Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering

A special issue of Eng (ISSN 2673-4117).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 October 2020) | Viewed by 45399

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Engineering and Technology, School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield HD1 3DR, UK
Interests: fluid mechanics; hydraulic structure engineering; hydraulic and water engineering; river and coastal engineering; renewable energy; natural disaster

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Assistant Guest Editor
Department of Civil Engineering, PSG Institute of Technology and Applied Research, Coimbatore 641062, India
Interests: water and wastewater treatment; groundwater management; solid and hazardous waste management

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

MDPI’s Advances in Hydraulics and Water Engineering journal publishes original, stimulating and high quality articles on hydraulic and water engineering in engineered and natural systems. Applications of hydraulics and water engineering include the design of hydraulic structures, such as bridges, spillways, breakwaters and dams, waterways management, such as flood protection and erosion protection and environmental management. Renewable energy and hydroelectric-power development, irrigation and drainage, water supply, are some examples of applications of water engineering involving the utilization of water for beneficial purposes. Recently, concern for preserving our nature and environment has increased the importance of water management and planning.

Dr. Shatirah Akib
Dr. M. Devasena
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Eng is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Hydraulics
  • Hydraulic structure
  • Scouring and sediment transport
  • Fluid mechanics
  • Fluid dynamics
  • Water engineering
  • Water management
  • River engineering
  • Coastal engineering
  • Hydrology
  • Resilient and sustainable infrastructure
  • Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems
  • Grey and green infrastructure
  • Urban Water Distribution and Drainage
  • Recycle material and zero waste
  • Circular economy
  • Water sustainability
  • Water quality
  • Water-energy-food-environment
  • Pricing and water economics
  • Renewable energy (hydro, tidal, wave, wind, solar and hybrid)
  • Natural disaster management

