Zebrafish Pathology and Contaminant Pathological Effects

A special issue of Fishes (ISSN 2410-3888). This special issue belongs to the section "Welfare, Health and Disease".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2023) | Viewed by 7467

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical, and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: fish pathology; aquatic laboratory animals; animal welfare; fish husbandry; diseases of aquatic organisms
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Guest Editor
Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Science, University of Messina, 98166 Messina, Italy
Interests: aquatic laboratory animals; zebrafish; animal welfare; fish husbandry; diseases of aquatic organisms

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Guest Editor
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, Catania, Italy
Interests: marine biology; vertebrate and invertebrate species; animal models for ecotoxicity testing; use of biomarkers; immunohistochemistry; electron microscopy; light microscopy
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been extensively used as an animal model in various fields of biomedical research. Zebrafish peculiarities such as small size, lower cost of housing and breeding systems, high fertility, and short generational intervals, in addition to egg transparency, allow them to be an experimental model for research studies in different topics, such as aging, infectious or inflammatory diseases, developmental biology, phenotype-based drug discovery, and toxicology. Zebrafish genome sequencing outcomes have shown how this small fish shares about 70% of orthologous protein encoding genes with humans. This teleost also has well-conserved structures and molecular mechanisms, particularly gastrointestinal, hematopoietic, neurological, and immunological systems, which is why it is widely used in translational research, particularly as model for neurological disorders, cardiovascular diseases, hematological disorder, muscle disease and cancers, anxiety, Parkinson’s disease, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Moreover, zebrafish embryos are a validated models for fish embryo toxicity test (FET) and developmental studies.

National regulations regarding the identification of environmental hazards caused by chemicals, pharmaceutical products, and nanoparticles are based on tests that use vertebrates such as zebrafish as models.

Potential topics include: zebrafish diseases; congenital anomalies; viral diseases; bacterial diseases; parasitic diseases; zebrafish oncology; immunological studies on zebrafish; pharmacological and toxicological study with attention to pathological effects on zebrafish; health surveillance; and embryogenesis, differentiation, and gene expression in the zebrafish model.

Dr. Carmelo Iaria
Dr. Fabiano Capparucci
Dr. Roberta Pecoraro
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • zebrafish
  • pathology
  • toxicological effects
  • laboratory model
  • translational research

