Special Issue "Microbial Control"

A special issue of Fermentation (ISSN 2311-5637).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Maria Schirone

Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Teramo, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: food hygiene; microbiota; foodborne diseases; biogenic amines; marine biotoxins; milk and dairy products
Guest Editor
Dr. Giorgia Perpetuini

Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Via R. Balzarini, 1-64100 Teramo, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: molecular methods; biofilm; Lactobacillus pentosus; table olives
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Giovanna Suzzi

Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Via R. Balzarini, 1-64100 Teramo, Italy
Website | E-Mail
Interests: biogenic amines; microbial physiology; secondary compounds; autochthonous wine yeasts; yeast metabolism

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Food represents a prevalent disease transmission route, driven by microorganisms. Foodstuffs host complex microbial communities, made up of bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Some of them show interesting technological traits, useful for improve sensorial characteristics of foods, while others are spoilage or pathogen microorganisms, which negatively affect food quality and safety. Consumption of food contaminated by both pathogens and microbial by-products (e.g., toxins) could result in serious illnesses in consumers and financial losses with enormous economic impact. The development of innovative microbial detection methods is critical to assess the risk for foodborne outbreaks. In addition, biopreservation strategies (e.g., essential oils, bacteriophages, anti-microbial compounds, high hydrostatic pressure, pulsed electric field, ultrasound, and high pressure homogenization) aimed at the control of pathogen or spoilage microorganisms development have been explored.

This Special Issue is focused on recent developments in microbial control in foods and beverages with topics including, but not limited to:

  1. Food borne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms detection, enumeration and identification
    New approaches to detect pathogens and spoilage microorganisms in foods and beverages. Disease outbreaks.
  1. Advances in biofilm control
    New control strategies to prevent biofilms formation along the food chain, mechanisms underlying biofilm forming capacity of microorganisms.
  1. Biocontrol strategies
    Application of biocontrol and biopreservation strategies in food production, mainly focusing on effective and sensitive approaches alternative to classical physico-chemical treatments.
  1. Experimental designs for microbial food spoilage
    Development of microbial spoilage models with practical applications to predict microbial food safety and quality.

Prof. Dr. Maria Schirone
Dr. Giorgia Perpetuini
Prof. Dr. Giovanna Suzzi
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Fermentation is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) is waived for well-prepared manuscripts submitted to this issue. Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

 

Keywords

  • Food borne pathogens
  • Spoilage
  • Food safety
  • Detection methods
  • Essential oils
  • Biofilm
  • Experimental design
  • Biocontrol
  • Biopreservation