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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20 pages, 3495 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation of Wave Attenuation Using a Hybrid of Polymer-Made Artificial Xbloc Wall and Mangrove Root Models
by Adam Ado Sabari, Ashley Richard Oates and Shatirah Akib
Eng 2021, 2(2), 229-248; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2020015 - 07 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2988
Abstract
Rising sea levels, strong wave currents and destructive human activities put coastal areas at risk of erosion and potential flooding. Several countermeasures have been introduced—both artificial and natural—to tackle the issue. This study investigated the effectiveness of the use of hybrid polymer-made artificial [...] Read more.
Rising sea levels, strong wave currents and destructive human activities put coastal areas at risk of erosion and potential flooding. Several countermeasures have been introduced—both artificial and natural—to tackle the issue. This study investigated the effectiveness of the use of hybrid polymer-made artificial Xbloc walls and mangrove root models for protection against water waves. One Xbloc wall was made up of three Xbloc units stacked on top of each other and joined together using water-resistant tape. The artificial models were designed using SolidWorks and AutoCAD software, 3D printed, laser cut and then superglued. The experiment was conducted at Nottingham Trent University Laboratory with a varying combination of single/multiple Xbloc walls and mangrove root models. The change in the wavelength, height, celerity and period was observed for six different model arrangements. The results revealed a successful decrease in the celerity, height and wavelength, as well as the elongation of the wave period (one cycle time). The hybrid arrangement of one Xbloc wall and two mangrove roots provided the best protection, reducing the wavelength, celerity and height by 5.50%, 26.46% and 58.97%, respectively, and also delaying the wave period by 28.34%. The lowest attenuation in the entire wave parameters stated was observed for the arrangement containing only one set of mangrove roots model. Therefore, the wave attenuation using the combined action of 3D printed polymer-made Xbloc walls and mangrove roots was better, because it facilitated the dissipation of wave energy to a greater degree compared to the use of only Xbloc walls or mangrove roots separately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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15 pages, 5501 KiB  
Article
Study of the Effect of an Environmentally Friendly Flood Risk Reduction Approach on the Oman Coastlines during the Gonu Tropical Cyclone (Case Study: The Coastline of Sur)
by Masoud Banan-Dallalian, Mehrdad Shokatian-Beiragh, Aliasghar Golshani, Alireza Mojtahedi, Mohammad Ali Lotfollahi-Yaghin and Shatirah Akib
Eng 2021, 2(2), 141-155; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2020010 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2877
Abstract
Tropical cyclones may be destructive in the coastal region, such as the Gonu tropical cyclone, which affected the Arabian Peninsula and parts of southern Iran in 2007. In this study, a coupled MIKE 21/3 HD/SW (hydrodynamic/spectral wave) model was used to simulate the [...] Read more.
Tropical cyclones may be destructive in the coastal region, such as the Gonu tropical cyclone, which affected the Arabian Peninsula and parts of southern Iran in 2007. In this study, a coupled MIKE 21/3 HD/SW (hydrodynamic/spectral wave) model was used to simulate the inland flooding inside the Sur port during the Gonu tropical cyclone. The MIKE 21 Cyclone Wind Generation (CWG) tool was utilized to generate the cyclone’s wind and pressure field. The required input data were obtained from the International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) and imported into the CWG tool. In this study, the wind and pressure fields were compared between the analytical vortex model and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data during the Gonu cyclone passage. Moreover, by developing a new model, artificial Mangroves’ effect on inland flooding was investigated. The results show that, contrary to the ECMWF data, the analytical vortex models well captured the storm event’s wind and pressure field. Furthermore, the flood hazard is calculated based on the inundation depth, flow velocity, and area’s vulnerability. The flood hazard map shows that 5% of the coast is at high-risk, 49% is at medium-risk, and 46% is at low-risk class in the Sur port. By applying Mangroves as flood risk reduction, the high-risk area is almost completely removed. However, medium and low-risk zones increase by 50% and 50%, respectively. This information could be helpful in disaster risk reduction and coastal management in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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11 pages, 14162 KiB  
Article
Trendline and Monthly Variations of Nitrate in Water Supply Wells in Upper Egypt
by Mohamed Shamrukh and Shatirah Akib
Eng 2021, 2(1), 43-53; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2010004 - 18 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2661
Abstract
Safe drinking water is among the most important environmental as well as health challenges facing Egypt. Groundwater from the aquifer of the Nile valley in Upper Egypt accounts for about 40% of the overall source of drinking water. Nearly, all rural residents rely [...] Read more.
Safe drinking water is among the most important environmental as well as health challenges facing Egypt. Groundwater from the aquifer of the Nile valley in Upper Egypt accounts for about 40% of the overall source of drinking water. Nearly, all rural residents rely on groundwater as the source of drinking water. Irrigation water is the main source of groundwater recharge in Nile Valley. Moreover, nitrate fertilizer utilization in Egypt has risen significantly due to the requirement for further agricultural production. Nitrate levels higher than the permissible limit (45 mg/L) for drinking water have been related to health issues. To determine the effect of agrochemical nitrate on the health of pumping water, municipal water wellfields established in Upper Egypt have been examined. Pumped water from those municipal wells (60 m depth and 2000 m3/day gross pumping rate) was evaluated from 2000 to 2018 to accomplish this objective. Monthly analysis of the quality of groundwater, in particular nitrate, has been conducted. Sulfate and nitrate concentrations as well as other consistency metrics were assessed. Water sampling findings show that the water already comes under the drinking-water limits. Nevertheless, increased nitrate and sulfate values are found beyond naturally existing levels in the aquifer. Consequently, to determine the possible future likelihood of nitrate contamination in such municipal wells, the trendline of nitrate level has been used. The observations suggest that the intensive utilization of nitrogen fertilizer in Upper Egypt in the last 30 years would endanger the quality of the groundwater supply. Resultantly, the usage of nitrogen fertilizers in Upper Egypt must be regulated and continuous groundwater monitoring must be implemented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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15 pages, 3222 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Analysis of Septage Management in Five Cities in the Philippines