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 5265 KiB  
Article
Morphological and Functional Alterations in Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Liver after Exposure to Two Ecologically Relevant Concentrations of Lead
by Rachele Macirella, Vittoria Curcio, Abdalmoiz I. M. Ahmed, Federica Talarico, Settimio Sesti, Enrique Paravani, Lucia Odetti, Marcello Mezzasalma and Elvira Brunelli
Fishes 2023, 8(7), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8070342 - 28 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
Lead (Pb) is a non-essential, highly toxic, and persistent element widely recognized as one of the most concerning pollutants. It is listed on the Priority List of Hazardous Substances. Widespread environmental contamination from Pb is a serious issue for human health and wildlife. [...] Read more.
Lead (Pb) is a non-essential, highly toxic, and persistent element widely recognized as one of the most concerning pollutants. It is listed on the Priority List of Hazardous Substances. Widespread environmental contamination from Pb is a serious issue for human health and wildlife. In fish, Pb mainly accumulates in the liver, which is a key component for metal detoxification and excretion processes. In this study, we investigated, for the first time, the morphological and functional injuries induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver by two very low and environmentally relevant concentrations of Pb (2.5 and 5 μg/L) after 48, 96, and 192 h of exposure. We observed significant histological alterations in all the exposed samples, and it was demonstrated that the extent of injuries increased with dose and exposure time. The most common modifications observed were congestion of blood vessels and sinusoids, cytoplasmic vacuolizations, parenchyma dyschromia, and macrophage proliferation. Pb administration also resulted in a significant increase in lipid content and the upregulation of key genes that are involved in metal detoxification (mtf1) and the defensive response against oxidative stress (sod1 and cat). We show that even very low doses of Pb can disrupt liver morphology and function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish Pathology and Contaminant Pathological Effects)
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14 pages, 4322 KiB  
Article
Uptake Routes and Biodistribution of Polystyrene Nanoplastics on Zebrafish Larvae and Toxic Effects on Development
by Martina Contino, Greta Ferruggia, Roberta Pecoraro, Elena Maria Scalisi, Gianfranco Cavallaro, Carmela Bonaccorso, Cosimo Gianluca Fortuna, Antonio Salvaggio, Fabiano Capparucci, Teresa Bottari and Maria Violetta Brundo
Fishes 2023, 8(3), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes8030168 - 20 Mar 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1843
Abstract
Polystyrene (PS) is the most widely used plastic polymer. It is mainly used to produce disposable products. Due to its resistance to degradation, PS can remain in the environment for a long time. Its mechanical, physical and biological actions determine the release of [...] Read more.
Polystyrene (PS) is the most widely used plastic polymer. It is mainly used to produce disposable products. Due to its resistance to degradation, PS can remain in the environment for a long time. Its mechanical, physical and biological actions determine the release of smaller fragments, which are able to penetrate organisms and accumulate in target organs. Fertilized Danio rerio eggs were exposed to concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/L of fluorescent, amino-modified polystyrene nanoplastics (nPS-NH2) with diameters of 100 and 50 nm for 96h, according to OECD guidelines (2013). Uptake, biodistribution, toxicity, oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated; moreover, we carried out a simulation to study the interactions between nPS-NH2 and defined regions of three receptors: STRA6, Adgrg6 and CNTN4/APLP2. We demonstrated that after being internalized, nPS-NH2 could reach the head and bioaccumulate, especially in the eyes. Moreover, they could lead to oxidative stress and apoptosis in the several regions where they bioaccumulated due to their interaction with receptors. This study confirmed the danger of nanoplastic wastes released in the environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish Pathology and Contaminant Pathological Effects)
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9 pages, 1339 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Anaesthetic Effect of Commercial Basil Ocimum basilicum on Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Embryos
by Fabiano Capparucci, Giovanni De Benedetto, Sabrina Natale, Roberta Pecoraro, Carmelo Iaria and Fabio Marino
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060318 - 3 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1936
Abstract
Essential oils (EOs) are natural compounds used in various fields such as traditional medicine, gastronomy, and agriculture, often used against plant and animal parasites. In the present study, the toxic and pathological effects of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil on the [...] Read more.
Essential oils (EOs) are natural compounds used in various fields such as traditional medicine, gastronomy, and agriculture, often used against plant and animal parasites. In the present study, the toxic and pathological effects of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oil on the development of zebrafish embryos was investigated. The manufacturer datasheet reported linalool and eugenol as major compounds. The effects of the essential oil were evaluated through a zebrafish embryo toxicity test (ZFET) following the OECD n°236 guidelines. Embryos were exposed to different essential oil concentrations (50, 100, and 200 μL/L). Results showed mortality effects in the experimental groups in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, zebrafish exposed to the higher concentration showed several pathological alterations; particularly, delayed hatching, pericardial edema, and a significant reduction of heart rate after 96 h post-fertilization (hpf) compared to the control group. Results reported here suggest an anaesthetic effect of the O. basilicum at low concentrations, due to the possible synergist effect of the main components such as linalool and eugenol which act on the GABAergic system evoking bradycardia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish Pathology and Contaminant Pathological Effects)
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8 pages, 2130 KiB  
Communication
Clinical and Histological Findings of Non-Experimentally Induced Seminomas in Adult Zebrafish
by Antonella Tinelli, Claudia Zizzadoro, Nicola Pugliese, Rosa Leone, Giuseppe Crescenzo, Monia Perugini, Michele Amorena, Giulia Caioni and Carmine Merola
Fishes 2022, 7(6), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/fishes7060314 - 30 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
The present study investigated the macroscopical and histological features of two spontaneous seminomas developed by zebrafish adults. Two wild-type male zebrafish of AB/TU strain aged 2 and 3 years, respectively, developed gross pathological signs consisting of asymmetrical swollen abdomens. In one fish, named [...] Read more.
The present study investigated the macroscopical and histological features of two spontaneous seminomas developed by zebrafish adults. Two wild-type male zebrafish of AB/TU strain aged 2 and 3 years, respectively, developed gross pathological signs consisting of asymmetrical swollen abdomens. In one fish, named fish 1, the testicular alteration is referred to as one testis (the right one), while in fish 2, both testes were altered in their size and shape. No signs of invasion were reported. The histological analysis revealed an extensive differentiation of germ cells in various developmental stages without any oocyte, and both lesions were compatible with spermatocytic and intratubular seminomas. The etiology and the pathogenesis of the reported lesions could be related to an intricate and interconnected network of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including the housing condition, diet, genetic background, and operator training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zebrafish Pathology and Contaminant Pathological Effects)
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