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Yeasts from Different Habitats and Their Potential as Biocontrol Agents
Fermentation 2018, 4(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation4020031
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (8742 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ever since plant diseases began causing losses in viticulture, the control of phytopathogenic fungi has become of vital interest for winemakers. The occurrence of novel pests, fungicide resistance, and changed consumer expectations have led to an enormous demand for novel plant protection strategies.
[...] Read more.
Ever since plant diseases began causing losses in viticulture, the control of phytopathogenic fungi has become of vital interest for winemakers. The occurrence of novel pests, fungicide resistance, and changed consumer expectations have led to an enormous demand for novel plant protection strategies. As part of integrated protection measures, antagonistic microorganisms have been investigated to a large extent. Such microorganisms can be applied not only in conventional, but also in organic farming as biological control agents (BCA). Particularly, yeasts were found to be interesting candidates for the development of BCA. Many of these eukaryotic microorganisms are found as part of the phylloplane microflora. In this study, we assessed a set of 38 yeast isolates from different habitats, including the guts of termites, for inhibitory effects against some phytopathogenic fungi that have received less attention in earlier studies. The majority of yeasts were found to interfere with fungi infecting grapevine (Eutypa lata, Botrytis cinerea, and Roesleria subterranea), stone fruits (Monilinia fructicola), or rice (Magnaporte oryzae), as well in vitro and in model experiment on fruits. Although most yeast strains secreted glycoside hydrolases and proteases, attempts to demonstrate direct antagonistic activities of lytic enzymes failed. However, in culture filtrates of the termite yeast Papiliotrema odontotermitis OO5, a low molecular thermostable antagonistic factor was detected. Iron depletion as a BCA mechanism was confirmed for strains of Metschnikowia pulcherrima but not for other yeasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Control)
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Open AccessArticle Use of Autochthonous Yeasts and Bacteria in Order to Control Brettanomyces bruxellensis in Wine
Fermentation 2017, 3(4), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation3040065
Received: 20 October 2017 / Revised: 24 November 2017 / Accepted: 1 December 2017 / Published: 5 December 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (243 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biocontrol strategies for the limitation of undesired microbial developments in foods and beverages represent a keystone toward the goal of more sustainable food systems. Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a wine spoilage microorganism that produces several compounds that are detrimental for the organoleptic quality of
[...] Read more.
Biocontrol strategies for the limitation of undesired microbial developments in foods and beverages represent a keystone toward the goal of more sustainable food systems. Brettanomyces bruxellensis is a wine spoilage microorganism that produces several compounds that are detrimental for the organoleptic quality of the wine, including some classes of volatile phenols. To control the proliferation of this yeast, sulfur dioxide is commonly employed, but the efficiency of this compound depends on the B. bruxellensis strain; and it is subject to wine composition and may induce the entrance in a viable, but nonculturable state of yeasts. Moreover, it can also elicit allergic reactions in humans. In recent years, biological alternatives to sulfur dioxide such as the use of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria starter cultures as biocontrol agents are being investigated. The controlled inoculation of starter cultures allows secure, fast and complete alcoholic and malolactic fermentations, limiting the residual nutrients that B. bruxellensis utilizes to survive and grow in wine. The current study is focused on the assessment of the effect of autochthonous yeasts and bacterial strains from the Apulia Region on the development of B. bruxellensis in wine, in terms of both growth and volatile phenols’ production. The investigation evidences the positive role of indigenous mixed cultures in the control of this spoilage yeast, either co-inoculating different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. cerevisiae/non-Saccharomyces or co-inoculating S. cerevisiae/Oenococcus oeni. Our findings expand the existing knowledge of the application of protechnological microbial diversity and of non-Saccharomyces as a biocontrol agent in oenology. We report a further demonstration of the interest in selecting indigenous strains as a strategic tool for winemakers interested in the improvement of regional wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Control)
Open AccessArticle Antifungal Screening of Bioprotective Isolates against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium pallidoroseum and Fusarium moniliforme
Fermentation 2017, 3(4), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/fermentation3040053
Received: 2 September 2017 / Revised: 30 September 2017 / Accepted: 4 October 2017 / Published: 10 October 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2947 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The fungi Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium pallidoroseum, and Fusarium moniliforme are the causative agents of several plant diseases and can cause significant crop loss both before and after harvest. Fungicides are employed to control these phytopathogens, but fungicide use has led to
[...] Read more.
