the training of professionals and researchers. Despite their growth, important limitation related to the lack of variability in the representativeness of individuals within these collections represents a significant drawback. Likewise, their concentration in only a few countries constitutes a noteworthy concern. This article aims at mapping the existing identified human osteological collections in South America, discussing the advances in the area of forensic anthropology that they have allowed, and reflecting upon their ethical dimensions in the South American context. Full article
Article
The Andronowski Skeletal Collection for Histological Research: A Modern Anatomical Contribution
Forensic Sci. 2022, 2(1), 175-189; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci2010014 - 19 Feb 2022
Viewed by 775
Abstract
The Andronowski Skeletal Collection for Histological Research (ASCHR) comprises the fastest-growing documented modern human skeletal collection in the world developed specifically for histological and imaging research. Initiated in 2017 by Dr. Janna M. Andronowski, the ASCHR provides a resource for the study of [...] Read more.
The Andronowski Skeletal Collection for Histological Research (ASCHR) comprises the fastest-growing documented modern human skeletal collection in the world developed specifically for histological and imaging research. Initiated in 2017 by Dr. Janna M. Andronowski, the ASCHR provides a resource for the study of skeletal microarchitectural variability with advancing age and between the sexes. The primary objective is to use this unique skeletal archive for histological and imaging research, with the goal of furthering knowledge of human bone biology. Bone procurement has focused on two sites commonly used in histological age-at-death estimation in anthropology: the mid-shaft sixth rib and femoral mid-shaft. The ASCHR consists of over 1200 bone samples from 621 individuals and thousands of imaging files, with age-at-death ranging from 15–105 years. Additional information collected about ASCHR donors includes occupational history; alcohol, tobacco, and drug use history; a health questionnaire; and cause and manner of death. The ASCHR offers a novel opportunity to devise regression formulae for histological age-at-death estimation and answer questions concerning age-related microarchitectural changes and biomechanical processes. It further serves as a skeletal reference database for researchers from various disciplines, including medicine, anthropology, and the biological sciences. Here, we describe the background of the collection, ethical considerations, bone procurement processes, demographic composition, and existing imaging and histological data available to researchers. Our primary aims are to (1) introduce the scientific community to ASCHR, (2) present descriptive and demographic information regarding the collection, and (3) encourage collaboration among national and international researchers interested in human skeletal biology. Full article
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Article
The Scientific Profiles of Documented Collections via Publication Data: Past, Present, and Future Directions in Forensic Anthropology
Forensic Sci. 2022, 2(1), 37-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci2010004 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Human osteological documented collections (DCs), also referred to as “identified collections”, are a valuable resource in biological and forensic anthropology, as they offer the possibility for hypothesis-driven research on sex and age-at-death estimation methods, human variability, and other morphometric-based parameters of individual identification. [...] Read more.
Human osteological documented collections (DCs), also referred to as “identified collections”, are a valuable resource in biological and forensic anthropology, as they offer the possibility for hypothesis-driven research on sex and age-at-death estimation methods, human variability, and other morphometric-based parameters of individual identification. Consequently, they feature in many publications addressing the forensic sciences. The paper aims to explore the scientific profiles of DCs via publication using bibliometric data. The Dimensions databases were used to select the DC-related keywords in the title and abstracts of the publications. The search result analysis and extraction were conducted using VOSviewer. A total of 376 articles were found, published between 1969 and 2021 (November). The number of publications has increased over the years, specifically after 2011. The results show that most of the publications are associated with countries such as the United States and Portugal (the latter highlights the University of Coimbra), that the research tends to focus on human biological profiling (e.g., age, sex assessments), and that the journals with the highest numbers of publications were related to forensic sciences. This analysis shows a positive correlation between DC publications and the growth of forensic anthropology in recent years, with a slight shift towards the leading institutions that publish DC-based research. Hence, we can anticipate a change in the institutional leading profiles in the years to come. Full article
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Article
The Subadult Virtual Anthropology Database (SVAD): An Accessible Repository of Contemporary Subadult Reference Data
Forensic Sci. 2022, 2(1), 20-36; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci2010003 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
The Subadult Virtual Anthropology Database (SVAD) is the largest available repository of contemporary (2010–2019) subadult reference data from around the world. It is composed of data collected from individuals aged between birth and 22 years. Data were collected from skeletal remains (n [...] Read more.