by Dalton Erick Baltazar, Hidenori Harada, Shigeo Fujii, Maria Francesca Tan and Shatirah Akib
Eng 2021, 2(1), 12-26; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2010002 - 30 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7374
Abstract
This study assessed and compared septage management systems in Baliwag, Calamba, Muntinlupa, Pasig, and San Fernando, the Philippines, using fecal waste flow diagrams and service delivery scorecards. According to the fecal waste flow diagrams, San Fernando is the most successful in preventing its [...] Read more.
This study assessed and compared septage management systems in Baliwag, Calamba, Muntinlupa, Pasig, and San Fernando, the Philippines, using fecal waste flow diagrams and service delivery scorecards. According to the fecal waste flow diagrams, San Fernando is the most successful in preventing its environment’s pollution. It is followed by Baliwag, Muntinlupa, and Pasig. In Calamba, all of the fecal waste is disposed of to the environment. According to the scorecards, Pasig has the most efficient septage management service, followed by San Fernando, Baliwag, Muntinlupa, and Calamba. Among the five areas, San Fernando can be considered to have the most efficient septage management system as it had the best fecal waste flow diagram and second highest ratings in the service delivery scorecard. It might have been an advantage that the city itself is managing the whole system—from implementing rules for septic tank plans, to the collection, treatment, and disposal of septage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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23 pages, 6423 KiB  
Article
Reducing Bridge Pier Scour Using Gabion Mattresses Filled with Recycled and Alternative Materials
by Tom Craswell and Shatirah Akib
Eng 2020, 1(2), 188-210; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng1020013 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4995
Abstract
Scour is caused by the erosive action of flowing water, which causes materials from the bed and the banks of a river to be moved or unsettled. Hydraulic structures can be drastically impacted as a result of scour, which is why it is [...] Read more.
Scour is caused by the erosive action of flowing water, which causes materials from the bed and the banks of a river to be moved or unsettled. Hydraulic structures can be drastically impacted as a result of scour, which is why it is one of the most common causes of bridge failure around the world. With a predicted increase in climate conditions, the subsequent failure of hydraulic structures due to scour is likely to proliferate as the flooding of waterways is projected to rise. This study aims to determine the viability of introducing alternative materials to a scour countermeasure used in construction—gabion models—in a bid to improve the sustainability of a project whilst providing suitable scour mitigation measures. Existing literature was examined to comprehend the different scour countermeasures used, as well as the use of alternative materials that can be used as a scour countermeasure. A laboratory experiment was then carried out using a bridge pier embedded in a flume channel protected by gabion mattresses filled with alternative materials—stone, clothing and plastic—to analyse their effectiveness. The results demonstrate that stone filled gabions are most effective at reducing bridge pier scour. However, recycled clothing as a gabion fill could prove to be a viable alternative in construction projects, potentially leading to reduced construction costs and greater sustainability. However, more research on a greater scale is required to test this thesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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14 pages, 2225 KiB  
Article
Influence of Using Waste Plastic and/or Recycled Rubber as Coarse Aggregates on the Performance of Pervious Concrete
by Lewis Cole, Ramez Bakheet and Shatirah Akib
Eng 2020, 1(2), 153-166; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng1020010 - 23 Oct 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 4357
Abstract
Flooding is one of the climatic change consequences that has become a dangerous threat to many coastal cities. Pervious concrete is considered a solution to decrease rainwater runoff and mitigate flood effects, as it allows water to percolate through the ground and prevent [...] Read more.
Flooding is one of the climatic change consequences that has become a dangerous threat to many coastal cities. Pervious concrete is considered a solution to decrease rainwater runoff and mitigate flood effects, as it allows water to percolate through the ground and prevent possible damage. Using waste products as aggregates in pervious concrete not only exploits waste materials and makes it valuable but also reduces the amount of this waste ending in the landfill or harming the environment, and it decreases the demand for natural resources. Infiltration rate test and compressive strength tests were conducted to investigate the effect of using waste plastic and/or recycled rubber as concrete coarse aggregates with different ratios (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25%) on the pervious concrete. The results showed that increasing the waste materials in concrete decreased the compressive strength for all ratios while increased the infiltration rate values. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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16 pages, 5719 KiB  
Article
Multicriteria GIS-Based Approach in Priority Areas Analysis for Sustainable Urban Drainage Practices: A Case Study of Pato Branco, Brazil
by Claudinei Rodrigues de Aguiar, Jéssica Klemm Nuernberg and Thays Cristiane Leonardi
Eng 2020, 1(2), 96-111; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng1020006 - 28 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2871
Abstract
Geographic information systems (GIS) and multicriteria decision methods are robust techniques for supporting the urban planning process, including urban drainage. New low-impact management approaches (LID) for rainwater have been investigated and have become increasingly used. Considering the central region of Pato Branco city, [...] Read more.