The fungi Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium pallidoroseum, and Fusarium moniliforme are the causative agents of several plant diseases and can cause significant crop loss both before and after harvest. Fungicides are employed to control these phytopathogens, but fungicide use has led to an increase in resistance and may negatively affect the environment and human health. Hence, more environmentally sustainable solutions such as biological control methods are needed. The purpose of this study was to screen 22 bacterial isolates for inhibitory activity against fungal phytopathogens. To evaluate antifungal activity, the bacterial isolates were individually spot-inoculated onto Tryptic Soy Agar or de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe agar, and then a plug of fungal-colonized agar was placed onto the center of the isolate-inoculated plate. Plates were incubated at 24 °C for 10 days and fungal growth was evaluated. Nine of the 22 isolates screened inhibited all three fungi; inhibition by these isolates ranged from 51–62%, 60–68%, and 40–61% for B. cinerea, F. pallidoroseum, and F. moniliforme, respectively. Isolates were also screened for biosurfactant activity using the drop-collapse test. Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus thuringiensis and three Bacillus amyloliquefaciens isolates demonstrated strong biosurfactant activity and suppression of all three fungi, and therefore are recommended for further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Control)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessFeature PaperReview Strategies to Extend Bread and GF Bread Shelf-Life: From Sourdough to Antimicrobial Active Packaging and Nanotechnology
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 28 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 2 February 2018
PDF Full-text (779 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bread is a staple food worldwide. It commonly undergoes physico-chemical and microbiological changes which impair its quality and shelf-life. Staling determines organoleptic impairment, whereas microbiological spoilage causes visible mould growth and invisible production of mycotoxins. To tackle this economic and safety issue, the
[...] Read more.
Bread is a staple food worldwide. It commonly undergoes physico-chemical and microbiological changes which impair its quality and shelf-life. Staling determines organoleptic impairment, whereas microbiological spoilage causes visible mould growth and invisible production of mycotoxins. To tackle this economic and safety issue, the bakery industry has been working to identify treatments which allow bread safety and extended shelf-life. Physical methods and chemical preservatives have long been used. However, new frontiers have been recently explored. Sourdough turned out an ancient but novel technology to preserve standard and gluten-free bread. Promising results have also been obtained by application of alternative bio-preservation techniques, including antifungal peptides and plant extracts. Active packaging, with absorbing and/or releasing compounds effective against bread staling and/or with antimicrobials preventing growth of undesirable microorganisms, showed up an emerging area of food technology which can confer many preservation benefits. Nanotechnologies are also opening up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry and the consumers. This work thus aims to provide an overview of opportunities and challenges that traditional and innovative anti-staling and anti-spoilage methods can offer to extend bread shelf-life and to provide a basis for driving further research on nanotechnology applications into the bakery industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Control)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Massive Sequencing: A New Tool for the Control of Alcoholic Fermentation in Wine?
Received: 23 December 2017 / Revised: 19 January 2018 / Accepted: 24 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (214 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In wine industry, there is a prevalent use of starter cultures to promote a controlled and efficient alcoholic fermentation preventing the growth of spoilage microbes. However, current trends in enology aim to combine the guaranteed success of monitored process and the complexity of
[...] Read more.
In wine industry, there is a prevalent use of starter cultures to promote a controlled and efficient alcoholic fermentation preventing the growth of spoilage microbes. However, current trends in enology aim to combine the guaranteed success of monitored process and the complexity of fermentations either by inoculating autochthonous starters or by performing spontaneously to produce distinctive wines. To understand the complex roles of microorganisms on wine fermentation, we must understand their population dynamics and their relationships with wine quality and metabolome. Current metagenomics techniques based on massive sequencing are gaining relevance to study the diversity and evolution of microbial population on every stage of the wine making process. This new tool and technique increases the throughput and sensitivity to study microbial communities. This review focuses on the current knowledge about wine alcoholic fermentation, the contribution of massive sequencing techniques and the possibility of using this tool for microbial control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Control)
Open AccessReview Accumulation of Biogenic Amines in Wine: Role of Alcoholic and Malolactic Fermentation
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 20 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (268 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Biogenic amines (BAs) are detrimental to health and originate in foods mainly from decarboxylation of the corresponding amino acid by the activity of exogenous enzymes released by various microorganisms. BAs can be generated at different stages of the wine production. Some of them
[...] Read more.
Biogenic amines (BAs) are detrimental to health and originate in foods mainly from decarboxylation of the corresponding amino acid by the activity of exogenous enzymes released by various microorganisms. BAs can be generated at different stages of the wine production. Some of them are formed in the vineyard and are normal constituents of grapes with amounts varying with variety, soil type and composition, fertilization and climatic conditions during growth and degree of maturation. BAs can be also formed by the yeasts during the alcoholic fermentation (AF), as well as by the action of bacteria involved in the malolactic fermentation (MLF). As aminogenesis is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon, the studies carried out to identify the main vinification stage of BAs production yielded contradictory results. In particular, there is not a general consensus yet on which fermentation supports mostly the accumulation of BAs in wine. In this context, the aim of the present paper deals with the most recent results related with the influence of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation parameters on BAs-producer microorganism in wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Control)
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