The Subadult Virtual Anthropology Database (SVAD) is the largest available repository of contemporary (2010–2019) subadult reference data from around the world. It is composed of data collected from individuals aged between birth and 22 years. Data were collected from skeletal remains (n = 43, Colombia) and medical images (n = 4848) generated at medical examiner’s offices in the United States (full-body Computed Tomography (CT) scans), hospitals in France, The Netherlands, Taiwan (region-specific CT scans), and South Africa (full-body Lodox Statscans), a private clinic in Angola (region-specific conventional radiographs), and a dental practice in Brazil (panoramic radiographs). Available derivatives include individual demographics (age, sex) with standardized skeletal and/or dental growth and development indicators for all individuals from all samples, and segmented long bone and innominate surfaces from the CT scan samples. Standardized protocols for data collection are provided for download and derivatives are freely accessible for researchers and students. Full article
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2021

Jump to: 2022

Article
The Texas State Donated Skeletal Collection at the Forensic Anthropology Center at Texas State
Forensic Sci. 2022, 2(1), 7-19; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci2010002 - 27 Dec 2021
Viewed by 831
Abstract
The Forensic Anthropology Center at Texas State (FACTS) began accepting whole-body donations for scientific research and educational purposes under the Texas Anatomical Gift Act in 2008. Research conducted with donated whole bodies involves studies in taphonomy and human decomposition, including reconstructing the postmortem [...] Read more.
The Forensic Anthropology Center at Texas State (FACTS) began accepting whole-body donations for scientific research and educational purposes under the Texas Anatomical Gift Act in 2008. Research conducted with donated whole bodies involves studies in taphonomy and human decomposition, including reconstructing the postmortem interval. Following decomposition, the skeletal elements of all donors are collected, cleaned, and permanently curated into the Texas State Donated Skeletal Collection (TXSTDSC), which is used for teaching and research by faculty and students at Texas State but is also open to external researchers. To date, FACTS has received 710 donors. Fifty-eight percent of donors are male and 42% are female. Donor ages range from 21 weeks’ gestation to 103 years old at the time of death, with a mean of 66 years, and a median of 68 years. Based on self-identified or family-identified ancestry, 90% of donors are White, 4.5% are Hispanic, 3% are Black, less than 2% are of mixed ancestry, and less than 1% are Asian or Native American. Information collected about each donor includes geographic/residential history; occupational history; socioeconomic status; anthropometrics; parity status; alcohol, tobacco, and drug use history; mobility status; an overall health questionnaire; cause and manner of death. Full article
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Review
Documented Skeletal Collections and Their Importance in Forensic Anthropology in the United States
Forensic Sci. 2021, 1(3), 228-239; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci1030021 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1208
Abstract
Documented skeletal collections are the backbone of forensic anthropology due to their associated biohistories. This paper describes the identified skeletal collections and their relevance in forensic anthropological research, education and training in the US. The establishment of documented skeletal collections in the US [...] Read more.
Documented skeletal collections are the backbone of forensic anthropology due to their associated biohistories. This paper describes the identified skeletal collections and their relevance in forensic anthropological research, education and training in the US. The establishment of documented skeletal collections in the US can be distinguished into two modus operandi, depending on the stance towards the dead, legislation, and medical and forensic practices. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, anatomists amassed skeletons from cadaver dissections, shaped by European influences. Those skeletons compose the anatomical collections—such as the Robert J. Terry Anatomical Collection—predominantly representing impoverished and unclaimed individuals. Ethical concerns for the curation and research of African American skeletons without family consent are growing in the US. In contrast, since the 1980s, modern documented skeletal collections originated from body donations to human taphonomy facilities, such as the William M. Bass Donated Skeletal Collection. The establishment and testing of osteological methods essential to establish one’s identity—such as age at death and sex—have been developed with skeletons from documented collections. Therefore, the analysis of identified skeletons has been crucial for the development of forensic anthropology in the US. Full article
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Article
The Pretoria Bone Collection: A 21st Century Skeletal Collection in South Africa
Forensic Sci. 2021, 1(3), 220-227; https://doi.org/10.3390/forensicsci1030020 - 08 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1258
Abstract
The Pretoria Bone Collection (PBC) began in 1942 with the opening of a medical school at the University of Pretoria (UP) in Pretoria, South Africa, where this skeletal collection is housed in the Department of Anatomy. The purpose of this paper is to [...] Read more.
The Pretoria Bone Collection (PBC) began in 1942 with the opening of a medical school at the University of Pretoria (UP) in Pretoria, South Africa, where this skeletal collection is housed in the Department of Anatomy. The purpose of this paper is to provide information on the national legislation associated with obtaining, curating and researching skeletal remains in South Africa, the demographic composition of the PBC, and the inclusion of a portion of these remains into a digital repository known as Bakeng se Afrika (BsA). The PBC comprises 873 complete skeletons, 344 complete postcrania without crania, and 308 complete crania without postcrania. Skeletal contents are reflective of the population statistics of South Africa, with a smaller proportion of White (32%) than Black (65%) South Africans. Unlike the population profile, males in the PBC are greater in number (75.5%) than females (24.5%), which may be explained by the number of migrant labourers traveling into a large city such as Pretoria. From this sample, crania (206), maxillae (141), mandibulae (408), femora (137), and radii (134), as well as several other skeletal elements were micro-XCT scanned and are available on the BsA server. A researcher needs to submit an online application to the Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) of the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Pretoria for access to these collections. Full article
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