Geographic information systems (GIS) and multicriteria decision methods are robust techniques for supporting the urban planning process, including urban drainage. New low-impact management approaches (LID) for rainwater have been investigated and have become increasingly used. Considering the central region of Pato Branco city, which suffers recurrent problems related to flooding, this work presents a method to identify potential areas for the application of LIDs, such as rainwater collection tanks, permeable pavements, green roofs, and rain gardens. The identification of these areas is based on the analysis in a GIS environment considering criteria related to both the land slope, the characteristics of land use and technical parameters. Thus, we observe that rainwater collection tanks are indicated for all habitations, permeable pavements are recommended for 6.30% of the study area, while green roofs can be implemented in 3.97% of the area. Finally, 3.03% can receive rain gardens. In total, 13.30% of the central region of Pato Branco can receive LIDs. The results obtained reveal that the use of the GIS tool associated with multicriteria analysis is efficient in choosing locations for the implementation of LIDs as alternatives for the management of urban drainage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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36 pages, 17264 KiB  
Article
Accurate Empirical Calculation System for Predicting the Seepage Discharge and Free Surface Location of Earth Dam over Horizontal Impervious Foundation
by Tsugio Fukuchi
Eng 2020, 1(2), 60-95; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng1020005 - 26 Sep 2020
Viewed by 3260
Abstract
In the numerical analysis of the Laplace equation, which is the governing equation of the seepage phenomena of homogeneous, isotropic earth dams, it has been confirmed that numerical analysis with high accuracy is possible by using the interpolation finite difference method (IFDM). In [...] Read more.
In the numerical analysis of the Laplace equation, which is the governing equation of the seepage phenomena of homogeneous, isotropic earth dams, it has been confirmed that numerical analysis with high accuracy is possible by using the interpolation finite difference method (IFDM). In a previous paper, based on this numerical analysis method, the equivalent Kozeny (KZ) flow method was proposed as a new empirical method to calculate the seepage discharges and free surface locations of earth dams. Although this method is generally a highly accurate method compared with the empirical method of A. Casagrande, owing to calculating the seepage problems within a few percentages of discharge relative errors, several additional studies are necessary. By integrating the finding of this study to the previous literature, an empirical seepage calculation system with high accuracy, the equivalent KZ flow method, is created. Owing to the finally proposed empirical method, called “interpolation-equivalent KZ flow method”, the discharge and free surface location can be predicted with high accuracy in a wide range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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12 pages, 2720 KiB  
Article
Utilization of Water-Cooled and Air-Cooled Slag Aggregate in Concrete: A Solution to the Secular Economy
by Ahmed Maher El-Tair, Ramez Bakheet, Mohamed Samy El-Feky, Mohamed Kohail and Shatirah Akib
Eng 2020, 1(1), 48-59; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng1010004 - 21 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3150
Abstract
Aggregates are generally thought of as inert filler within a concrete mix, and a typical concrete mix is comprised of as much as 70–80% of them. They play an essential role in the properties of both fresh and hardened concrete. Nowadays, scientists are [...] Read more.
Aggregates are generally thought of as inert filler within a concrete mix, and a typical concrete mix is comprised of as much as 70–80% of them. They play an essential role in the properties of both fresh and hardened concrete. Nowadays, scientists are aiming to use waste materials, thereby replacing natural aggregates for economic and environmental considerations. This study investigates the effect of the utilization of steel slag by-product aggregates (air- and water-cooled slag) as concrete aggregates on the behavior characteristics of concrete. Various concrete mixtures, with different levels of replacement of slag aggregate (50, 75, and 100%), were conducted in order to find the optimum percentages to improve the microstructure and different properties of concrete (fresh and hardened). The results showed that increasing the fine aggregate replacement percentage led to a decrease in compressive strength values, in contrast with coarse aggregate replaced with slag aggregate. The steel slag aggregates showed potential to be used as replacement for natural aggregate with comparable compressive strength and acceptable workability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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Review

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11 pages, 1051 KiB  
Review
Innovative Techniques in the Context of Actions for Flood Risk Management: A Review
by Maria Martinez, Ramez Bakheet and Shatirah Akib
Eng 2021, 2(1), 1-11; https://doi.org/10.3390/eng2010001 - 23 Dec 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 6289
Abstract
The general purpose of this review paper is to provide an overview of various flood protection strategies because flooding is becoming more frequent and is affecting more areas, displacing people, and increasing fatalities around the world. The concern surrounding climate change resulting in [...] Read more.
The general purpose of this review paper is to provide an overview of various flood protection strategies because flooding is becoming more frequent and is affecting more areas, displacing people, and increasing fatalities around the world. The concern surrounding climate change resulting in sea level rise, increasingly frequent storm events, and the need for adaptive actions to better control urban storm water runoff motivates the completion of this paper. Understanding the impact of climate change aside from dangerous weather conditions essential for designing effective mitigation strategies, but first, there needs to be a clear and strong understanding of the effects of extreme events. This review represents engineered storm water practices that are adaptive, in combination with the non-structural measures such as urban planning, will help reduce flood impact. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Research in Hydraulics and Water Engineering)
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