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Beneficial Role of Noise in Complex Systems: From Quantum Level to Socio-Economic Systems

A special issue of Entropy (ISSN 1099-4300). This special issue belongs to the section "Complexity".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 August 2022) | Viewed by 9943

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania and INFN-Section of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
Interests: complex systems; statistical mechanics; complex networks; agent-based models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
1. Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “E. Majorana”, University of Catania, 95123 Catania, Italy
2. Complexity Science Hub Vienna, Josefstädter Straße 39, 1080 Vienna, Austria
Interests: statistical mechanics; complex systems; chaos; complex networks; agent-based models
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Guest Editor
Department of Physics and Astronomy and European Laboratory for Non-Linear Spectroscopy (LENS), University of Florence, via G. Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
Interests: quantum information; noisy quantum systems; complex networks; quantum biology; noise-assisted quantum phenomena; quantum machine learning

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Complex systems surround us at very different scales, from biomolecules and living cells to human socioeconomic systems and up to geophysical and ecological networks. Typically, they show dissipative structures induced by inherent nonlinear and non-equilibrium interactions and stabilized by the exchange of energy, matter, and information with their surroundings. These dynamical processes often involve some form of noise that, instead of representing an annoying disturbance, turns out to be a fundamental ingredient for the emergence of complex dynamics and an increase in the efficiency of the system behavior or in its performance toward achieving some task or to implement a desired protocol.

Many examples of such a beneficial role of noise can be found in physics and biology, where – among others – we may cite noise-assisted quantum phenomena, stochastic resonance, noise-enhanced stability, induced second-order-like phase transitions, enhanced diffusion in communication networks, noise-enhanced ordering, noise-assisted excitation transport in light-harvesting complexes for natural photosynthesis, information transfer in bistable and excitable systems and in quantum channels, and improved performance in neural activity, cognitive processes, or signal detection. However, also at the socioeconomic level have random strategies been demonstrated to be very successful in enhancing the efficiency of many systems in the context of game-theory, management of hierarchical organizations, political institutions, and financial markets.

For this Special Issue, we would like to collect examples of complex phenomena in different contexts and at any hierarchical level where noise or randomness can play a fundamental role in increasing the performance of the system.

Prof. Dr. Alessandro Pluchino
Prof. Dr. Andrea Rapisarda
Prof. Dr. Filippo Caruso
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Entropy is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • complex systems
  • noise-enhanced dynamics
  • noisy quantum systems
  • quantum information
  • complex networks
  • biological systems
  • random strategies
  • social and economic sciences

Published Papers (3 papers)

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13 pages, 493 KiB  
Article
Noise and Financial Stylized Facts: A Stick Balancing Approach
by Alessio Emanuele Biondo, Laura Mazzarino and Alessandro Pluchino
Entropy 2023, 25(4), 557; https://doi.org/10.3390/e25040557 - 24 Mar 2023
Viewed by 937
Abstract
In this work, we address the beneficial role of noise in two different contexts, the human brain and financial markets. In particular, the similitude between the ability of financial markets to maintain in equilibrium asset prices is compared with the ability of the [...] Read more.
In this work, we address the beneficial role of noise in two different contexts, the human brain and financial markets. In particular, the similitude between the ability of financial markets to maintain in equilibrium asset prices is compared with the ability of the human nervous system to balance a stick on a fingertip. Numerical simulations of the human stick balancing phenomenon show that after the introduction of a small quantity of noise and a proper calibration of the main control parameters, intermittent changes in the angular velocity of the stick are able to reproduce the most basilar stylized facts involving price returns in financial markets. These results could also shed light on the relevance of the idea of the “planetary nervous system”, already introduced elsewhere, in the financial context. Full article
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21 pages, 1994 KiB  
Article
Working with Convex Responses: Antifragility from Finance to Oncology
by Nassim Nicholas Taleb and Jeffrey West
Entropy 2023, 25(2), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/e25020343 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5910
Abstract
We extend techniques and learnings about the stochastic properties of nonlinear responses from finance to medicine, particularly oncology, where it can inform dosing and intervention. We define antifragility. We propose uses of risk analysis for medical problems, through the properties of nonlinear responses [...] Read more.
We extend techniques and learnings about the stochastic properties of nonlinear responses from finance to medicine, particularly oncology, where it can inform dosing and intervention. We define antifragility. We propose uses of risk analysis for medical problems, through the properties of nonlinear responses (convex or concave). We (1) link the convexity/concavity of the dose-response function to the statistical properties of the results; (2) define “antifragility” as a mathematical property for local beneficial convex responses and the generalization of “fragility” as its opposite, locally concave in the tails of the statistical distribution; (3) propose mathematically tractable relations between dosage, severity of conditions, and iatrogenics. In short, we propose a framework to integrate the necessary consequences of nonlinearities in evidence-based oncology and more general clinical risk management. Full article
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8 pages, 5733 KiB  
Perspective
Noise Enhancement of Neural Information Processing
by Alain Destexhe
Entropy 2022, 24(12), 1837; https://doi.org/10.3390/e24121837 - 16 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
Cortical neurons in vivo function in highly fluctuating and seemingly noisy conditions, and the understanding of how information is processed in such complex states is still incomplete. In this perspective article, we first overview that an intense “synaptic noise” was measured first in [...] Read more.
Cortical neurons in vivo function in highly fluctuating and seemingly noisy conditions, and the understanding of how information is processed in such complex states is still incomplete. In this perspective article, we first overview that an intense “synaptic noise” was measured first in single neurons, and computational models were built based on such measurements. Recent progress in recording techniques has enabled the measurement of highly complex activity in large numbers of neurons in animals and human subjects, and models were also built to account for these complex dynamics. Here, we attempt to link these two cellular and population aspects, where the complexity of network dynamics in awake cortex seems to link to the synaptic noise seen in single cells. We show that noise in single cells, in networks, or structural noise, all participate to enhance responsiveness and boost the propagation of information. We propose that such noisy states are fundamental to providing favorable conditions for information processing at large-scale levels in the brain, and may be involved in sensory perception. Full article
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